Assessing Listening


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Assessing Listening

  1. 2. Observing the Performance of the Four Skills <ul><li>Things that we can observe during listening as the receptive skills are process and product (invisible, audible) </li></ul>
  2. 3. The Importance of Listening <ul><li>Listening is often implied as a component of speaking </li></ul>
  3. 4. Types of Listening <ul><li>Intensive: phonemes, words, intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive: a greeting, command, question </li></ul><ul><li>Selective: TV , radio news items, stories </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive: listening for the gist, the main idea, making inference </li></ul>
  4. 5. Micro and Macro Skills of Listening <ul><li>Micro Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attending to the smaller bits and chunks of language, in more of bottom-up process </li></ul><ul><li>Macro Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on the larger elements involved in a top-down approach </li></ul>
  5. 6. What Makes Listening Difficult <ul><li>1. Clustering </li></ul><ul><li>Chunking-phrases, clauses, constituents </li></ul><ul><li>2. Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions, Rephrasing, Elaborations and </li></ul><ul><li>Insertions </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>3. Reduced Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the reduced forms that may </li></ul><ul><li>not have been a part of English learner’s past </li></ul><ul><li>experiences in classes where only formal </li></ul><ul><li>” textbook” language has been presented </li></ul><ul><li>4. Performance variables </li></ul><ul><li>Hesitations, False starts, Corrections, Diversion </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>5. Colloquial Language </li></ul><ul><li> Idioms, slang, reduced forms, shared cultural knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>6. Rate of Delivery </li></ul><ul><li> Keeping up with the speed of delivery, processing automatically as the speaker continues </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>7. Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation: </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly understanding prosodic elements of spoken language, which is almost always much more difficult than understanding the smaller phonological bits and pieces. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>8. Interaction: </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation, clarification, attending signals, turn taking, maintenance, termination </li></ul>
  10. 11. Designing Assessment Tasks : Intensive Listening <ul><li>Recognizing Phonological & Morphological Elements </li></ul><ul><li>a. Phonemics pair, consonants </li></ul>Test-takers read : a. He’s from California b. She’s from California
  11. 12. <ul><li>b. Phonemics pair, vowels </li></ul><ul><li>c. Morphological pair, -ed ending </li></ul>Test-takers read : a. Is he leaving ? b. Is he living? Test-takers read : a. I missed you very much b. I miss you very much
  12. 13. <ul><li>d. Stress Pattern in can’t </li></ul><ul><li>e. One-word stimulus </li></ul>Test-takers read : a. My girlfriend can’t go to the party b. My girlfriend can go to the party Test-takers read : a. vine b. wine
  13. 14. <ul><li>2. Paraphrase Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence paraphrase </li></ul></ul>Test-takers read : a. Keiko is comfortable in Japan b. Keiko wants to come to Japan c. Keiko is Japanese d. Keiko likes Japan
  14. 15. <ul><li>Dialogue paraphrase </li></ul>Test-takers read : a. Tracy lives in the United States b. Tracy is American c. Tracy comes from Canada d. Maria is Canadian
  15. 16. Designing Assessment Tasks : Responsive Listening <ul><li>Appropriate response to a question </li></ul>Test-takers read : a. In about an hour. b. About an hour c. About $10 d. Yes, I did
  16. 17. <ul><li>Open-ended response to a question </li></ul>Test-takers read write or speak :_______________
  17. 18. Designing Assessment Tasks: Selective Listening <ul><li>Selective listening, in which the test-taker listen to a limited quantity of aural input and must discern within it some specific information </li></ul>
  18. 19. A number of techniques have been used that require selective listening. <ul><li>Listening Cloze </li></ul><ul><li>Information Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Repetition </li></ul>
  19. 20. Listening Cloze (cloze dictations or partial dictations) <ul><li>It requires the test-taker to listen a story monologue, or conversation and simultaneously read the written text in which selected words or phrases have been selected </li></ul><ul><li>In a listening cloze task, test-takers see a transcript of the passage that they are listening to and fill in the blanks with the words or phrases that they hear </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Test-takers write the missing words or phrases in the blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Flight to Portland will depart from gate at P.M </li></ul><ul><li>Flight to Reno will depart at </li></ul><ul><li> P.M from gate seventeen </li></ul>
  21. 22. Information Transfer <ul><li>Information transfer: multiple-picture-cued-selection </li></ul><ul><li>Information transfer: single-picture-cued-verbal-multiple-choice </li></ul><ul><li>Information transfer: chart-filling </li></ul>
  22. 23. Information transfer: multiple-picture-cued-selection
  23. 24. Information transfer: single-picture-cued-verbal-multiple-choice
  24. 25. Information transfer: chart-filling 6:00 4:00 2:00 12:00 10:00 get up get up get up get up get up 8:00 Weekends Friday Thursday Wednesday Tuesday Monday
  25. 26. Sentence Repetition <ul><li>The task of simply repeating a sentence or a partial sentence, or sentence repetition, is also used as an assessment of listening comprehension </li></ul>
  26. 27. Designing assessment Test: Extensive Listening <ul><li>Listening to develop a top down, global understanding of spoken language </li></ul>
  27. 28. Some extensive / quasi-extensive listening comprehension tasks <ul><li>Dictation: widely researched genre of assessing listening comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>> 50 – 100 words </li></ul><ul><li>> recited 3 times: normal speed, long pauses between phrases, normal speed </li></ul>
  28. 29. Difficulty can be manipulated by: <ul><li>The length of the word group </li></ul><ul><li>The length of pauses </li></ul><ul><li>The speed </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of the discourse, grammar and </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring (spelling, grammatical, additional words, replacement) </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Dictation is a practical valid method for integrating listening and writing skills, but the authenticity is questioned. </li></ul>
  30. 31. 2. Communicative stimulus-response tasks <ul><li>Listen to a monologue or conversation and respond to a set of comprehension questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: some of the multiple-choice questions don’t mirror communicative real-life situations. </li></ul><ul><li>The conversation is authentic, but listening to a conversation between a doctor and a patient is rarely done (p.133) </li></ul>
  31. 32. 3. Authentic listening tasks <ul><li>Ideally, listening tests are cognitively demanding, communicative, authentic, and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Test as a sample of performance/tasks implies an equally limited capacity to mirror all the real-world context of listening performance </li></ul>
  32. 33. Buck (2001: p. 92)  p.136 <ul><li>“ Every test requires some components of communicative language ability, and no test covers them all” </li></ul>
  33. 34. Alternatives to assess comprehension in a truly communicative context <ul><li>Note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to a lecturer and write down the important ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: scoring is time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: mirror real classroom situation it fulfills the criteria of cognitive demand, communicative language & authenticity </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Editing a written stimulus of an aural stimulus </li></ul>Test-takers read : the written stimulus material Test-takers hear: a spoken version of the stimulus Test-takers mark: the written stimulus by circling any words
  35. 36. <ul><li>Interpretive tasks : </li></ul><ul><li>paraphrasing a story or conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential stimuli include: song lyrics, poetry, radio, TV, news reports, etc. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>The stimuli can be directed through questions like: “why was the singer feeling sad?”, “what do you think the political activists might do next?” </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties: The task conforms to certain time limitation, and the questions might be quite specific, there may be more than one correct interpretation (scoring) </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Retelling </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to a story or news event and simply retell it either orally or written  show full comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties: scoring and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>validity, cognitive, communicative ability, authenticity are well incorporated into the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive listening (face to face conversations) </li></ul>