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  • 1. Front coverIBM System StorageTape Library Guide forOpen SystemsLearn about the enhancements to the IBM Ultriumfamily of tape drives and tape librariesDrag and drop with Linear Tape FileSystem Library EditionExplore tape cartridge direct flightwith the TS3500 Shuttle Complex Alex Osuna Bobby Bohuslav Larry Coyne Michael Engelbrecht Chris Hoffmann Mauro Silvestriibm.com/redbooks
  • 2. International Technical Support OrganizationIBM System Storage Tape Library Guide forOpen SystemsJune 2012 SG24-5946-08
  • 3. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page xv.Ninth Edition (June 2012)This edition applies to Version 2 of the Linear Tape File System Library Edition.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2000, 2012. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP ScheduleContract with IBM Corp.
  • 4. Contents Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii The team who wrote this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi June 2012, Ninth Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi June 2012, Eighth Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi September 2008, Seventh Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii October 2007, Sixth Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii April 2007, Fifth Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii September 2005, Fourth Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii June 2004, Third Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii June 2003, Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv November 2000, First Edition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxivPart 1. Tape basics of Open Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 Tape products and technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1.1 Helical compared to longitudinal tape systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1.2 Tape reels (1/2-inch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1.3 Quarter-inch cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.4 Digital Data Standard (4 mm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.5 The 8 mm format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.6 SuperDLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.1.7 IBM 3480. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.1.8 IBM 3490. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.1.9 IBM 3590. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.1.10 LTO Ultrium tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.1.11 IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drive family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.1.12 Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.2 SAN technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.2.1 Tiered overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.2.2 Tape solutions in a SAN environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.3 Tape virtualization for Open Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1.3.1 ProtecTIER virtual tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1.3.2 Data deduplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1.3.3 HyperFactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1.3.4 TS7650G ProtecTIER deduplication gateway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1.3.5 TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1.3.6 TS7610 ProtecTIER Deduplication SMB Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1.4 Linear Tape File System (LTFS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1.4.1 LTFS Single Drive Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1.4.2 LTFS Library Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. iii
  • 5. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.1 The LTO organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.1.2 LTO standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.1.3 Data compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.1.4 Tape cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.1.5 IBM LTO Ultrium common subassembly drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.2 Tape encryption overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 2.2.1 IBM Encryption Key Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 2.2.2 Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager (TKLM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2.2.3 Encryption methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2.2.4 LTO Ultrium Tape Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2.3 IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Half-High Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2.4 IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 2.4.1 IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Half-High Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 2.5 IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 2.5.1 IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 2.6 IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 2.6.1 IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compatibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 2.6.2 LTO performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 2.6.3 Operating the LTO Ultrium drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 2.6.4 Reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 2.6.5 Cleaning the drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 2.6.6 The IBM LTO Ultrium family of tape drives and libraries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 2.6.7 Multipath architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 2.6.8 Next generation multipath architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Chapter 3. Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 3.1 IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drive family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 3.1.1 The 1 TB background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 3.1.2 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 3.2 Common characteristics of the 3592 Tape Drive family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 3.2.1 Technology enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 3.2.2 Recording format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 3.2.3 Reliability and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 3.2.4 Features designed for capacity and performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 3.2.5 Performance or capacity scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 3.3 IBM 3592 Tape Drive attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 3.3.1 Multiple Fibre Channel ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 3.3.2 Supported topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 3.4 IBM 3592 cartridges and media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 3.4.1 3592 media cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 3.4.2 WORM functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 3.4.3 Tape encryption for TS1120, TS1130 and TS1140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 3.5 The IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 3.5.1 Drive attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 3.5.2 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 3.5.3 Capacity and performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 3.5.4 Access performance specifications and drive characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 3.5.5 Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3.5.6 LTFS partitioning support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3.5.7 End-to-end logical block protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 3.5.8 Data safe mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135iv IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 6. 3.5.9 Enhanced Ethernet support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 3.5.10 TS1140 physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3.5.11 Upgrade considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 3.5.12 Firmware updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 3.5.13 RAS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 3.5.14 Improved media SARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 3.5.15 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 3.5.16 Tracking data written. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1433.6 The IBM System Storage TS1130 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 3.6.1 Multiple subsystem and automation support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 3.6.2 Media reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 3.6.3 Capacity and performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 3.6.4 Access performance specifications and drive characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 3.6.5 Emulation mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 3.6.6 TS1130 physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 3.6.7 Upgrade considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 3.6.8 Firmware updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 3.6.9 RAS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 3.6.10 Improved media SARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 3.6.11 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 3.6.12 Tracking data written. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513.7 The IBM System Storage TS1120 Tape Drive Model E05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 3.7.1 Features for reliability, availability, and performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 3.7.2 Performance scaling and segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1543.8 IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Tape Drive 3592 Model J1A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 3.8.1 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 3.8.2 Performance scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156Chapter 4. IBM System Storage LTFS Single Drive Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1574.1 Overview of LTO media partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 4.1.1 LTO media partitioning: Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 4.1.2 Applications using LTO media partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1594.2 Introduction to LTFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4.2.1 Accessing the LTFS software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4.2.2 LTFS tape format compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 4.2.3 Index and data partitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 4.2.4 Filesystem in User Space (FUSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 4.2.5 LTFS XML schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 4.2.6 Example of recording the LTFS XML schemas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1664.3 Installing and using LTFS from a Linux system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 4.3.1 System hardware and software requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 4.3.2 Preparing for installation of LTFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 4.3.3 Installing LTFS on a Linux system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.3.4 Using LTFS on Linux systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1734.4 Installing and using LTFS from a MAC OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 4.4.1 System hardware and software requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 4.4.2 Installing LTFS on a Mac OS X System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 4.4.3 Installation package on a Mac OS X system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 4.4.4 Enabling the system log on a Mac OS X system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1904.5 Installing and using LTFS from a Windows system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 4.5.1 System hardware and software requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 4.5.2 Installing LTFS on a Windows system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 4.5.3 Installation package on a Windows system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Contents v
  • 7. 4.6 Managing LTFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 4.6.1 Managing on Linux and Mac OS X systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 4.6.2 Mount and unmount scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 4.6.3 Managing on a Windows system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 4.6.4 Graphical user interface tools in Windows system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 4.7 LTFS command reference for Linux and Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 4.7.1 Mounting a file system with the ltfs command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 4.7.2 Formatting a tape for LTFS with the mkltfs command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 4.7.3 Checking or recovering the LTFS with the ltfsck command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 4.8 Using the IBM LTFS Format Verifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Chapter 5. IBM System Storage LTFS Library Edition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 5.1 LTFS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 5.2 LTO media partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 5.2.1 Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 5.2.2 Applications using partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 5.3 LTFS tape format specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 5.3.1 Index and data partitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 5.3.2 Filesystem in User Space (FUSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 5.3.3 XML schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 5.3.4 Recording the LTFS XML schemas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 5.4 Installing, implementing, and using LTFS LE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 5.4.1 Hardware and software requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 5.4.2 Preparing for installation of LTFS LE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 5.4.3 Installing LTFS LE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 5.4.4 Uninstalling LTFS LE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 5.5 Managing LTFS LE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 5.5.1 Typical usage scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 5.5.2 Adding and removing tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 5.5.3 Adding and removing cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 5.5.4 Using the ltfsadmintool command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 5.6 Command reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 5.6.1 Mount a medium using the ltfs command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 5.6.2 Formatting a medium using the ltfsadmintool command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 5.6.3 Checking or recovering a medium using the ltfsadmintool command. . . . . . . . . 292Part 2. IBM tape libraries for Open Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Chapter 6. IBM System Storage TS2200 Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 6.1 Common characteristics of the TS2200 Tape Drive family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 6.2 IBM System Storage TS2250 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 6.2.1 Overview of the IBM System Storage TS2250 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . 303 6.2.2 Half-High Ultrium 5 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 6.2.3 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 6.2.4 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 6.2.5 Physical attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 6.2.6 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 6.2.7 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 6.2.8 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 6.3 IBM System Storage TS2240 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 6.3.1 Overview of the IBM System Storage TS2240 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . 315 6.3.2 Half-High Ultrium 4 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 6.3.3 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 6.3.4 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318vi IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 8. 6.3.5 Physical attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 6.3.6 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 6.3.7 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 6.3.8 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3216.4 IBM System Storage TS2230 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 6.4.1 Overview of the IBM System Storage TS2230 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . 322 6.4.2 Half-High Ultrium 3 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 6.4.3 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 6.4.4 Physical attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 6.4.5 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 6.4.6 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 6.4.7 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327Chapter 7. IBM System Storage TS2350 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3297.1 Overview of the IBM System Storage TS2350 Tape Drive Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3307.2 Full-High Ultrium 5 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 7.2.1 Platform support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 7.2.2 Performance highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3337.3 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 7.3.1 Data cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 7.3.2 Write Once Read Many cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 7.3.3 Cleaning cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 7.3.4 Cartridge memory (LTO-CM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3357.4 Data encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3367.5 Physical attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 7.5.1 Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 7.5.2 Setup of the TS2350 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3387.6 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 7.6.1 Updating the firmware using the Ethernet port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3407.7 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 7.7.1 Physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 7.7.2 Power specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3417.8 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341Chapter 8. IBM System Storage TS2900 Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3438.1 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3448.2 TS2900 Tape Autoloader components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 8.2.1 Operator Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 8.2.2 Robotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 8.2.3 Barcode reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 8.2.4 Cartridge storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3488.3 IBM LTO Ultrium Half-High Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 8.3.1 LTO-5 Half-High Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 8.3.2 LTO-4 Half-High Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3528.4 Physical attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 8.4.1 SAS interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 8.4.2 Persistent binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3548.5 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 8.5.1 Data cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 8.5.2 Write Once Read Many cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 8.5.3 Cleaning cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 8.5.4 Cartridge Memory chip (LTO-CM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Contents vii
  • 9. 8.6 TS2900 Tape Autoloader setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 8.6.1 Attaching to a server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 8.6.2 Initial configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 8.6.3 Web User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 8.6.4 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 8.6.5 Library settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 8.6.6 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 8.6.7 Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 8.6.8 Installing tape device drivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 8.7 Technical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 8.7.1 Physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 8.7.2 Power specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 8.8 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Chapter 9. IBM System Storage TS3100 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 9.1 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 9.2 TS3100 Tape Library components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 9.2.1 Operator control panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 9.2.2 Robotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 9.2.3 Barcode reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 9.2.4 Cartridge storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 9.3 IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 9.3.1 Ultrium 5 Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 9.3.2 Ultrium 4 Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 9.3.3 Ultrium 3 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 9.4 Physical attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 9.4.1 SCSI Ultra Fast Wide 160 LVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 9.4.2 Fibre Channel interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 9.4.3 SAS interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 9.4.4 Persistent binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 9.5 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 9.5.1 Data cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 9.5.2 Write Once Read Many (WORM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 9.5.3 Cleaning cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 9.5.4 Cartridge memory chip (LTO-CM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 9.6 TS3100 Tape Library setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 9.6.1 Attaching to a server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 9.6.2 Initial configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 9.6.3 Web User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 9.6.4 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 9.6.5 Library settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 9.6.6 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 9.6.7 Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 9.6.8 Installing tape drive drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 9.7 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 9.7.1 Physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 9.7.2 Power specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 9.8 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Chapter 10. IBM System Storage TS3200 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 10.1 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 10.2 TS3200 Tape Library components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 10.2.1 Operator Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419viii IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 10. 10.2.2 Robotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 10.2.3 Barcode reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 10.2.4 Cartridge storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42110.3 IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 10.3.1 Ultrium 5 Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 10.3.2 Ultrium 4 Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 10.3.3 Ultrium 3 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43210.4 Physical attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 10.4.1 SCSI Ultra Fast Wide 160 LVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 10.4.2 Fibre Channel interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 10.4.3 SAS interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 10.4.4 Persistent binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43810.5 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 10.5.1 Data cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 10.5.2 Write Once Read Many (WORM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 10.5.3 Cleaning cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 10.5.4 Cartridge memory chip (LTO-CM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44010.6 TS3200 Tape Library setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 10.6.1 Attaching to a server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 10.6.2 Initial configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 10.6.3 Web User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 10.6.4 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 10.6.5 Library settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 10.6.6 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 10.6.7 Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 10.6.8 Installing tape drive drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45110.7 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 10.7.1 Physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 10.7.2 Power specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45110.8 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452Chapter 11. IBM System Storage TS3310 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45511.1 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 11.1.1 TS3310 Tape Library Model L5B (Machine Type 3576) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 11.1.2 TS3310 Tape Library Model E9U (Machine Type 3576). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45711.2 Library expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45911.3 Front panel components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 11.3.1 Expansion module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 11.3.2 I/O station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 11.3.3 Access door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 11.3.4 Operator panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 11.3.5 Power button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 11.3.6 Front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46211.4 Rear panel components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 11.4.1 Library Control Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 11.4.2 Tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 11.4.3 Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46511.5 Interior components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 11.5.1 Storage columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 11.5.2 Robotic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46611.6 Optional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 11.6.1 IBM Ultrium 5 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 11.6.2 IBM Ultrium 4 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Contents ix
  • 11. 11.6.3 IBM Ultrium 3 Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 11.6.4 Redundant power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 11.6.5 Feature licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 11.7 Library management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 11.7.1 Operator panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 11.7.2 Web User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 11.7.3 Command line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 11.7.4 Native SMI-S support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 11.7.5 Support for IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 11.7.6 Advanced Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 11.7.7 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 11.8 Multipath architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 11.8.1 Using multiple logical libraries for library sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 11.8.2 Using multiple control paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 11.8.3 Using multiple control paths for control path failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 11.8.4 Using multiple data paths for Data Path Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 11.9 TS3310 Tape Library setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 11.9.1 Network setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 11.10 Working with logical libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 11.11 Operating procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 11.11.1 Upgrading firmware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 11.11.2 Understanding cartridge assignment in the library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 11.11.3 Using cleaning cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 11.12 Supported environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 11.12.1 Supported server platforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 11.12.2 Supported operating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 11.12.3 Supported storage software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 11.13 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 11.13.1 Timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 11.13.2 Physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 11.13.3 Operating environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 11.14 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 11.15 Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Chapter 12. IBM System Storage TS3400 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 12.1 TS3400 Tape Library description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 12.2 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 12.2.1 Barcode reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 12.2.2 Library Control Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 12.2.3 Cartridge magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 12.2.4 Tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 12.2.5 IBM Tape Drive attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 12.2.6 Data cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 12.3 TS3400 Tape Library setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 12.3.1 Web User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 12.3.2 Configuring network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 12.3.3 Configuring tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 12.3.4 Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 12.3.5 Tape encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 12.3.6 Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 12.3.7 Firmware upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 12.3.8 Host bus adapter (HBA) support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 12.3.9 Installing device drivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544x IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 12. 12.4 Technical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54512.5 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546Chapter 13. IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54713.1 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 13.1.1 TS3500 Tape Library frames for IBM LTO Ultrium Fibre Channel drives . . . . . 552 13.1.2 TS3500 Tape Library frames L23 and D23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 13.1.3 TS3500 Tape Library storage only frames S24 and S54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 13.1.4 TS3500 Tape Library (3584) High Availability Unit HA1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 13.1.5 TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex (Model SC1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 13.1.6 High Performance Storage System (HPSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58213.2 Library components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 13.2.1 Tape drives supported in the TS3500 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 13.2.2 Library control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 13.2.3 Operator interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 13.2.4 Robotic cartridge accessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 13.2.5 Rail assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 13.2.6 Library-centric WWNN convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 13.2.7 Control path failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 13.2.8 Data path failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59713.3 Tape Library Specialist Management Interface (MI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 13.3.1 System Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 13.3.2 Management Interface Cartridges options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 13.3.3 Management Interface Library options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608 13.3.4 Management Interface Drives options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 13.3.5 Management Interface Ports option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 13.3.6 Management Interface Access options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 13.3.7 Management Interface Service options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 13.3.8 Reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 13.3.9 Remote support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 13.3.10 Monitor and report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 13.3.11 Adding and removing cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64113.4 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 13.4.1 Elements that contribute to high performance capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64113.5 Upgrades and optional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64313.6 Advanced Library Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 13.6.1 Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 13.6.2 Virtual I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 13.6.3 Using ALMS in practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65013.7 Host platforms and device drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 13.7.1 Feature codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 13.7.2 Device driver installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65213.8 Storage applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65213.9 TS3500 Tape Library initial setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 13.9.1 Tape encryption overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 13.9.2 SCSI ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 13.9.3 Element number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65913.10 Operator panels and buttons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66113.11 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 13.11.1 Physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 13.11.2 Floor requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 13.11.3 Operating environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 13.11.4 Power and cooling specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 Contents xi
  • 13. Chapter 14. IBM System Storage TS7600 ProtecTIER Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 14.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 14.2 Data deduplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 14.3 TS7650G ProtecTIER Deduplication Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 14.3.1 TS7650G Gateway Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 14.3.2 TS7650G ProtecTIER Deduplication Gateway (3958 DD4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 14.3.3 Disk array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 14.3.4 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 14.4 TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 14.4.1 TS7650 Deduplication Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 14.4.2 TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 14.4.3 Available models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 14.4.4 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 14.5 TS7610 ProtecTIER Deduplication SMB Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 14.5.1 TS7610 hardware components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688 14.5.2 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690 14.6 ProtecTIER Virtual Tape Library (VTL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691 14.7 ProtecTIER OpenStorage (OST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694 14.8 Initial configuration TS7600. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 14.8.1 Initial configuration TS7610 and TS7650 appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696 14.8.2 Initial configuration of the TS7650 gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 14.8.3 Creating file systems manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712 14.8.4 fsCreate parameter descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 14.9 ProtecTIER Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 14.9.1 ProtecTIER’s native replication Management Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 14.10 Installing ProtecTIER Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 14.10.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 14.10.2 Installing on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 14.10.3 Installing ProtecTIER Manager on Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 14.11 Working with ProtecTIER Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 14.11.1 Adding nodes to ProtecTIER Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 14.12 Creating repository for TS7650G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 14.12.1 Creating the repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 14.12.2 Adding a second node to the cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 14.12.3 Validate TS7650 cluster hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 14.13 Set up the virtual library and cartridges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758 14.13.1 Logging in and out of ProtecTIER Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 14.13.2 Saving and printing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 14.13.3 Refreshing ProtecTIER Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 14.13.4 Renaming the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 14.14 Initial setup for TS7610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 14.14.1 TS7610 Start up message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776 14.14.2 TS7610 Configuration Wizard setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777 14.14.3 Renaming the repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 14.14.4 Deleting existing repository and file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790 14.15 Enabling ProtecTIER SNMP support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 14.15.1 Defining the IP address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 14.15.2 IBM MIB definition file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794 14.15.3 SNMP compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794 14.16 Replication overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 14.17 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 14.17.1 Replication features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 14.17.2 Typical deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799xii IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 14. 14.18 ProtecTIER native replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 14.19 Normal operation concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 14.19.1 Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 14.19.2 Replication data transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805 14.19.3 Replication topologies in a VTL environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806 14.19.4 Visibility switch control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807 14.19.5 Single and multiple domain backup application environments . . . . . . . . . . . . 807 14.19.6 Adding replication to an existing production system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809 14.20 Many to one replication with Virtual Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810 14.21 Many-to-many replication with Virtual Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813 14.22 ProtecTIER Replication with OpenStorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 14.23 IBM TS3000 System Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 14.24 Operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 Chapter 15. Library management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 15.1 Overview of library management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 15.2 Management tools and technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 15.2.1 Operator panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 15.2.2 Web user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822 15.2.3 TapeAlert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 15.2.4 Command Line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 15.2.5 Tape System Reporter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827 15.2.6 Crossroads ReadVerify Appliance (RVA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832 15.2.7 SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 15.2.8 SMI-S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 15.2.9 IBM TotalStorage Tape Diagnostics Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843 15.2.10 IBM Ultrium Device Driver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857 15.2.11 Summary of management capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859 15.3 Library-specific management capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 15.3.1 TS2900 Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 15.3.2 TS3100 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 15.3.3 TS3200 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 15.3.4 TS3310 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861 15.3.5 TS3400 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861 15.3.6 TS3500 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861 15.4 Preferred practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864Part 3. Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865 Appendix A. IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867 Introduction to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868 IPv4 and IPv6 address formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868 IPv6 supported list of TotalStorage Tape Library products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870 TS3100 network configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 Appendix B. IBM LTO Ultrium and 3592 media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873 Features available with the initial IBM hardware order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 IBM System Storage TS3100 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 IBM System Storage TS3200 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 IBM System Storage TS3310 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 IBM System Storage TS3400 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 IBM 3589 LTO Ultrium tape cartridges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 Model description and ordering media supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Contents xiii
  • 15. Barcode labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878 IBM 3599 tape cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879 Model description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879 Labeling service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883 Ordering barcode labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884 Appendix C. IBM tape product names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885 System Storage TS series family names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886 TS1000 Tape Drives (LTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886 TS1100 Tape Drive (Enterprise) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887 TS2000 Tape Enclosures (LTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887 TS2900 Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888 TS3100 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888 TS3200 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888 TS3310 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888 TS3400 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889 TS3500 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889 TS7600 ProtecTIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890 Appendix D. Data Storage values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893 IBM Redbooks publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893 Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893 Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894 Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897xiv IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 16. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Anyreference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product,program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does notinfringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the users responsibility toevaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. Thefurnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, inwriting, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where suchprovisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONPROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer ofexpress or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may makeimprovements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any timewithout notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM websites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those websites. The materials at those websites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those websites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurringany obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm theaccuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on thecapabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sampleprograms are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore,cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. xv
  • 17. Trademarks IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com marked on their first occurrence in may also be registered or are trademarks or registered this information with the common law trademarks in other trademarks of International appropriate symbol (® or ™), countries. A current list of IBM Business Machines Corporation indicating US registered or trademarks is available on the in the United States, other common law trademarks owned web at: countries, or both. These and by IBM at the time this information other IBM trademarked terms are was published. Such trademarkshttp://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtmlThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: AIX 5L™ Global Business Services® RETAIN® AIX® GPFS™ RS/6000® AS/400® HyperFactor® Symphony™ BladeCenter® i5/OS® System i® Blue Gene/L® IBM® System p5® DB2® iSeries® System p® developerWorks® Linear Tape File System™ System Storage® Diligent® Lotus® System x® DS4000® Magstar® System z® ESCON® Netcool® Tivoli Enterprise Console® eServer™ NetView® Tivoli® Express Portfolio™ OS/400® VTF® Express Services™ Power Systems™ WebSphere® Express® ProtecTIER® xSeries® FICON® pSeries® z/OS® FileNet® Redbooks® zEnterprise® FlashCopy® Redbooks (logo) ® zSeries®The following terms are trademarks of other companies:Intel, Itanium, Pentium, Intel logo, Intel Inside logo, and Intel Centrino logo are trademarks or registeredtrademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Linear Tape-Open, LTO, Ultrium, the LTO Logo and the Ultrium logo are trademarks of HP, IBM Corp. andQuantum in the U.S. and other countries.Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both.Java, and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or itsaffiliates.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.xvi IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 18. Preface This IBM® Redbooks® publication presents a general introduction to Linear Tape-Open (LTO) technology and the implementation of corresponding IBM products. This ninth edition of the book includes information about the latest enhancements to the IBM Ultrium family of tape drives and tape libraries. In addition, it includes a description of the IBM TS1140 Tape Drive, which can be installed in the IBM System Storage® TS3500 Tape Library. This book also contains technical information about each IBM tape product for Open Systems. It includes generalized sections about Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) and Fibre Channel connections and multipath architecture configurations. This edition includes details about the new IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library Connector Model SC1. The Shuttle Complex enables extreme scalability of over 300,000 LTO cartridges in a single library image by supporting transport of cartridges from one TS3500 library string to another TS3500 library string. This book also includes information about the tools and techniques for library management. The new IBM Linear Tape File System™ (LTFS) Library Edition extends the capability of the IBM LTFS Single Drive Edition (SDE) to the TS3500, TS3200 and TS3100. If you benefit from indexing your LTO data stored in these tape libraries for ease of use, you can now do so with the IBM LTFS Library Edition. This book is intended for anyone who wants to understand more about the general LTO technology specification, how it came about, and the IBM implementation of that specification. This book is suitable for IBM clients, IBM Business Partners, IBM specialist sales representatives, and technical specialists. If you do not have a background in computer tape storage products, you might need to reference other sources of information. In the interest of being concise, topics that are generally understood are not covered in detail.The team who wrote this book This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization (ITSO) in Tucson, AZ. Alex Osuna is a project leader at the International Technical Support Organization, Tucson Arizona center. He writes extensively on IBM storage. Before joining the ITSO, Alex was a Principal Systems Engineer for the IBM Tivoli® Western Region. Alex has 32 years in the IT industry focusing on IBM storage. Alex holds certifications from IBM, Red Hat, Microsoft and the Open Group. Bobby Bohuslav is an IBM Tape Product Field Engineer out of Tucson, AZ. He has 32 years with IBM in the IT business. In his first 18 years with IBM as a Customer Engineer, he was solving IBM Customer issues on all facets of IBM Products, starting with "Old Iron" equipment all the way up to Main Frame computers and everything in between. The last 14 years as a Tape Specialist, he has been supporting customers worldwide on tape storage products and is currently leading the Tape Product Field Engineering team focusing on LTO Tape in the Open Systems environment.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. xvii
  • 19. Larry Coyne is a project leader at the International Technical Support Organization, Tucson Arizona center. He has 28 years of IBM experience with 23 in IBM storage software management. He holds degrees in Software Engineering from the University of Texas at El Paso and Project Management from George Washington University. His areas of expertise include client relationship management, quality assurance, development management and support management for Tivoli Storage Software. Michael Engelbrecht is a Senior Support Center Representative in IBM Global Technical Services in Johannesburg, South Africa. He has worked with IBM for 29 years, and for the last nine years he has worked for the Hardware Field Support team for Sub Sahara Africa, supporting both SAN and RMSS products. He is currently a member of the Virtual Front End team for both the Central Eastern Europe (CEE) and Middle East and Africa (MEA) regions, providing support for all RMSS products to field engineers. Chris Hoffmann is an IBM TSM Storage Specialist in Sydney, Australia. He is an IBM Certified Specialist in Open Systems Storage Solutions, IBM AIX®, IBM DB2®, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager and also holds an MCSE and CNE. Chris has over 21 years of experience in the IT industry and his areas of expertise include Tivoli Storage Manager, IBM System Storage disk, and tape products. Chris has a Ph.D in Chemistry from the University of Bristol, England. Mauro Silvestri is an IBM Product Services Certified Professional, working since 1981 in Technical Support roles in Italy. His areas of expertise are disk and tape systems in Open and System-z complex environments. He has 32 years with IBM with 30 years of experience in Technical Support. Since 2002, he has held specialist certification in High-end Tape Solutions and High-end DASD Solutions from the IBM Professional Certification Program. Since 2008, he has held an IBM Product Services Certification. Since 2011 he has been an L2 Technical Resolution Team member on ProtecTIER systems. Team: Alex, Chris, Mauro, Michael, Bobby, and Larry Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Khanh Ngo IBM Systems and Technology Group Jonathan Newcom IBM Systems and Technology Group Michael Meseke IBM Global Business Services® - US Federalxviii IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 20. Karen Orlando IBM Sales and Distribution, IBM Inside Sales Emma Jacobs IBM Sales and Distribution, IBM Inside Sales Alfred Schwab, editor ITSO Poughkeepsie, NY, center Thanks to the authors of the previous editions of this book, including the authors of the eight edition, published in June, 2011: Alex Osuna Rahul Sharma Mauro Silvestri Stefan WiedemannNow you can become a published author, too! Heres an opportunity to spotlight your skills, grow your career, and become a published author—all at the same time! Join an ITSO residency project and help write a book in your area of expertise, while honing your experience using leading-edge technologies. Your efforts will help to increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction, as you expand your network of technical contacts and relationships. Residencies run from two to six weeks in length, and you can participate either in person or as a remote resident working from your home base. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.html Preface xix
  • 21. Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our books to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this book or other IBM Redbooks publications in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review Redbooks form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an email to: redbooks@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. HYTD Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400Stay connected to IBM Redbooks Find us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/IBMRedbooks Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/ibmredbooks Look for us on LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2130806 Explore new Redbooks publications, residencies, and workshops with the IBM Redbooks weekly newsletter: https://www.redbooks.ibm.com/Redbooks.nsf/subscribe?OpenForm Stay current on recent Redbooks publications with RSS Feeds: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/rss.htmlxx IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 22. Summary of changes This section describes the technical changes made in this edition of the book and in previous editions. This edition might also include minor corrections and editorial changes that are not identified. Summary of Changes for SG24-5946-08 for IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems as created or updated on June 26, 2012June 2012, Ninth Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape Drive (3592 Model E07) IBM Systems Storage TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex (Model SC1) High Performance Storage System (HPSS) IBM Linear Tape File System Single Drive Edition (LTFS SDE) expanded installation information IBM Linear Tape File System Library Edition (LTFS LE) LTO-5 tape drive updates for tape libraries Changed information This book includes the following changed information: IBM Systems Storage TS2250 Tape Drive IBM Systems Storage TS2350 Tape Drive IBM Systems Storage TS2900 Tape Autoloader IBM Systems Storage TS3100 Tape Library IBM Systems Storage TS3200 Tape Library IBM Systems Storage TS3310 Tape Library IBM Systems Storage TS3400 Tape Library IBM Systems Storage TS3500 Tape Library IBM Systems Storage TS7600 ProtecTIER® SystemsJune 2012, Eighth Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: ALMS required to support LTO-5 FC 1700 and FC 1701 required for LTO-5 support in Models L32/D32, L52/D52 HA/HD mixed media configuration© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. xxi
  • 23. Linear Tape File System (LTFS) LTO-5 LTO-5 Bridge Boxes LTO-5 Tape Drives dual ported 8 Gbps Fibre Channel interface TS1050 (3588 F5A) Changed information This book includes the following changed information: TS2250 TS2900 TS3100 TS3200 TS3310 TS3500September 2008, Seventh Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: TS1130 Tape Drive TS2240 Tape Drive TS2900 Tape Autoloader TS3310 Advanced Reporting IPV6 Protocol ITDT Graphical Edition TS3500 High Density Changed information This book includes the following changed information: TS3100 TS3200 TS3310 TS3400 TS3500 IBM Tivoli Productivity Center Version 3.3 Library managementOctober 2007, Sixth Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of the following new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: TS2230 Tape Drive TS2340 Tape Drivexxii IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 24. IBM Linear Tape-Open Ultrium 4 Tape Drive IBM System Storage TS3400 Tape Library Tape encryption Changed information The book includes the following changed information: IBM TS3310 Tape Library IBM TS3500 Tape LibraryApril 2007, Fifth Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of the following new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: IBM TS3100 Tape Library IBM TS3200 Tape Library IBM TS3310 Tape Library Library management Changed information The book includes the following changed information: IBM TS1020 Tape Drive IBM TS1120 Tape Drive IBM TS3500 Tape LibrarySeptember 2005, Fourth Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of the following new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: Write Once Read Many (WORM) media for Ultrium 3 drives Ultrium 3 drives and libraries Virtual I/O for IBM TotalStorage 3584 Tape LibraryJune 2004, Third Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of the following new and changed information. New information The book includes the following new information: Description of WORM technology New models IBM TotalStorage 3581 2U Tape Autoloader L28 and F28 Summary of changes xxiii
  • 25. New frames and features for the IBM TotalStorage 3584 Tape Library, including support for IBM TotalStorage 3592 Tape Drive with WORM media Advanced Library Management System (ALMS) for the IBM TotalStorage 3584 Tape LibraryJune 2003, Second Edition This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of new and changed information described below. New information Ultrium 2 drives in existing LTO libraries New model, IBM TotalStorage Ultrium Tape Library 3582 New functions (multi-path architecture, control path failover) for LTO librariesNovember 2000, First Edition This revision reflects the addition of new and information described below. New information Introduction to Linear tape-Open technology Introduction to the family of IBM LTO Ultrium products Configuration information for stand a lone environments and backup and recovery software General information for SCSI connections, multipath configurations and tape technology comparisonsxxiv IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 26. Part 1Part 1 Tape basics of Open Systems Part 1 includes information about tape technologies for Open Systems. It includes information about the IBM tape drives that can be installed inside IBM tape libraries for Open Systems hosts. We cover the technology, installation and use of the IBM System Storage Linear Tape File System (LTFS).© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. 1
  • 27. 2 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 28. 1 Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction Tape systems traditionally have been associated with the mainframe computer market, because they have represented an essential element in mainframe systems architectures since the early 1950s as a cost-effective way to store large amounts of data. In contrast, the midrange and client/server computer market has made limited use of tape technology until recently. Over the past few years, growth in the demand for data storage and reliable backup and archiving solutions has greatly increased the need to provide manageable and cost-effective tape library products. The value of using tape for backup purposes has only gradually become obvious and important in these environments. This chapter reviews the history of tape technology, including the technologies, formats, and standards that you see for tape products in today’s market. This chapter also includes information about several products from non-IBM vendors. For detailed and latest information about these non-IBM vendors’ products go to their respective web sites. This chapter includes the following sections: Tape products and technologies SAN technologies Tape virtualization for Open Systems Linear Tape File System (LTFS)© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. 3
  • 29. 1.1 Tape products and technologies Two basic tape technologies have been used. Until the mid-1980s, all computer tape systems used linear recording technology, which uses a stationary head writing data in a longitudinal way. (Figure 1-3 on page 5 shows an example of longitudinal technology.) In the mid-1980s, helical tape technology (developed for video applications) became available for computer data storage. This technology uses heads that rotate on a drum and write data at an angle. Helical tape systems found natural applications in backing up magnetic disk systems where their cost advantages substantially outweighed their operational disadvantages. (Figure 1-4 on page 6 shows an example of helical scan technology.)1.1.1 Helical compared to longitudinal tape systems The first computer tape systems used linear recording technology. This technology provides excellent data integrity, rapid access to data records, and reasonable storage density. The first implementation of linear recording technology used magnetic tapes on open reels. Later, the tape was protected inside cartridges, by using one or two reels. Linear technology drives write each data track on the entire length of the tape. Data is first written onto a track along the entire length of the tape. When the end is reached, the heads are repositioned to record a new track again, along the entire length of the tape, now traveling in the opposite direction. This method continues back and forth until the tape is full. On linear drives, the tape is guided around a static head. By contrast, on helical scan systems, the tape is wrapped around a rotating drum that contains read/write heads. Because of the more complicated path, mechanical stress is placed on the tape. When contrasted with linear tape systems, helical tape systems have higher density (and, therefore, lower media cost). However, they have lower data transfer rates (due to the smaller number of active read/write heads), less effective access to random data records, increased maintenance requirements, and reduced data integrity. Both linear and helical tape systems have advanced substantially over the past decade. Linear systems have improved significantly in storage density (and, therefore, cost). They have also improved in operational convenience (with various removable cartridge systems, such as 3590, QIC, digital linear tape (DLT), and now Linear Tape-Open (LTO) replacing reel-to-reel systems). Helical systems have improved in the areas of transfer rate and data integrity with the implementation of both channel and error correction coding technologies. Over the past few decades, one of the most significant advances in tape technology for computer applications has been the maturation of serpentine linear recording systems. For the first time, linear recording systems can provide recording density that is comparable with that of helical systems. The first commercially successful serpentine linear tape system for professional applications was DLT. Another important improvement is the use of servo tracks, first introduced by IBM on the Magstar® 3590 tape. Servo tracks are recorded at the time of manufacture. These tracks enable the tape drive to position the read/write head accurately with respect to the media while the tape is in motion.1.1.2 Tape reels (1/2-inch) The first data backup device (and the ancestor of magnetic tape devices with a ½-inch-wide tape format) used magnetic tape reels (Figure 1-1 on page 5). Reel tapes have been around for many years. They supported densities from 800 to 6250 bits per inch (bpi) and were manufactured and sold in many different lengths and brands. The most common densities used were 1600 and 6250 bpi, but most of these devices have since been replaced.4 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 30. Figure 1-1 Tape reels, ½-inch1.1.3 Quarter-inch cartridge The quarter-inch cartridge (QIC) tape device was first introduced in 1972 by the 3M company as a means to store data from telecommunications and data acquisition applications. As time passed, the comparatively inexpensive QIC tape device became an accepted data storage system, especially for stand-alone PCs. A QIC tape device (shown in Figure 1-2) looks similar to an audio tape cassette with two reels inside, one with tape and the other for take-up. Figure 1-2 QIC tape The QIC format employs a linear (or longitudinal) recording technique in which data is written to parallel tracks that run along the length of the tape. The number of tracks is the principle determinant of capacity. The QIC uses a linear read/write head similar to the heads found in cassette recorders (Figure 1-3). The head contains a single write head flanked on either side by a read head, so that the tape drive can verify data just written when the tape is running in either direction. 100 ips Read (Verify) heads Read (Verify) heads Write heads Figure 1-3 QIC head diagram Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 5
  • 31. Tandberg Data manufactures QIC drives with its Scalable Linear Recording (SLR) technology. Their most recent drive, the SLR140, provides 70 GB (native) and 140 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio) capacity on a single data cartridge. The maximum data transfer rates are 6 MBps uncompressed and 12 MBps (with a 2:1 compression ratio).1.1.4 Digital Data Standard (4 mm) The Digital Audio Tape (DAT) standard was created in 1987. As its name implies, it was originally conceived as a CD-quality audio format that offered three hours of digital sound on a single tape. The Digital Data Standard (DDS) is based on DAT and uses a similar technology. The cartridge design is common to both, but different tape formulations have been developed. In 1988, Sony and Hewlett-Packard (HP) defined the DDS standard, transforming the format into one that can be used for digital data storage. DAT technology is a 4 mm tape that uses helical scan recording technology (Figure 1-4). Over the years the DAT capacity has grown to 160 GB (native) and 320 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio). This technology is the same type of recording that is used in videocassette recorders (VCRs) and is inherently slower than the linear type. The tape in a helical scan system is pulled from a two-reel cartridge and wrapped around a cylindrical drum that contains two read heads and two write heads, arranged alternately. The read heads verify the data that is written by the write heads. The cylinder head is tilted slightly in relation to the tape and spins at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM). The tape moves in the opposite direction to the cylindrical spin, at less than one inch per second. However, because it is recording more than one line at a time, it has an effective speed of 150 inches per second. 2000 rpm 2 Write and 2 Verify heads 5 degrees spaced at 90 degrees Verify B Write B Write A Verify A .5 ips Data recorded in angled stripes across the tape Figure 1-4 Helical-scan recording diagram A directory of files is stored in a partition at the front of the tape. Similar to linear recording, the performance can be greatly improved if additional read/write heads are added. However, this change is difficult with helical scan devices because of the design of the rotating head. The fact that the heads can only be added in pairs makes it challenging to fit the wiring inside a single cylinder, which limits the potential performance of helical scan devices. Because of the wide-wrap angle of the tape and the consequent degree of physical contact, both the head and the media are prone to wear and tear.6 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 32. 1.1.5 The 8 mm format Designed for the video industry, 8 mm tape technology was created to transfer high-quality color images to tape for storage and retrieval and has been adopted by the computer industry. Similar to DAT, but with greater capacities, 8 mm drives are also based on the helical scan technology. A drawback to the helical scan system is the complicated tape path. Because the tape must be pulled from a cartridge and wrapped tightly around the spinning read/write cylinder (Figure 1-5), a great deal of stress is placed on the tape. Figure 1-5 An 8 mm tape path Two major protocols use different compression algorithms and drive technologies, but the basic function is the same. Exabyte Corporation sponsors standard 8 mm and VXA formats, while Seagate and Sony represent the 8 mm technology known as Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT). Mammoth tape format The Mammoth tape format is a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) based 8 mm tape technology that is designed for Open Systems applications. It is a proprietary implementation of the 8 mm original format that has been available since 1987 and uses Advanced Metal Evaporative (AME) media. This media has a coating over the recording surface that seals and protects the recording surface. The Exabyte Mammoth drives have a 5¼-inch form factor. The first generation provided 20 GB (native) and 40 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio) capacity on a single 8 mm data cartridge. The maximum data transfer rates were 3 MBps uncompressed and 6 MBps (with a 2:1 compression ratio). With the Mammoth-2 technology, the capacity and data rate have been increased to 60 GB (150 GB with a 2.5:1 compression ratio) and 12 MBps uncompressed 30 MBps with a 2.5:1 compression ratio). Mammoth-2 drives are read compatible with the previous models. VXA tape format The VXA tape format is 8 mm tape technology designed for Open Systems applications. It is a proprietary implementation of an 8 mm packet format available since 2001 and uses AME media. The Exabyte VXA drives have a 5¼-inch form factor. The first generation provided 32 GB (native) and 64 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio) capacity on a single 8 mm data cartridge. The maximum data transfer rates were 3 MBps uncompressed and 6 MBps (with a 2:1 compression ratio). Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 7
  • 33. With the VXA-2 technology, the capacity and data rate have been increased to 80 GB (160 GB with a 2:1 compression ratio) and 6 MBps uncompressed (12 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio). VXA-2 drives are read compatible with the previous model. With the VXA-3 technology, the capacity and data rate have been increased to 160 GB (320 GB with a 2:1 compression ratio) and 12 MBps uncompressed (24 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio). VXA-3 drives are read compatible with the previous model. Advanced Intelligent Tape format The Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) format was developed by Sony. Available in a 3½-inch form factor, Sony AIT-1 drives and media provide 25 GB (native) and 50 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio) capacity on a single 8 mm data cartridge. The maximum data transfer rate is 3 MBps native. The AIT-5 format from Sony has the capacity and performance of 400 GB (1040 GB with a 2.5:1 compression ratio) and 24 MBps data transfer rate. AIT drives feature an Auto Tracking Following (ATF) system, which provides a closed-loop, self-adjusting path for tape tracking. This servo tracking system adjusts for tape flutter, so that data tracks can be written much closer together for high-density recording. AIT uses the Adaptive Lossless Data Compression (ALDC) technology compression algorithm. Digital Linear Tape Digital Linear Tape (DLT) drives became available in 1985 when Digital Equipment Corporation needed a backup system for their MicroVAX systems. This system uses a square cartridge that contains tape media but no take-up reel. The take-up reel was built into the drive itself. This design eliminated the additional space typically associated with cassette and cartridge drives, such as QIC or 8 mm. The drive itself had to be made larger than most drives to accommodate the internal take-up reel. The drive fit into a full-height, 5¼-inch drive bay. Called the TK50, the new tape drive was capable of storing 94 MB per cartridge. By using a ferrite read/write head, the TK50 recorded data in linear blocks along 22 tracks. Its read/write head contained two sets of read/write elements. One set was used when reading and writing forward, and the other set was used when reading and writing backward. In 1987, Digital Equipment Corporation released the TK70. This tape drive offered 294 MB of storage on the same square tape cartridge, a threefold improvement over the TK50. Digital accomplished this capacity by increasing the number of tracks to 48 and by increasing density on the same ½-inch tape. In 1989, Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the first true DLT system. The TF85 (later called the DLT 260) incorporated a new feature that enabled the system to pack 2.6 GB onto a 1200-foot tape (CompacTape III, later known as DLTtape III).8 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 34. The DLT Tape Head Guide Assembly was incorporated for the first time in the TF85 drive. Sixprecision rollers improved tape life. The six-roller head guide assembly gave the TF85 a muchshorter tape path than helical scan systems (Figure 1-6).Figure 1-6 DLT tape path mechanismThe read/write head was equipped with an additional write element so that the elements werearranged in a write/read/write pattern. With this pattern, the TF85 could read after writing ontwo channels and in both forward and reverse directions. Figure 1-7 illustrates thismultichannel serpentine recording.Figure 1-7 DLT 2000 recording head designTwo years later, Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the TZ87, later known as the DLT2000 Tape Drive. This system offered 10 GB of native capacity on a single CompacTape IIIcartridge (Figure 1-8), later known as DLTtape III. It supported 2 MB of read/write data cachememory and offered a data transfer rate of 1.25 MBps. This cartridge was the first generationof DLT.Figure 1-8 DLT cartridgeIn 1994, Quantum acquired the Storage division of Digital Equipment Corporation. In late1994, Quantum released the DLT 4000. By increasing real density (bits per inch) from 62,500to 82,000 and tape length by 600 additional feet (DLTtape IV), the capacity of the DLT 4000grew up to 20 GB (40 GB compressed) on a single ½-inch DLTtape IV cartridge. The newDLTtape system provided a data transfer of 1.5 MBps (3 MBps compressed) and was fullyread/write compatible with previous generations of DLT tape drives. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 9
  • 35. DLT 2000 and DLT 4000 drives write data on two channels simultaneously in linear tracks that run the length of the tape, as shown in Figure 1-9. Figure 1-9 DLT 2000/4000 linear recording format The DLT 7000 became available in 1996. This drive offered a total storage capacity of 35 GB native and 70 GB compressed on the 1800 foot DLTtape IV cartridge. The DLT 7000 incorporated a 4-channel head that gives the drive a transfer rate of 5 MBps of data in native mode (Figure 1-10). Figure 1-10 DLT 7000/8000 tape head The latest DLT product from Quantum is the DLT 8000 drive. This tape drive features a native transfer rate of up to 6 MBps, with a native capacity of 40 GB. The DLT 7000/8000 drives incorporate the Symmetric Phase Recording technology that writes data in an angled pattern (Figure 1-11). Figure 1-11 Symmetric Phase Recording technology1.1.6 SuperDLT SuperDLT (SDLT) is a format specification developed by Quantum Corporation as an evolution of the DLT standard. It uses Laser Guided Magnetic Recording (LGMR) technology. This technology includes the Pivoting Optical Servo (POS). This optically-assisted servo system is implemented on the unused reverse side of the media and uses a laser to read the servo guide. SDLT uses 100% of the media for data recording. SDLT uses Advanced Metal Powder (AMP) media, which contains embedded information for the Pivoting Optical Servo system. The recording mechanism is made of Magneto-Resistive Cluster (MRC) heads, which are a cluster of small magneto-resistive tape heads. The first SDLT drive, the SDLT 220, was introduced in late 2000. It provides a capacity of 110 GB (native) and 220 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio). The native data transfer rate is 11 MBps. This first drive was not backward-read compatible with earlier models. In 2001,10 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 36. Quantum released a version of the SDLT 220 drive that was backward-read compatible with the DLTtape IV cartridge. The second SDLT 320 drive from Quantum became available in 2002. It increased the native capacity to 160 GB (320 GB with a 2:1 compression ratio) and the native transfer rate to 16 MBps (32 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio). The SDLT 320 is backward read compatible with DLTtape IV cartridges and uses Super DLTtape I media. The SDLT 600 is the third generation of the SDLT product range from Quantum. It provides a capacity of 300 GB (native) and 600 GB (with a 2:1 compression ratio) and the native transfer rate increased to 36 MBps (72 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio). The SDLT600 comes with an LVD 160 Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) or with a 2 GB Fibre Channel (FC) interface. The SDLT 600 is compatible with earlier versions with the SDLT 320 and the DLT VS 160. The DLT-S4 is the fourth generation of the SDLT product range from Quantum. It provides a capacity of 800 GB (native) and 1,600 TB (with a 2:1 compression ratio) and the native transfer rate increased to 324 MBps (400 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio). The DLT-S4 comes with an LVD 320 Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) or with a 4 GB Fibre Channel (FC) interface. The DLT-S4 can read all Super DLTtape 2 cartridges written by SDLT 600 drives, and Super DLTtape 1 cartridges written by SDLT 320 drives The media format has the following capacity: DLT-4 (read/write) 800 GB native capacity Super DLTtape II (read only) 300 GB native capacity Super DLTtape I (read only) 160 GB native capacity1.1.7 IBM 3480 The second generation of IBM magnetic media and the first one to use an enclosed cartridge containing ½-inch tape, the IBM 3480 Magnetic Tape Subsystem was announced on 22 March 1984. The tape was stored in a now-familiar cartridge, which was smaller, more robust, and easier to handle than tape reels. The cartridge capacity was 200 MB, and the channel data rate was 3 MBps, writing 18 tracks in one direction.1.1.8 IBM 3490 The IBM 3490 replaced the IBM 3480 tape technology, using the same tape cartridge media. The IBM 3490E, with a tape capacity of 800 MB uncompacted (2.4 GB compressed assuming 3:1 compression) and a channel data rate of 3 MBps, increased the capacity of the 3480 four-fold. It used a double-length tape and wrote data in both directions: 18 tracks to the end of tape and 18 tracks back to the start of the tape. During this second generation, automatic cartridge loaders and automated tape libraries, such as the IBM 3495 and 3494 libraries, were introduced to reduce or eliminate the need for tape operators. Software management applications, such as CA-1, TLMS, and the DFSMS Removable Media Manager (DFSMSrmm), were implemented to manage the tape volumes automatically. The IBM 3490 and compatible drives were probably the first family of tape products that was mostly used with automatic tape libraries rather than being installed as stand-alone drives operated manually. The Improved Data Recording Capability (IDRC), which compacts the data, reduced the number of tape volumes used. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 11
  • 37. Magnetic disks were became widely used for online data. Therefore, these second-generation tape systems became primarily a medium for backup and were introduced as an archive medium. The process of archiving was also automated with products, such as Hierarchical Storage Manager (HSM) and DFSMShsm (a component of DFSMS/MVS), by using tape as the lowest level in a storage hierarchy. Tape was still used as an interchange medium, but networks were also used for that purpose.1.1.9 IBM 3590 The IBM TotalStorage Drive 3590 was previously called the IBM Magstar 3590. The IBM Magstar tape technology was first introduced in July 1995. The original cartridge maintained the external form factor of the IBM 3490 (Figure 1-12), had a capacity of 10 GB uncompacted (30 GB compressed), and a data rate of 9 MBps. Later drive models and newer media increased these figures. The data format was incompatible with the IBM 3490. Figure 1-12 TotalStorage 3590 tape cartridge The IBM 3590 drive (Figure 1-13) incorporated longitudinal technology, Serpentine Interleaved Longitudinal Recording. Figure 1-13 TotalStorage 3590 tape drive Data was written in each direction, and to increase capacity further provided multiple sets of tracks in parallel, the concept of head indexing was introduced. The entire set of heads was slightly shifted after one pass, and all subsequent passes (for a total of eight) were used to write data tracks next to the existing ones. This method meant a significant improvement in the tape capacity and transfer rates without changing the tape speed (2 mps) and media length (600 m). The IBM 3590 drive used a buffer and compressed the data before it wrote12 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 38. the data to tape. In addition, the drive completed a stop-start cycle in approximately 100 ms.The performance was improved for both start-stop and streaming applications.With the IBM TotalStorage 3590 Model H, the capacity and data rate increased to 60 GB(180 GB assuming 3:1 compression). With the Extended Length Cartridges, the capacity anddata rate increased to 14 MBps native. Both drives were made available in 2002 and maintaincompatibility with earlier version for reading with the base models.This design incorporated innovations, such as servo tracks on the tape to guide the read/writeheads along the data tracks and the implementation of an improved error correcting code(ECC). A portion of the tape within each cartridge was reserved for statistical information.This portion was continually updated after each read or write. It provided statistics that youcan use to obtain drive and media information and identify problems with a particular tape ordrive as early as possible.TechnologyThe IBM 3590 provided high capacity, performance, reliability, and a wide range of hostconnectivity. This technology used a fourth-generation magneto resistive (MR) head, a16 MB buffer, predictive failure analysis, and state-of-the-art electronic packaging.While reading or writing 16 tracks at a time, the IBM 3590 models used serpentine,interleaved, longitudinal recording technology for a total of four, eight, or twelve round tripsfrom the physical beginning to the physical end of the tape and back again. The taperead/write head indexes, or moved vertically, when it completed each round trip so that therecorded tracks are interleaved across the width of the tape.Figure 1-14 shows the recording element of the IBM TotalStorage Enterprise 3590 TapeDrives. It also shows how the read/write heads moved over the width of the tape medium. Recording element Two sets of read/write Tape heads per element W R direction Tape R W direction Electronic switch to the other head set at the end of the tape Physical movement to the 8, 16, 24 index next index position positions TapeFigure 1-14 IBM 3590 recordingThe 3590 Tape Drives used a metal particle medium in the tape cartridge that could store 10,20, 30, 40, or 60 GB of uncompacted data, depending on the cartridge type and the drivemodel. The integrated control unit used a compaction algorithm that could increase thestorage capacity of these cartridges. Assuming a compression ratio of three to one (3:1), thecartridge capacity increased to 60 GB on E models and to 90 GB on H models. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 13
  • 39. The 3590E and 3590H models have a 14 MBps device data rate, and the 3590B models have a 9 MBps device data rate. With data compression, the 3590 Tape Drive can more effectively use the full capability of the Ultra SCSI data rate, the IBM Enterprise Systems Connection (ESCON®) data rate, or the IBM Fibre Connection (FICON®) data rate. The Ultra Wide SCSI data rate is up to 40 MB per second and the Fibre Channel data rate is up to 100 MB per second. Metal particle media A chromium dioxide medium was used in the IBM 3480 and 3490 cartridges. The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge used a metal particle medium, which has a significantly increased coercivity. Therefore, it permits a much higher data recording density in comparison with chromium dioxide media as the linear density is proportional to the coercivity of the medium. The linear density of the IBM 3590 tape is approximately three times that of the IBM 3480 and 3490. The track density is also improved approximately four-fold. Advances in the metal particle coatings and media binders afford reliability and magnetic stability equal or superior to chrome media.1.1.10 LTO Ultrium tape The LTO standard was released as a joint initiative of IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Seagate Technology. As result of this initiative, two LTO formats (Ultrium and Accelis) were defined. However for performance reasons, there was no demand for the Accelis format of the LTO tape, and neither drive nor media were commercially produced. The consortium now consists of IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Quantum, which are known as the technology provider companies. The new technology specifications are detailed at the following LTO website: http://www.lto-technology.com The LTO Ultrium 5 technology is the current generation of LTO Ultrium tape. It provides 1.5 terabytes (TB) of native physical capacity (3.0 TB compressed) on data storage per cartridge and up to 140 MBps on native data transfer rate (280 MBps by assuming a 2:1 compression ratio). The previous format LTO Ultrium generations provided the following native capacities using the transfer rates shown: LTO Ultrium generation 4 provided a native capacity of 800 GB with a native transfer rate up to 120 MBps. LTO Ultrium generation 3 provided a native capacity of 400 GB with a native transfer rate up to 80 MBps. LTO Ultrium generation 2 provided a native capacity of 200 GB with a native transfer rate up to 40 MBps. LTO Ultrium generation 1 provided a native capacity of 100 GB with a native transfer rate of up to 20 MBps. Each LTO Ultrium generation has doubled the media storage capacity and increased the data transfer rate. Further, each LTO Ultrium drive generation is compatible with earlier versions for read and write capability with the prior media generation. Each LTO Ultrium drive generation is also compatible with earlier versions for read capability with the two prior media generations. For a detailed description of the LTO Ultrium tape format specification, see 2.1.2, “LTO standards” on page 41. For a detailed description of the IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drive, see 2.1.5, “IBM LTO Ultrium common subassembly drive” on page 59.14 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 40. LTO WORM cartridges The IBM Ultrium Write Once Read Many (WORM) cartridges (Machine Type 3589) were designed for applications, such as archiving and data retention, and for applications that require an audit trail. IBM Ultrium 3 Tape Drive WORM support is provided for these types of applications. The IBM Ultrium WORM cartridges work with the IBM System Storage LTO Ultrium Tape Drive to prevent the alteration or deletion of user data. In addition, IBM has taken several steps to reduce the possibility of tampering with the information: The bottom of the cartridge is molded in a different color than rewritable cartridges. The special cartridge memory helps protect the WORM nature of the media. A unique format is factory-written on each WORM cartridge. The IBM LTO Ultrium 5 WORM format, based on LTO specifications, provides a tape cartridge capacity of up to 1.5 TB native physical capacity (3.0 TB with a 2:1 compression ratio). The 1.5 TB WORM cartridge can only be used in the IBM Ultrium 5 Tape Drive. Additionally the IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive can process the previous LTO Ultrium 800 GB WORM format for read and write data and can read data from the LTO Ultrium 400 GB WORM format. For older installed 358x products with IBM TotalStorage LTO Ultrium 3 Tape Drives, you might need a drive licensed internal code and library firmware update. However, no hardware additions or features are necessary to enable this LTO WORM capability.1.1.11 IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drive family The IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drive family offers a design that is focused on high capacity, performance, and high reliability for storing mission-critical data. Introduced in October 2003, the 3592-J1A Tape Drive had 300 GB of native capacity in a ½-inch format tape cartridge. It was also a foundation for future generations of this new tape drive family based on the concept of media reuse. This design helps protect the client’s investment in tape cartridges. In October 2005, the second generation of the 3592 drive, the IBM System Storage TS1120 Tape Drive Model E05, was introduced. The IBM 3592-E05 has the same physical measurements as the 3592-J1A Tape Drive, but the capacity increased 1.6 times from 300 GB to 500 GB native capacity on one cartridge. It has a 4 GB Fibre Channel attachment and a native data rate of up to 100 MBps. The capacity characteristics of the two generations of 3592 Tape Drives increased again for the IBM System Storage TS1130 Model E06 Tape Drive. The TS1130 Model E06 Tape Drive is the third generation of the 3592 family achieving the unprecedented capacity of 1 TB of uncompressed data. With the fourth generation of 3592, the IBM TS1140 model E07, IBM has once again taken tape capacity to a new level. The TS1140 can store 1.6 TB of uncompressed data on the JB cartridge, and 4Tb of uncompressed data on the new advanced JC cartridge. IBM kept its promise documented in the road map for 3592 Tape Drives and provided a 4TB tape drive. The TS1140 Tape Drive is not just a new drive, but proof of IBM’s commitment to further tape technology development. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 15
  • 41. Figure 1-15 shows the IBM TS1140 Tape Drive 3592 Model E07. Figure 1-15 IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape Drive 3592 Model E07 For more specifications about the IBM 3592 J1A Tape Drive, the TS1120 Tape Drive, the TS1130 Tape Drive, and the TS1140 Tape Drive, see Chapter 3, “Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives” on page 103. The TS1140 Tape Drive maintains the same features and technology enhancements introduced with the TS1120 and extended by the TS1130. In addition, the TS1140 offers several enhancements over the predecessor models, which are explained in more detail on the following pages. TS1100 family key features The TS1140 has the following key features including those introduced with the 3592-J1A, 3592-E05 and 3592-E06: Digital speed matching Channel calibration High-resolution tape directory Recursive accumulating backhitchless flush or non-volatile caching Backhitchless backspace Streaming Lossless Data Compression (SLDC) algorithm Capacity scaling Single Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) Error detection and reporting Statistical Analysis Recording System (SARS) algorithm with extended mount count Revised Encryption Support Dual-stage 32-head actuator Offboard data string searching Enhanced logic to report logical end of tape Added Partitioning Support. End-to-End Logical Block Protection Support Data Safe mode Enhanced ethernet support16 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 42. New enhanced Barium Ferrite (BaFe) particle media types 8 Gbps Fibre Channel (FC) dual port interface. Capacity improvement Capacity and performance have been improved compared to the IBM TS1130 Tape Drive for all media types and for all formats that the TS1140 reads or writes. Using the 3592-E07 logical format offers a capacity improvement on existing and the new cartridges: IBM Enterprise Extended WORM/Data, JB/JX media, a 60% capacity uplift from 1TB to 1.6 TB IBM Enterprise Advanced WORM/Data media, JC/JY media, a capacity of 4.0 TB IBM Enterprise Economy Data media, JK media, a capacity of 500 GB Performance improvement The overall performance is increased by various improvements, such as the following examples: Improved data rate Larger 1 GB main data buffer Better backhitching Improved speed with digital speed matching Enhanced read-ahead buffer management High access performance for locate/search Improved communication links, with dual 8 Gbps fibre ports SkipSync and FastSync write performance accelerators New 32-channel enhanced ECC recording format Higher data rates Performance is improved from the TS1130 up to 64% in TS1140 mode, 50% in TS1130 mode for read and writes, and 50% in TS1120 mode for reads only: The E07 format data rates go up to 250 MBps maximum (native) and to 650 MBps maximum (compressed). The E06 format data rates go up to 200 MBps maximum (native) and to 650 MBps maximum (compressed). The E05 format data rates go up to 104 MBps maximum (native) and to 650 MBps maximum (compressed).1.1.12 Libraries System administrators are clamoring for technologies that help them to efficiently and economically manage the explosive growth in stored data. As the amount of data increases, the backup process takes longer and longer. The solution to this problem is to use a device that integrates the tape drive with a level of automation. The challenge is to choose the right solution in terms of size and automation level. System administrators industry-wide have recognized the need to automate the backup-and-restore process to the extent that it requires little or no human intervention. This method has become known as lights-out backup. This process can be done off-shift or concurrently with other applications during normal operations. Multidrive tape libraries are the only available technology to offer both reliability and low cost to make lights-out backup practical. The hardware options for automation are autoloaders and a range of multidrive automated tape libraries. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 17
  • 43. Autoloaders Autoloaders have one tape drive. Clients typically use autoloaders to access a small number of tapes once a day. Most autoloaders are designed for purely sequential operations. These units place little emphasis on performance. Automated tape libraries Automated tape libraries have one or more tape drives, but clients typically use them with at least two tape drives. All tape cartridges are accessible to all drives, thereby making concurrent reading and writing operations possible. You can increase throughput by adding additional drives. With automation eliminating the manual intervention to load tapes, file-restore response times are substantially improved. Tape libraries are mandatory for lights-out operations and other higher performance tape storage applications. Tape libraries also offer the security of knowing that other drives are available if one fails. Multidrive automated tape libraries and ultra-scalable tape libraries, combined with storage management software, including concurrent backup, archive, and hierarchical storage management (HSM), offer the most robust solution for managing and protecting huge amounts of corporate data. Automated tape libraries allow random access to large numbers of tape cartridges and the concurrent use of two or more drives, rather than manually loading one tape after another or using a single-drive sequential autoloader. Enterprise tape libraries Enterprise tape libraries are automated tape libraries that provide enhanced levels of automation, scalability, reliability, availability, and serviceability. They typically have the capacity to house dozens of drives and hundreds of tapes. Equipped with high-performance robotic mechanisms, barcode scanners, and support for cartridge I/O ports, these libraries often offer redundant components and a high degree of flexibility through a modular design. Certain models add support for multiple SCSI, Fibre Channel-Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL), Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP), and ESCON or FICON connections to allow connection to more than one host platform. The top of the line of the enterprise tape library products, such as the IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Tape Library 3494 and the IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library, can be shared between two or more heterogeneous host systems. All the hosts have access to the control functions of the tape library robotics. The library is shared in a physical way, with each system operating as though it really owns the entire library. TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex (Model SC1) The TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex enables extreme scalability of over 300,000 LTO cartridges (or over 900 PB of uncompressed TS1140 data) in a single library image by supporting transport of cartridges from one TS3500 Tape Library string to another TS3500 Tape Library string. Application software supporting this new capability can move tape cartridges directly from its home logical library to the destination logical library. Shuttle connections will span High Density TS3500 S24 or S54 frames from different TS3500 Tape Library strings. The TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex supports new and existing TS3500 Tape Library installations and is particularly well suited for High Performance Storage System (HPSS) environments. Note: At the time of this writing, HPSS is the only library management solution that supports the TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex.18 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 44. In order to meet the needs of large data center archives that have to store increasing amountsof data, the TS3500 Tape Library offers shuttle technology that enables flexible library growthon a z-axis. This growth flexibility, enabled by shuttle connections between HD libraries,allows a higher maximum capacity for a single library image of multiple TS3500 Tape Librarystrings. This flexibility also accommodates constrained data center layouts that do not haveroom to expand on the x-axis, as well as data centers with large archives that exceed themaximum cartridge count of an individual TS3500 Tape Library string.Drive sharing across library resourcesFigure 1-16 offers an illustration of the TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex showing thecapability of moving tapes from one library string to another by bypassing the intermediatelibrary strings in comparison to a traditional pass-through method. The TS3500 Tape Librarytransports tape cartridges in shuttle cars that pass over the libraries. This method oftransporting cartridges is called direct flight. With the direct flight capability, if there is no driveavailable in the home logical library, the cartridge is moved across a shuttle connection to alogical library with an available drive. This configuration of interconnected parallel librarystrings is called a shuttle complex.Figure 1-16 TS3500 Tape Library direct flight advantage versus pass through methodFor more information on the TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex, see 13.1.3, “TS3500Tape Library storage only frames S24 and S54” on page 560.HPSS exploits the TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle ComplexThe TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex extreme scalability of over 300,000 LTO cartridges(or over 900 PB of uncompressed TS1140 data) in a single library image can be exploited byapplications through the use of HPSS. Application software designed to use HPSS can movetape cartridges directly from its home logical library to the destination logical library. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 19
  • 45. High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is cluster-based software that manages petabytes of data on disk and robotic tape libraries. HPSS provides highly flexible and scalable hierarchical storage management that keeps recently used data on disk and less recently used data on tape. HPSS introduction High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is cluster-based software that provides for overall management and access of many petabytes of data. HPSS is capable of concurrently accessing hundreds of disk arrays and tape drives for extremely high aggregate data transfer rates, thus enabling HPSS to easily meet otherwise unachievable demands of total storage capacity, file sizes, data rates, and number of objects stored. HPSS has been used successfully for very large digital image libraries, scientific data repositories, university mass storage systems, and weather forecasting systems, as well as defense and national security applications. A High Performance Computing (HPC) system needs a high performance storage system, and that is what HPSS offers. HPSS is installed in some of the greatest HPC systems worldwide, like LANL Roadrunner, ORNL Jaguar, LLNL IBM Blue Gene/L®, just to name a few. HPSS is the result of the collaboration of these institutions: IBM Global Services in Houston, Texas Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratories The collaborative development is important because the developers are users of the technology. HPSS can provide an extremely scalable repository for content management software systems including the integrated Rule Oriented Data Systems (iRODS) and IBM FileNet®. HPSS can be used alone, with its own interfaces, or it can be used to provide space management and disaster recovery backup for the IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS™). HPSS technology HPSS provides a disk and tape file repository, using Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) technology with automatic migration and recall. A single instance of HPSS is capable of concurrently accessing hundreds of tapes for extremely high aggregate data transfers, making it highly scalable. HPSS users see it as a single UNIX file system. Its clustered architecture permits HPSS to scale horizontally almost without limits. This horizontal scaling is as easy as adding cluster components. HPSS architecture is presented in Figure 1-17 on page 2120 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 46. Figure 1-17 HPSS architecture HPSS is designed to move very large data objects between high performance computers, disks, and tape libraries. Speeds are limited only by the underlying computers, networks, and storage devices. HPSS can manage parallel data transfers from multiple network-connected disk arrays at hundreds of megabytes per second. These capabilities make possible new data-intensive applications such as high definition digitized video at rates sufficient to support real-time viewing. HPSS is able to harness the power of multiple computers into a single, integrated storage system. The computers that comprise the HPSS platform may be of different makes and models, yet the storage system appears to its clients as a single storage service with a unified name space. A central technical goal of HPSS is to move large files between storage devices and parallel or clustered computers at speeds many times faster than today’s commercial storage system software products, and to do this in a way that is more reliable and manageable than is possible with current systems’.Library components. For more details about HPSS, see 13.1.6, “High Performance Storage System (HPSS)” on page 582 or IBM System Storage Solutions Handbook, SG24-5250.1.2 SAN technologies A storage area network (SAN) is a high-speed network that enables the establishment of direct connections between storage devices and processors (servers) within the distance supported by Fibre Channel. You can view a SAN as an extension to the storage bus concept that enables storage devices and servers to be interconnected by using elements similar to local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). These elements include routers, hubs, switches, directors, and gateways. Although some of the aging technologies are not sold anymore they are still being used. You can share a SAN between servers or dedicate a SAN to one server. A SAN can be local or extended over geographical distances.1.2.1 Tiered overview In today’s SAN environment, the storage devices in the bottom tier are centralized and interconnected, which represents a move back to the main storage model of the host or Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 21
  • 47. mainframe. Figure 1-18 shows a tiered overview of a SAN connecting multiple servers to multiple storage systems. C lie n t C lie n t C lie n t C lie n t C lie n t C lie n t C lie n t N e tw o rk a n d L A N S W in d o w s S y s te m p S y s te m i U N IX S y s te m z S to ra g e A re a N e tw o rk Ta p e L ib r. F a s tT Ta p e ESS Figure 1-18 Overview of a SAN A SAN facilitates direct, high-speed data transfers between servers and storage devices, potentially in any of the following ways: Server to storage. This method is the traditional model of interaction with storage devices. The advantage is that the same storage device can be accessed serially or concurrently by multiple servers. Server to server. A client can use a SAN for high-speed, high-volume communications between servers. Storage to storage. This outboard data movement capability enables the movement of data without server intervention, freeing up server processor cycles for other activities such as application processing. Examples include a disk device backing up its data to a tape device without server intervention or a remote device mirroring across the SAN.1.2.2 Tape solutions in a SAN environment Connectivity to tape is essential for most backup processes. However, manual tape operations and tape handling are expensive. Studies show that automation of tape processing saves money and increases reliability. Enterprises have long had to use staff to remove these tapes, transport them to a storage site, and then return them to the tape drive for mounting when necessary. Client tape planning initiatives are directed at more efficient utilization of drives and libraries and at minimization of manual labor associated with tape processing. The biggest challenges with SCSI tape implementations are the limited cable length and the limited possibilities to share drives between several systems. For LVD SCSI, the total cable length is limited to 25 m (82 ft.) using point-to-point interconnection (such as one host connected to only one tape drive). With multidrop interconnection (one host connected to more than one tape drive on the same SCSI bus), the total cable length is 12 m (39.4 ft.) for LVD SCSI and 25 m (82 ft.) for High Voltage Differential (HVD) SCSI. Most SCSI tape drives currently have only one SCSI port and, therefore, can only be attached on one SCSI bus. This method severely limits the number of hosts that can physically use the drive without recabling.22 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 48. SANs enable greater connectivity of the tape libraries and tape drives and enable tapesharing. With Fibre Channel, the distance between the server (or data point) and theconnected tape node can be up to 10 km. Fibre Channel enables multiple host scenarioswithout recabling.If software to manage tape-drive sharing is unavailable, you must isolate (or zone) the drivesto unique hosts by using functions that are commonly available on SAN gateways or switches.With the proper management software, each drive can communicate with each host, andconnections can be dynamic without recabling.Backup solutions can use SAN technology several ways to reduce the costs of theirimplementation while increasing their performance.Sharing tape devices in a SAN environmentThe tape world has three distinct means of sharing: Library sharing Drive sharing Media sharingLibrary sharingLibrary sharing occurs when multiple servers that are attached to a tape library share both thelibrary and the robotics. Tape drives within the library might or might not be shared (pooled)among the attached servers. Tape library sharing is a prerequisite for tape-drive sharing.Drive sharingThe sharing of one or more tape drives among multiple servers is called drive sharing. Toshare drives between heterogeneous applications within a tape library, the tape library mustprovide multiple paths to the robotics and must be able to define the drives and slots of alibrary as multiple logical libraries. The server attached to each logical library has noknowledge of any drives or slots outside the logical library.Media sharingMedia sharing today is possible only in a homogeneous environment, between servers thatuse the same backup server, and the same library to back up their data. For systems that arenot backed up by the same backup server, it is only possible to share a tape scratch pool.Figure 1-19 on page 24 shows an example of the multipath architecture of the TS3500 TapeLibrary. Every drive can have a path defined to the SCSI Medium Changer (SMC).The library on the left has been partitioned into three logical libraries. In the IBM AIX andMicrosoft Windows partitions, only the first drive has a defined library control path.The IBM System i® was unique in that every input/output processor (IOP) or input/outputadapter (IOA) must have a library control path defined for V5R1. When you install V5R2, oneFC adapter can support up 16 LUNs. The System i attached to the library on the left has twoSCSI buses and, therefore, two library control paths defined. These three servers share theTS3500 Tape Library (3584) but not the drives.The library on the right has not been partitioned and has only one logical library. EverySystem i SCSI bus has a library control path defined to allow control of the TS3500 TapeLibrary robotics.The System i servers attached to the right library also share the library even though it has notbeen partitioned. Through Backup Recovery Media Services (BRMS), the System i serversshare the library and media. They are not performing tape-drive pooling. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 23
  • 49. FRAME CONTROLLER FRAME CONTROLLER (SCSI Medium Changer) (SCSI Medium Changer) System i w BRMS DRIVE DRIVE Logical 1 1 to Host 1 to Host 1 Library 1 DRIVE DRIVE System i 2 2 to Host 2 DRIVE DRIVE 3 to Host 2 Logical 3 Logical Library Library 2 DRIVE 1 DRIVE 4 4 Windows to Host 3 DRIVE DRIVE 5 to Host 3 5 Logical Library 3 DRIVE DRIVE System p 6 6 Max hosts in Max hosts Multiple hosts "owning" separate frame = Multiple hosts sharing one in library = logical library inventories and drives number of logical library inventory number of drives in the drives in the frame library Figure 1-19 TS3500 Tape Library (3584) multipath architecture IBM LTO Tape Drives in a SAN environment The IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives are available with a Fibre Channel interface for either point-to-point or FC-AL attachment. These options removed the need to use a SAN data gateway. The device can be attached directly to SAN switches, FC-AL hubs or HBA. In each case, a server requires a supported Fibre Channel host bus adapter (HBA) to connect to the tape drives. Backup software for SAN environments Implementing backup solutions in a SAN topology requires software developed to enable sharing tape drives at a logical level. This software has the following major benefits: Direct connection of the tape drive to the server for high speed Sharing the drive with another server to save money Electronic vaulting for disaster recovery Another important aspect of using tape in a SAN is the opportunity to use tape connectivity for disaster recovery enhancements. Today, most enterprises take their tape backups off-site for disaster recovery. The tape is created in a locally attached tape library, then ejected from the library, and finally removed to an off-site location. This process requires manual intervention and is error-prone. A major reason for failed recoveries is a misplaced tape. Fibre Channel SANs enable the backup server to create tapes easily and safely in a remotely attached tape library, which is a method called electronic vaulting. Electronic vaulting removes all of the manual effort, because the tape is already off-site and prevents a major cause of disaster-recovery failure. Currently, most enterprises staff tape operations to handle the tapes as they come and go from off-site storage. Because Fibre Channel allows for greater distances, it becomes much easier to put a remote tape library at another location to24 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 50. create the backup tape copy. By using this method, which is shown in Figure 1-20, no manualhandling is necessary. FC Extender FC Extender Remote Tape Library LAN SAN Backup Server Local Tape LibraryFigure 1-20 Electronic vaultingLAN-free backupSAN technology provides an alternative path for data movement between the backup clientand the server. Shared storage resources, such as disk and tape, are accessible to both theclient and the server through the SAN. Data movement is offloaded from the LAN and fromthe server processor and allows for greater scalability. LAN-free backups decrease the loadon the LAN.IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Storage Area Networks enables LAN-free data movement.There are third party products that have LAN-free backup function. Tivoli Storage Managerwill be used in this section to explain the LAN-free backup concept. The Tivoli StorageManager client data moves directly to and from a storage device attached to a SAN. A TivoliStorage Manager Storage Agent is installed on the client machine and shares storageresources with the Tivoli Storage Manager server. The Storage Agent can write directly tostorage media in a format that is consistent with the format used by the server. The TivoliStorage Manager server or servers control the storage devices and keep track of the data thatthe client has stored. Tivoli Storage Manager continues to use a LAN connection to exchangecontrol information, such as policy information and data about the backed up objects. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 25
  • 51. Using the SAN for client data movement decreases the load on the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server and allows the server to support a greater number of simultaneous client connections as illustrated in Figure 1-21. TSM Clients - Storage Agent Disk Tape Library LAN SAN TSM Library Manager Server Figure 1-21 Tivoli Storage Manager LAN-free backup The Storage Agent communicates with the server by using the LAN to obtain and store database information and to coordinate device and volume access. The server determines whether the client is requesting access to storage for which the client has a defined SAN path. If a SAN path is defined, the client (with the Storage Agent) transfers data on that path. If a failure occurs on the SAN path, failover occurs, and the client uses its LAN connection to the Tivoli Storage Manager server and moves the client data over the LAN.1.3 Tape virtualization for Open Systems A virtual tape library is a unique blend of several storage tiers. The life cycle of data starts with its creation at the server tier, then migrates by backup software to a virtual tape library tier. You now have many options for the data because the virtual tape library is a combination of high performance SAN-attached disk and high performance servers running Linux, emulating a tape storage device. With disk prices falling and the need to recover data quickly increasing, more organizations have started adopting disk as a viable alternative to slower, more resource-intensive magnetic tape in their backup and recovery environments. Any business that has a need for high performance backup and restore might need virtualization solutions. Only the disk storage tier can provide instant access backup/restore capabilities. All backup software products were designed to back up data to tape drives and libraries, and a virtual tape library emulates tape. You can go directly to a virtual tape library and have your backups completed quickly. Virtual tape libraries fill a void in the backup infrastructure for data that needs to be restored at a certain moment. Most restores often happen within six weeks of the data being backed up. Backup software can be configured to back up data to a virtual tape library and then create a tape-to-tape virtual copy for off-site deployment. It is no longer necessary to call the tapes back from an off-site location, unless data is required from years past. However, to meet the requirements of the enterprise data center, a virtual tape library must do more than simply reduce storage requirements. To be viable, it must maintain high sustained throughput performance and meet the availability demands of the enterprise. The TS7650G26 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 52. deduplication gateway from IBM is an example of a deduplicating virtual tape library that meets the demands of the enterprise data center. It is the first solution that supports a cluster of two nodes while sustaining high performance, inline deduplication. The case of virtual tape libraries Virtual tape libraries are used in the same way that physical tape devices are used. The virtual tape library is inserted as a staging area between the first-line disk devices and the tape libraries. From then on, it appears to the backup and recovery software to be a physical tape library with physical drives. This placement changes the physical paradigm for backups from disk-to-tape to disk-to-disk-to-tape (D2D2T), a shift that has interesting consequences. All virtual tape libraries perform the same basic functions, serving as a disk-based target for the backup process, and offering rapid recoveries from local disk-based storage. However, all virtual tape libraries are not equal. Users of first-generation virtual tape libraries, which use a disk-to-disk (D2D) backup model, found that as their data protection needs increased, they ran out of disk capacity quickly. Additionally, many virtual tape libraries provide value through additional features such as encryption, compression, and data deduplication. Using virtual tapes for backup reduces failure rates, allows for smaller backup windows, and significantly speeds up recovery. The virtual tape library solution offers the following benefits: Increased restore speed Reduced cost of online storage Improved reliability of the storage environment Assured data security Reduced time spent managing backups1.3.1 ProtecTIER virtual tape The IBM ProtecTIER Virtual Tape service emulates traditional tape libraries. By using this tool, you can move to disk backup without having to replace your entire backup environment. Your existing backup application can access virtual robots to move virtual cartridges between virtual slots and virtual drives. The backup application perceives that the data is being stored on cartridges while ProtecTIER actually stores data on a deduplicated disk repository on the storage fabric. Figure 1-22 illustrates the concept of virtual tape. Figure 1-22 ProtecTIER virtual tape concept Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 27
  • 53. In addition, tape virtualization ProtecTIER provides two main features: Data deduplication ProtecTIER native replication Each of these features brings its own set of options to customize to your environment. The ProtecTIER software is configured by and ordered from IBM or its business partners. The order includes the ProtecTIER and the ProtecTIER Manager GUI application.1.3.2 Data deduplication While virtual tape libraries are now a fundamental element of the data center infrastructure, the growth of data under management is outpacing the ability of most firms to add disk capacity to their virtual tape libraries. This phenomenon has led to a strong demand for data deduplication. Data deduplication is a technology that finds and eliminates redundant data within a disk repository. The effect is a dramatic increase in the usable capacity of a given disk pool. By combining this powerful technology with virtual tape libraries, firms can store and retain far more data than they were previously able to, while saving significantly on disk storage costs. Data deduplication refers to the elimination of redundant data. In the deduplication process, duplicate data is deleted, leaving only one copy of the data to be stored. However, indexing of all data is still retained if that data is ever required. Deduplication can reduce the required storage capacity because only unique data is stored. This task is achieved by storing a single copy of data that is backed up repetitively. Data deduplication can provide greater data reduction than previous technologies, such as Lempel-Ziv (LZ) compression and differencing, which is used for differential backups. By reducing the amount of data under management, data centers reduce the amount of hardware required, thus decreasing operational expenses for power and cooling. Data centers also reduce tape media costs and make it easier for storage administrators to cope with drastic increases in raw data and increased complexity in the rest of their storage infrastructures. Figure 1-23 illustrates the basic components of data deduplication for the IBM System Storage TS7650 ProtecTIER server. Figure 1-23 Deduplication concept28 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 54. With data deduplication, data is read by the data deduplication system, which breaks the data into elements or chunks. The deduplication process creates a signature or identifier for each data element. Whether using inline or post processing data deduplication, data element signature values are compared to identify duplicate data. After the duplicate data is identified, one copy of each element is retained, pointers are created for the duplicate items, and the duplicate items are not stored. The effectiveness of data deduplication depends upon many variables, including the rate of data change, the number of backups, and the data retention period. For example, if you back up the same uncompressible data once a week for six months, you save the first copy and do not save the next 24, which provides a 25:1 data deduplication ratio. If you back up an uncompressible file in week one, back up the exact same file again in week two and never back it up again, you have a 2:1 deduplication ratio. A more likely scenario is that some portion of your data changes from backup to backup so that your data deduplication ratio changes over time. For example, you take weekly full and daily differential incremental backups. Your data change rate for the full backups is 15%, and your daily incrementals are 30%. After 30 days, your deduplication ratio might be around 6:1. However, if you kept your backups up to 180 days, your deduplication ratio might increase to 10:1. Different data deduplication products use different methods of breaking up the data into elements, but each product uses a technique to create a signature or identifier for each data element. The IBM TS7650 uses the HyperFactor® Deduplication Engine to perform high-speed pattern matching.1.3.3 HyperFactor The cornerstone of ProtecTIER is HyperFactor, the IBM technology that deduplicates data inline as it is received from the backup application. The bandwidth efficient replication, inline performance, and scalability of ProtecTIER directly stem from the technological breakthroughs inherent in HyperFactor. HyperFactor is based on a series of algorithms that identify and filter out the elements of a data stream that were stored by ProtecTIER. IBM HyperFactor uses its algorithms to perform high-speed pattern matching, identifying, and eliminating of instances of duplicate data. This method reduces the total amount of stored data (and thus the need to buy additional storage) by up to 25:1, depending on the environment. HyperFactor can reduce any duplicate data, regardless of its location or how recently it was stored. Unlike hash-based techniques, HyperFactor finds duplicate data without needing exact matches of chunks of data. When new data is received, HyperFactor checks to see whether similar data has already been stored. If so, only the difference between the new data and previously stored data must be retained. This technique of finding duplicate data performs well. With this approach, HyperFactor can surpass the reduction ratios that are attainable by any other data reduction method.1.3.4 TS7650G ProtecTIER deduplication gateway The IBM System Storage TS7650G is a preconfigured virtualization solution of IBM systems, and the IBM ProtecTIER data deduplication software is designed to improve backup and recovery operations. A single node or two-node cluster configuration is designed to meet the disk-based data protection needs of a wide variety of IT environments. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 29
  • 55. IBM System Storage TS7650G, comprising 3958-DD4 hardware combined with IBM System Storage ProtecTIER Enterprise Edition V3.1 software, offers the data deduplication technology. Note: ProtecTIER software is ordered with the TS7650G order, but it is shipped separately. TS7650G ProtecTIER Deduplication Gateway (3958-DD4) features The TS7650G, comprising the 3958-DD4 hardware combined with IBM System Storage ProtecTIER Enterprise Edition software, is designed to address the data protection needs of enterprise data centers. The solution offers high performance, high capacity, scalability, and a choice of disk-based targets for backup and archive data. The TS7650G offers: Inline data deduplication powered by HyperFactorTM technology A multicore virtualization and deduplication engine Clustering support for higher performance and high availability Fibre Channel ports for host and server connectivity Performance of up to 2 GBps or more sustained inline deduplication (two-node clusters depending on the configuration of attached disks) Virtual tape emulation of up to 16 virtual tape libraries per single node or two-node cluster configuration and up to 512 virtual tape drives per two-node cluster or 256 virtual tape drives per single node Emulation of the TS3500 Tape Library with IBM LTO Ultrium 3 tape drives Emulation of the Quantum P3000 tape library with DLT7000 tape drives or IBM LTO Ultrium 2 tape drives Emulation of the IBM DTC VTF® 0100 virtual tape libraries with DLT7000 tape drives or IBM LTO Ultrium 2 tape drives Scales up to 1 PB of physical storage over 25 PB of user data (depending on your deduplication ratio) VTL or OST configuration (refer to “Virtual tape library concept” on page 672 or 14.7, “ProtecTIER OpenStorage (OST)” on page 694 to learn more. Both modes cannot be run on the same 3958-DD4 system.) TS3000 System Console (TSSC) The TS7650G is an enterprise-class data protection platform designed to quickly and safely protect business information while reducing the amount of space required to store it. Deploying the TS7650G can help you more efficiently protect your corporate data on disk-based storage while helping you manage the exponential growth of new data through reduction and elimination of duplicate data in your backups. The use of disk cache as a deduplicated storage pool with existing backup applications offers a potentially lower total cost of ownership than conventional disk. To facilitate backup applications that are designed for use with tape storage, the TS7650G emulates a traditional tape library unit, so deployment does not force any changes to your existing data protection processes. For more information about the TS7650G, see 14.3, “TS7650G ProtecTIER Deduplication Gateway” on page 675.30 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 56. 1.3.5 TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance The IBM System Storage TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance is a preconfigured virtualization solution of IBM storage, IBM systems, and the IBM revolutionary ProtecTIER data deduplication software designed to improve backup and recovery operations. This is not just a bundle of components, but a truly integrated solution that makes it easy to harness the power of deduplication without making radical changes to the existing environment. The solution is available in four configurations designed to meet the disk-based data protection needs of a wide variety of organizations, from mid-sized IT environments to enterprise data centers. TS7650 Deduplication Appliance components These are terms for the IBM self-contained virtualization solution from the IBM System Storage TS7600 family that includes a disk storage repository. The TS7650 Appliance consists of the following components: Server The 3958-AP1 system is based on an IBM System x3850 X5 Type 7145. When used as a server in the TS7650 Appliance, its machine type and model are 3958-AP1. Use this machine type and model for service purposes. System console The system console is a TS3000 System Console (TSSC). This document uses the terms system console and TSSC interchangeably. Disk controller The disk controller is an IBM System Storage DS5020 Express®. When used as a disk controller in the TS7650 Appliance, its machine type and model are 1814-70H. Use this machine type and model for service purposes. Disk expansion module The disk expansion module is an IBM System Storage DS4000® EXP810 Storage Expansion Unit. When used as a disk expansion module in the TS7650 Appliance, its machine type and the IBM disk expansion module are an IBM System Storage DS4000 EXP810 Storage Expansion Unit. Each expansion unit supports sixteen 450 GB (15K rpm), 4 Gbps, fibre channel disk drive modules (dams). Note: All components are mounted in and shipped in an IBM 36U rack unit. TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance features The IBM System Storage TS7650 Appliance offers many features that can create savings in physical storage, processing, and network bandwidth. Main features are: IBM ProtecTIER with patented HyperFactor Data deduplication technology ProtecTIER native replication technology IBM System x® server for enterprise-level performance IBM Storage Controller with highly reliable Fibre Channel drives Rack, cables, and other components needed to provide a complete solution Up to 500 MBps or more inline data deduplication performance Up to 25 times or more storage capacity reduction Emulation of up to 12 virtual libraries, 256 virtual drives, and 128,000 virtual cartridges Preconfigured with a DS5020 for storage repositories Simplified configuration and deployment VTL or OST configuration (cannot run both modes on the same 3958-AP1 system) Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 31
  • 57. Available models IBM System Storage TS7650 Appliance is available in the four configurations shown in Table 1-1.Table 1-1 Available models Size of repository 7 TB 18 TB 36 TB 36 TB configuration configuration configuration two-node configuration Nominal capacitya 175 TB 450 TB 900 TB 900 TB Maximum throughput Up to 100MBps Up to 250MBps Up to 500MBps Up to 500MBps a. Based on deduplication ratio of 25:1 For more information about the TS7650, see 14.4, “TS7650 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance” on page 683.1.3.6 TS7610 ProtecTIER Deduplication SMB Appliance The IBM System Storage TS7610 ProtecTIER Deduplication Appliance Express (TS7610 Appliance) is a client installable data deduplication and replication solution that compresses and stores backup data within the TS7610. It can be configured to run either as a Virtual Tape Library or an OpenStorage system The TS7610 Appliance uses IBM technology and software to emulate a TS3500 Tape Library unit containing IBM Ultrium LTO-3 tape drives. This emulation capability is designed to help you achieve the following operational and throughput efficiencies: Backup window reduction Restoration time reduction Direct access to the information Data sharing and resource virtualization optimization Operational efficiency Improved sharing of virtual tape libraries across applications and servers TS7610 hardware components The TS7610 Appliance consists of the left and right slide rails, support tray, and cable management assembly; an external USB DVD drive, and the 3959-SM1 server (Figure 14-13 on page 689 and Figure 14.4 on page 683). The shelf rail kit occupies an additional 1U rack space (3U in total frame space). The TS7610 Appliance provides two different capacity models: Small TS7610 Appliance repository binary capacity of 4 TiB (refer to the Appendix D, “Data Storage values” on page 891 to learn more about storage size). This configuration is ideal for clients with 500 GB or less incremental backups per day and has average data growth. Medium TS7610 Appliance repository binary capacity of 5.4 TiB. This configuration is ideal for clients with 1 TB or less incremental backups per day and 1 TB to 3 TB full backups each week with average to rapid data growth. A TS7610 small model of 4.0 TiB capacity can be upgraded to a 5.4 TiB model by a software upgrade; no additional hardware is required.32 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 58. The 3959-SM1 Appliance server has the following components: One quad core 2.33 GHz Intel XEON processor Twelve 1 TB SATA hard disk drives (HDDs) Two power supplies RAID battery backup unit Six 4 GB Dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) Dual-port 4 Gb Emulex fiber channel host bus adapter (for VTL) Dual-port 1 Gb Ethernet adapter (for OST) For more information about the TS7610, see14.5, “TS7610 ProtecTIER Deduplication SMB Appliance” on page 687.1.4 Linear Tape File System (LTFS) IBM is addressing the growing needs of marketplace segments such as Media and Entertainment by introduction of the first release of Linear Tape File System (LTFS) in 2010. IBM developed LTFS Single Drive Edition (SDE) to enable a self describing cartridge that is based on dual partition in the LTO-5 technology. LTFS is a true file system that makes tape look and work like any removable media. LTFS SDE is available as a free download from Fix Central for single LTO-5 tape drives. In May of 2011 IBM announced IBM LTFS Library Edition (LE) system support for tape automation for TS3100, TS3200 and TS3500 Tape Libraries. IBM followed up in July of 2011 by announcing support for TS2900 Tape Autoloader and TS3310 Tape Library. LTFS LE provides the ability to create a single file system mount point for a logical library managed by a single instance of LTFS, running on a single computer system. In addition, it provides for caching of tape indices, and for searching, querying, and displaying tape contents within an IBM tape library without the requirement to mount tape cartridges. LTFS LE for LTO-5 tape drives can be ordered as PID software base order number 5639-LT1.1.4.1 LTFS Single Drive Edition LTFS is the first file system that works in conjunction with LTO generation 5 tape technology to set a new standard for ease-of-use and portability for open systems tape storage. This drive is the first LTO generation to introduce Media Partitioning, which allows LTO-5 media to be divided in segments, improving accessibility by providing the ability to quickly locate data to retrieve or update. IBM has created LTFS as a self-describing tape file system on standard format to implement a true file system for tape. LTFS SDE is a self-describing tape format (SDTF) and open source file system software. Combined with LTO-5 partitioning technology, it brings functionality for easy handling of the tape drives. LTFS can write files directly to tape media without any specific application. The tape drive shows up on the operating system as though it were a USB-attached drive. With LTFS file manager, reading data on a tape cartridge is as easy as dragging and dropping. Users can run any application designed for disk files against tape data without concern for the fact that the data is physically stored on tape. Figure 1-24 shows how easy it is to manage the files stored on the LTO-5 cartridge by using the LTFS graphical user interface. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 33
  • 59. Figure 1-24 LTFS SDE overview For more information about LTFS SDE, see Chapter 4, “IBM System Storage LTFS Single Drive Edition” on page 157.1.4.2 LTFS Library Edition The recent announcement of IBM System Storage LTFS LE extends the File Manager capability of LTFS SDE. Built on the LTO Ultrium 5 format standard, LTFS LE provides a direct, intuitive, graphical access to data stored in IBM tape drives and libraries using LTO generation 5 tape cartridges. Also, the TS1140 Tape Drive supports partitioned media and will support LTFS LE on a TS3500 Tape Library. LTFS LE benefits: The graphical user interface helps reduce complexity by enabling an icon-based view of an LTO-5 library, including tape cartridges and files using the operating systems file manager. Helps reduce costs because it does not require any additional tape management software or utilities. The file system API of the operating system is utilized to provide a basic read/write interface to the tape library for applications without any additional operating system enhancements like “plugins” or service packs. “Mount-less” cartridge inquiry for fast access is achieved once the tape library is inventoried. Tape cartridges do not have to be remounted to retrieve content index data, and basic cartridge information like volume name, serial number, and so on. LTFS LE software can be ordered concurrently with hardware or as software only for installed supported tape libraries.34 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 60. Figure 1-25 shows how LTFS LE presents the tapes in the library as folders.Figure 1-25 LTFS LE view of tape foldersLTFS LE supports the following IBM Tape Libraries and Tape Autoloader: TS2900 Tape Autoloader TS3100 Tape Library TS3200 Tape Library TS3310 Tape Library TS3500 Tape LibraryFor more information about LTFS LE, see Chapter 5, “IBM System Storage LTFS LibraryEdition” on page 231. Chapter 1. Tape technology introduction 35
  • 61. 36 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 62. 2 Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives The Linear Tape-Open (LTO) program was conceived as a joint initiative of IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Seagate Technology. In 1997, the three technology provider companies set out to enable the development of best-of-breed tape storage products by consolidating state-of-the-art technologies from numerous sources. In November 1997, they produced a joint press release about LTO technology. The three technology provider companies for LTO technology are now Hewlett-Packard (HP), IBM Corporation, and Quantum. In the tape storage industry, the member companies saw a common set of problems affecting clients in the midrange and network server areas. Multiple tape options were available, each offering certain strengths in terms of capacity, performance, data integrity, reliability, and cost, but no single option seemed to meet all of these client needs effectively. The objective of the LTO technology established new open-format specifications for high-capacity, high-performance tape storage products for use in the midrange and network server computing environments and to enable superior tape product options. This chapter provides information about the LTO format specifications in general terms, including first, second, third, fourth, and fifth generation Ultrium. The documented LTO specification includes information referring to the data cartridge, the format in which data is written, elements of the drive specification relating to that format, and the compression algorithm description. This information applies to all product offerings of LTO manufacturers to ensure cartridge interchangeability. The information in this chapter that relates to the LTO Ultrium drive also relates to the IBM LTO Ultrium drive. It might differ from information from other manufacturers in regard to features, such as data rate and reliability. This chapter includes the following sections: The LTO organization Tape encryption overview IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Half-High Tape Drive IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High Tape Drive IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 highlights, including IBM Version 2 (V2) enhancements for Half-High models.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. 37
  • 63. 2.1 The LTO organization For marketing, technical, and licensing details for the Linear Tape-Open program, refer to the following websites: http://www.lto-technology.com http://www.ultrium.com2.1.1 Overview Two LTO formats (Ultrium and Accelis) were introduced in 1997, and licenses for the new technology were made available. Since then, the Accelis format has not been actively pursued by manufacturers, because it is apparent that the Ultrium format meets market needs. The three LTO sponsoring companies also took steps to protect client investment by providing an Eight-Generation Roadmap that illustrates native capacity (Figure 2-1). They also established an infrastructure to enable compatibility between products. At the time of writing this book, five generations were available. Important: Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Quantum reserve the right to change the information in this migration path without notice.Figure 2-1 Eight-Generation Roadmap1 The LTO Ultrium compatibility investment protection is provided based on these principles: An Ultrium drive is expected to read data from a cartridge in its own generation and at least the two previous generations. An Ultrium drive is expected to write data to a cartridge in its own generation and to a cartridge from the immediate previous generation in the format of that generation. For information about compatibility among the available Ultrium 1, Ultrium 2, Ultrium 3, Ultrium 4 and Ultrium 5 media, see 2.6.1, “IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compatibility” on page 90.1 Ultrium LTO FAQ: http://www.lto.org/About/faq.html38 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 64. The three technology provider companies (HP, IBM, and Quantum) have all made significantcontributions of time and expertise to the definition of the LTO format specifications. All threecompanies have deep knowledge of client needs. They have provided expert knowledge andengineering skill in the critical areas of magnetic recording technology, mechanism design,media materials, and cartridge design. This cooperative process has created stronger LTOformat definitions than any of the individual companies might have developed working alone.Open licensing and manufacturingTo answer industry calls for open-tape format specifications, LTO format specifications havebeen made available to all who want to participate through standard licensing provisions.More than 30 companies, including HP, IBM, and Quantum, have become LTO technologylicensees. The licensees include an impressive array of worldwide storage industry leaders,including the following companies: Accutronics Incorporated Advanced Research Corporation Alps Electric Company Limited Atmel Corporation EDP/Colorflex EMag Solutions Exabyte Corporation FalconStor FujiFilm Corporation Fujitsu Ltd./FCPA Intellistor Hewlett-Packard Company Hi/fn HiStor Hitachi Computer Peripherals IBM Corporation Imation Corporation M4 Data Limited Matsushita Electric Industry Maxell Mitsumi Electric Company Limited Mountain Engineering II Incorporated NEC Corporation NXP Otari Incorporated Ontrack Data International Overland Storage Plasmon IDE Incorporated Quantegy Incorporated Quantum Corporation Sony Corporation Spectra Logic Sun Tandberg Data TDK Corporation Toray Verbatim CorporationIn attracting these other industry-leading companies, LTO program technology and LTOspecified products (tape drives and tape storage cartridges) can reach the market from multiplemanufacturers, not just the technology provider companies. This availability is critical to meetingan open market objective and is accomplished through open licensing of the technology. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 39
  • 65. License packages Three combinations of packages are available for potential licensees: Ultrium Specification Document provides the opportunity to review the Ultrium format specification with minimal investment and is suitable for companies that are interested in a feasibility investigation. Ultrium Tape Cartridge License Package is for companies that are only interested in designing Ultrium tape cartridges. Ultrium Tape Mechanism License Package enables licensees to design Ultrium Tape Drive mechanisms. Each license package contains one or all of the following types of documents: Format specification documentation provides technical information about the format that is necessary to develop mechanisms and cartridges that interchange between products of the same format. License documentation provides additional technical information about tolerance interdependencies and interchange verification testing. It also provides a conceptual overview of the design. The trademark style guide describes the use of the Ultrium trademarks and logos. Figure 2-2 shows examples of LTO Ultrium logos. Figure 2-2 Ultrium logo examples More information: For more detailed information about packages, documentation, and licensing, see the following LTO web pages: http://www.ultrium.com/licensing/process.html http://www.lto-technology.com/licensing/index.html Compliance verification The technical strategy for accomplishing format compliance verification among the licensees has been defined, and an independent Compliance Verification Entity (CVE) has been selected. To promote interchangeability of tape cartridges, a third-party verification test company has been enlisted to perform specification compliance verification testing. These tests are required annually for all companies that use the logo. The objective of the compliance testing is to test only the ability to produce, read, or write Ultrium cartridges that meet the format specifications. The objective of this format compliance testing is not to evaluate Ultrium drive quality, mean time before failure (MTBF), physical form factor, or other parameters that are not directly related to the LTO program formats and interchangeability. LTO program licensees have wide latitude to establish their own mechanical, electrical, and logical designs to meet the format specifications. These factors are not tested as part of the compliance verification process.40 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 66. 2.1.2 LTO standards LTO technology was originally developed for two open-tape format specifications: Accelis and Ultrium. The Accelis format (fast-access) is not being developed, because the Ultrium format provides adequate fast-access performance. LTO core technology Multichannel linear serpentine recording is at the core of the LTO formats. It enables an optimum balance of reliability and data integrity, performance, and high capacity. In the LTO recording format, data is written in tracks that run down the length of the tape. The LTO Ultrium 5 format records on 1280 tracks across the ½-inch tape width. This linear recording format has a serpentine characteristic. The drive mechanism makes multiple passes from the beginning of the tape to the end of the tape and back to read or write the full capacity of the cartridge. In the LTO Ultrium 5 format, the 1280 tracks are split into four bands of 320 tracks each. Table 2-1 shows the values for the previous LTO generations. Table 2-1 Data tracks, density, and channels LTO generation Data tracks Tracks/band Linear density Read/write channels Ultrium 1 384 96 124 kbpi 8 Ultrium 2 512 128 188 kbpi 8 Ultrium 3 704 176 250 kbpi 16 Ultrium 4 896 224 328 kbpi 16 Ultrium 5 1280 320 368 kbpi 16 Data is written to the innermost bands first to provide protection to the data recorded earliest in the process, by writing it in the center, which is the most physically stable area on the tape. Data is also verified as it is written. On the first pass of a round trip down the length of the tape and back, 16 tracks (see the “Read/write channels” column in Table 2-1) at LTO Ultrium 5 are concurrently read or written. At the end of the tape, the second pass of the round-trip starts. The read/write heads are indexed and positioned over 16 new tracks, and the tape reverses direction back toward the beginning of the tape to complete the round trip. For the next round trip, the heads are again indexed to a new position over a new group of 16 tracks. Because track densities (Table 2-1) are high and because the tape is subject to lateral movement as it is moved, for performance and data integrity, the read/write heads must always be positioned precisely over the correct tracks. This positioning is accomplished by using the timing-based servo technique. This technique makes it possible to use high track densities, now and in the future, without changing the format of the media. This technique also provides the ability to read data, even with media imperfections. In the LTO system, electronic signals are generated through the real-time reading of servo data bands that are prerecorded on the LTO tape. These signals enable the servo system to dynamically control the positioning of the read/write heads across the width of the tape. Similar magnetically based, track-following servo systems are used successfully in tens of thousands of tape drives that are in use today, such as the IBM TotalStorage 3590 Tape Drive (IBM 3590) and IBM TotalStorage 3592 Tape Drive (IBM 3592). The LTO formats also use advanced error correction codes for data integrity. These systems automatically correct most cross-track errors and provide data correction even if a full track is lost. Data is further protected by the demarcation of bad areas of the tape (for example, where servo signals are unreliable) and through dynamically rewriting bad blocks. Cartridge Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 41
  • 67. memory is embedded in the LTO cartridges. A noncontacting radio frequency module, with nonvolatile memory capacity of 8192 bytes for Ultrium 4 and Ultrium 5 and 4096 for LTO Ultrium 3, provides for storage and retrieval. Ultrium tape formats Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4 show the IBM Ultrium cartridges, which you can distinguish by color. The first-generation IBM Ultrium LTO cartridge is black; the second generation is purple; the third generation is slate-blue; the fourth generation is green; and the fifth generation is burgundy. The IBM Write Once Read Many (WORM) cartridges are two-tone cartridges with a platinum bottom. The top is like the normal LTO Ultrium cartridges. For the third generation of IBM WORM cartridges, the top is slate-blue; for the fourth generation, the top is green; and for the fifth generation, the top is burgundy. Figure 2-3 Generations of IBM LTO Ultrium tape cartridges Figure 2-4 IBM LTO Ultrium 3 WORM tape cartridges The Ultrium tape format specification is the implementation of LTO optimized for high capacity and performance with outstanding reliability, in either a stand-alone or automated environment. The Ultrium cartridge uses a larger single-reel design (Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4) and ½-inch tape to provide ultra-high storage capacity. The tape is extracted from the cartridge by the tape drive through a leader pin and is wound onto a take-up reel contained within the drive itself. This design is focused on client requirements for high42 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 68. capacity and performance and is ideally suited for backup, restore, and archive applications.Ultrium drive technology is intended to meet the needs of the enterprise on a road map, ormigration path, that extends well into the future. The Ultrium tape format establishes a newbenchmark for large volume backup and archive.WORM tape formatBeginning with LTO Ultrium format generation 3, WORM functionality provides fornonerasable, nonrewritable operation with tape media and is designed for long-term,tamper-resistant record retention. LTO Ultrium 4 and Ultrium 5 drives provide the sameWORM capability.The format specification for WORM for LTO Ultrium generations includes low-level encodingin the cartridge memory and is mastered into the servo pattern as part of the manufacturingprocess. This encoding is designed to prevent tampering.Data can be appended at the end of a WORM cartridge to which data was previously writtenallowing the full use of the high-capacity tape media.Interleaved recordingThe LTO drive uses an interleaved, serpentine, longitudinal recording format. The first set of 8or 16 data tracks is written from near the physical beginning of the tape to near the physicalend of the tape. The head then repositions to the next set of tracks for the return. This processcontinues until all tracks are written and the tape is full.The format of the recording of the data and servo tracks is defined as part of the LTOspecification to meet the requirement for interchange among implementations of differentmanufacturers.Servo tracksServo tracks (also called servo bands) enable accurate positioning of the tape drive head overthe data track, ensuring that the head does not stray onto an adjacent track. They arenecessary to support high-data densities on the tape where the tracks are extremely closetogether. The servo bands are written when the cartridge is manufactured, before thecartridge is usable for data storage and retrieval. If the servo bands are erased, the tapebecomes unusable.Servo tracks are similar to lane markings on a multilane highway. Imagine how difficult it mightbe to drive on the highway without any lane markings. Lane markings help by positioning youon the lane, just as servo tracks (Figure 2-5 on page 44) support the drive recording head toposition it on the data tracks.As shown in Figure 2-5 on page 44, five servo bands, numbered 0 through 4, make up theservo tracking mechanism on the LTO Ultrium tape. They are each at specific distances fromthe tape reference edge. Within the servo bands are servo stripes, groups of which make upservo bursts. Four servo bursts make up a servo frame; the first two bursts (as written in theforward tape-motion direction) contain five servo stripes, and the second two bursts containfour servo stripes. Tape reference edge: The reference edge of the tape is the bottom edge when viewing the recording side of the tape, with the hub of the tape to the observer’s right, as shown in Figure 2-5. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 43
  • 69. Tape edge guard band Servo frame (4 bursts) servo band 0 Servo band width Forward tape motion Beginning of Tape (BOT) to End of Tape (EOT) servo band 4 Tape edge guard band Tape reference edge Figure 2-5 Servo band position and nomenclature Track following Each pair of servo bursts is at an angle to each other, and the servo heads move so that they keep a constant value for the distance between the bursts. In this way, the servo can follow a straight line within the servo band. Any small deviation away from the correct path causes a variation (plus or minus) in the gap between the bursts (illustrated in Figure 2-6). If the servo head element follows a straight line along the servo band, the distance “x” (shown in Figure 2-6) remains constant. IBM LTO drives use two servo bands simultaneously during write operations to provide two sources of servo information and therefore increased accuracy. servo band center line Figure 2-6 Magnified servo band showing a pair of servo bursts The format for LTO Ultrium 1 specifies six nominal servo positions within each servo band. For LTO Ultrium 5, the format specifies 20 nominal servo positions. In addition, the servo head is made up of two servo head elements to address a single servo band. With this design, by using the two elements, the servo head can reposition within the servo band for44 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 70. the 6 (Ultrium 1) or 20 (Ultrium 5) forward and reverse data wraps within each data band(Figure 2-9 on page 47). The distance between each servo position corresponds to thedistance apart that the data tracks are written. For further information about the drive headand elements, see “Drive head” on page 60 and Figure 2-20 on page 60.This technology can be fine-tuned and can support high track densities using the same servotracks. The nominal positions are basically definitions of 20 different “x distances” betweenservo bursts (see Figure 2-6 on page 44) and not a fixed servo track. By defining additional“x distance” positions, you can increase the number of tracks on an LTO Ultrium while still usingthe same technology. With this technology, LTO can also satisfy the compatibility aspectsexplained in 2.1, “The LTO organization” on page 38. The Ultrium 5 drives must use the defined“x distances” on the server tracks to read and write in the Ultrium 4 format.Longitudinal positioningThe LTO servo band is designed for track following and for recording the longitudinal position(LPOS). The absolute location down the length of the tape and the manufacturer data arerecorded in an LPOS word approximately every 7.2 mm along the tape. The LPOS wordconsists of symbols constructed from bit sequences (ones and zeros). These bits areencoded within the servo frames as illustrated in Figure 2-7.Figure 2-7 Encoding bits using the servo stripes within the servo burstsEach servo frame encodes one bit by using the first pair of servo bursts. When servo stripes 2and 3 (out of the five) are shifted inward (see Figure 2-7), a zero is encoded. When servostripes 2 and 3 are shifted outward, a one is encoded. The LPOS word contains 36 bits and,therefore, has a length of 36 servo frames.Each of the 5 servo bands on the tape can be uniquely identified by the relative positions ofthe frames down the tape, in adjacent servo bands. The offset of the frames between servoband n and servo band n+1 are specific to each servo band (0 and 1, 1 and 2, 2 and 3, or 3and 4). Therefore, the drive can move the head directly from the physical beginning of thetape to a specific logical position for reading or writing.Data tracksThe area between adjacent servo bands is the data band. Four data bands are numbered 2,0, 1, and 3, where data band number 2 is nearest to the reference edge of the tape and data Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 45
  • 71. band 3 is farthest away, as shown in Figure 2-8. The data bands are written in sequence beginning with 0 (in the center of the tape) and ending with 3. d a ta b a n d 3 d a ta b a n d 1 d a ta b a n d 0 d a ta b a n d 2 Direction of forward tape motion ta p e re fe re n c e e d g e Figure 2-8 Four data bands written between the servo tracks Each data band consists of numbers of tracks that are recorded at a time from one end of the tape to the other end, depending on the read/write channels (see Table 2-1 on page 41). The following process occurs: 1. The head is positioned over data band 0, and the first set of 16 tracks is written from the physical beginning of tape (BOT) to the physical end of tape (EOT). 2. The head physically repositions by using a different servo position within the same servo bands. It also switches electronically to a second set of 16 write elements to write 16 tracks in the reverse direction back to the physical beginning of the tape. Electronic head switching: For more information about electronic head switching, see “Drive head” on page 60. 3. The head physically repositions again and then switching back to the first set of write elements writes another set of tracks to the physical end of the tape. 4. The head continues to switch and index in this manner until all the tracks are written within data band 0. For Ultrium 5, 320 data tracks coexist in one data band. By writing 16 tracks at a time, there are ten forward and ten backward writes. 5. The head moves to data band 1 to continue writing the data. A group of tracks recorded concurrently in the physical forward or the physical backward direction is called a wrap. Wraps recorded while the tape is moving from BOT to EOT are forward wraps. Wraps that are recorded while the tape is moving from EOT to BOT are reverse wraps. The wraps are recorded in a serpentine fashion, as described: a forward wrap and then a reverse wrap. They are numbered sequentially in the order that they are processed, starting with wrap 0. Therefore, for Ultrium 1, six forward wraps and six reverse wraps make up a data band (Figure 2-9 on page 47). For Ultrium 5, ten forward and ten reverse wraps make up a data band. The individual tracks within a wrap are interleaved with tracks from other wraps. Adjacent tracks are not part of the same wrap.46 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 72. 1st Direction buffers 3rd(separating tracks written in 5th different directions) 7th 9th Group of tracks 11th written by one of 12th the 8 write elements 10th 8th 6th 4th 2nd 1st 3rd 5th 7th 9th 11th Group of tracks Forward tape motion written by adjacent 12th write element (BOT to EOT) 10th 8th 6th 4th 2ndFigure 2-9 Portion of data band showing Ultrium 1 track-writing sequenceFigure 2-9 expands on Figure 2-8 on page 46 to illustrate the sequence in which the tracksare written. One data band is magnified to show an area written by two adjacent write headelements (from the total of eight). This area is one quarter of the width of the data band. (See“Drive head” on page 60 and Figure 2-20 on page 60 for the structure of the eight-elementhead.) You can see that the tracks are written in an inward spiral (serpentine) manner. Thefirst and second tracks are farthest away from one another, while the 11th and 12th tracks arenext to one another. In Ultrium 5, there are 20 serpentine tracks for each of the 16 writeelements.Ultrium 3 is conceptually the same, but technically different. Within each data band, there are16 write elements that will write a total of 11 serpentine tracks. For example, in data bands 0and 2, there are six forward wraps but only five reverse wraps. The data bands 1 and 3 arecomplementary to this and contain five forward wraps and six reverse wraps. Thus withUltrium 3, the read/write head is moved from data band 0 to data band 1 while the tape is atthe EOT position.The space between tracks written in opposing directions is called a direction buffer. Thisspace is designed to minimize magnetic interference between tracks written in oppositedirections (cross-track interference).Read/verify elements are built into the tape head in the drive. The data is written by the writeelements. Then it immediately passes the read/verify elements and is checked for errors. Ifany errors are found, the block of data is rewritten farther down the tape.The total number of data tracks across the width of the tape is 1280 for Ultrium 5, numbered 0through 1280 (see “Data tracks” in Table 2-1 on page 41 for older generations). Tracknumbering is unrelated to the sequence in which the tracks are written: data track 1280 is theclosest to the reference edge of the tape, and data track 0 is farthest away. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 47
  • 73. Backward compatibility The LTO standard specifies a backward compatibility of writing one generation backwards and reading two generations backwards. To make this compatibility possible, LTO uses a technique called shingling. When using shingling, a write track might overlap the bottom of a previously written track. LTO Generation 2 uses shingling when writing data to an LTO Generation 2 cartridge. The first two passes write to the tape in the normal way. The following passes can partially overwrite previously written data tracks. The IBM LTO Generation 2 write head width is that of the LTO Generation 1. Therefore, the LTO Generation 2 drives can write an LTO Generation 1 cartridge in full track width, and when writing to an LTO Generation 2 cartridge, it uses the shingling write function. To read the residual LTO Generation 2 data tracks, the read head must be narrower than the LTO Generation 1 read head (Figure 2-10). Generation 1 Generation 2 Servo Band Direction Buffer Read Element Generation 1 Read Element Generation 2 Figure 2-10 Shingling: Writing to tape Generation 1 compared to Generation 2 Again, LTO Generations 3, 4, and 5 are conceptually the same, but technically different. The Ultrium 3, 4, and 5 data is written 16 tracks at a time, using the shingling technique. To achieve compatibility, the write heads of LTO Generation 3 drives are equal to the residual track width of the LTO Generation 2 format. The spacing between alternate (every second) LTO Generation 3 write heads is the same as between the LTO Generation 2 write heads. Thus, LTO Generation 3 data is written using the shingling method, but LTO Generation 2 data is written by using only every second write head and writing the full LTO Generation 2 data width. LTO Generation 5 continues to use the shingling technique to get the capacity and higher wrap count with LTO Generation 5. However, LTO Generation 5 is unable to use the LTO Generation 1 and LTO Generation 2 cartridges because the 8 track mode cannot be use anymore. Linear density The linear density for the first generation of LTO Ultrium 1 is 4880 bits per mm (123857 bits per in). For LTO Ultrium 5, the linear density increases to 14488 bits per mm (367715 bits per in). Also the tape length increases from LTO Ultrium 1, which is 610 m (2000 ft.) to 846 m (2776 ft.) for LTO Ultrium 5.48 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 74. To fulfill the LTO requirement to double the capacity for each generation, the tape itself is getting thinner and can get longer. Higher cartridge capacities can be achieved by improving the linear density and increasing the tape length.2.1.3 Data compression The LTO Consortium created a superior data compression technique known as LTO Data Compression (LTO-DC). Although an excellent data compression algorithm, adaptive lossless data compression (ALDC) is not optimized for incompressible data, such as encrypted or previously compressed data. For incompressible data, it is best not to apply any data compression algorithm, but rather to pass the input data directly to the compressed data stream (pass-through). Given the variations in data, there are times when ALDC is desirable and times when a simple pass-through is better. For example, if you are using ALDC-based data compression, it is best if all segments of incompressible data are recorded without expansion by using a pass-through technique. Figure 2-11 illustrates the LTO-DC data compression technique using the two schemes. Buffer Pass-thru Input Data Logic Selection Compressed Data Stream ALDC Figure 2-11 LTO-DC block diagram No standardization of when to scheme swap when compressing data was specified by LTO-DC. LTO-DC was approved by Ecma International as the Streaming Lossless Data Compression (SLDC) standard, as explained at: http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/ECMA-321.htm Compression technique: LTO uses the SLDC compression technique. Because no standardization is specified, all vendor implementations might perform scheme swapping differently. What is specified and tested is that the resultant compressed data stream is decompressible by the defined set of LTO-DC rules. This capability enables interchange between drives from multiple vendors. Each vendor’s Ultrium drive has been shown to be able to read and decompress the LTO-DC streams of the other vendors’ Ultrium drives. Embedded code words LTO-DC uses embedded code words to enable swapping between the two schemes. ALDC is referred to as Scheme 1, and pass-through is referred to as Scheme 2. Both methods are used. However, only one method is used to output any given data byte, although different bytes in a record might be output in different schemes. Therefore, if a given record begins with compressible data, it can be output in Scheme 1. If the nature of the data changes inside of the record. It becomes incompressible (as embedded control data or an array of incompressible data), a scheme swap can be performed to allow output of the incompressible data in Scheme 2. Similarly, a scheme swap can be performed to revert to Scheme 1 if the data becomes compressible again. A scheme swap is denoted in the compressed data stream by using one of four embedded code words. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 49
  • 75. As an example, one 13-bit code word means that all data that follows is to be decompressed as Scheme 1 until another scheme swapping code word is encountered. Embedded code words are also used to delineate record boundaries and file marks. Having record boundaries demarked within the output compressed data stream, rather than by pointers maintained in a separate directory table, has several advantages. First, from a storage point of view, it is more efficient because it enables greater capacity. Second, the insertion of these code words enables higher-speed data streaming because they can be managed by the compression engine without microprocessor involvement. Both of these features are especially useful for small records. Typically, backup applications send 512 byte, 4 KB, 32 KB, or 256 KB records to a backup tape drive. For small records, such as 512 bytes, the improved format efficiency of the embedded control is substantial. By reducing required microprocessor involvement, it allows superior transfer rates to the drives. For this reason, LTO tape drives offer high capacity tape backup and drive transfer rates far better than other midrange backup tape drives. They are also superior to some more expensive, high-end tape drives. The ability to swap between ALDC and a pass-through mode gives a tape drive the power to automatically adapt to the incoming data stream. Compression technique: The IBM 3592 Tape Drive also uses the SLDC compression technique.2.1.4 Tape cartridge The Ultrium tape cartridge is a single-reel cartridge, meaning that the whole tape is wrapped around a single reel when the cartridge is not loaded in a drive. During the loading process, the threader of the drive catches the leader pin of the tape and threads it through the drive and the machine reel. During the read/write process, the tape is stored on the machine reel and the cartridge. Figure 2-12 and Figure 2-13 on page 51 show two views of the tape cartridge. Arrow indicating direction of loading into the drive Sliding door access Write-protect to tape for Read/Write switch Notch for drive load Label area mechanism (rear) Notch for robotic gripper mechanism Figure 2-12 View of the Ultrium tape cartridge from the top and rear The cartridge is approximately 10.2 cm long, 10.5 cm wide, and 2.2 cm high (approximately 4 x 4.16 x 0.87 inches). The cartridge contains 12.6 mm (½-inch), metal-particle tape with a high-density recording area.50 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 76. Figure 2-13 shows several of the components of the cartridge. Cartridge case cut away to show location of LTO-CM Rear (label area) Finger grips Notch for robotic gripper mechanism Notch for Direction of drive-load loading into mechanism drive (front) Misinsertion protection cutoutFigure 2-13 Ultrium cartridge view from top and frontThe following parts are labeled:Grips Molded areas on the cartridge casing designed as finger grips for manual loading.Label area At the designated area at the rear of the cartridge where the adhesive barcode label is applied.Sliding door Cartridge door (Figure 2-12 on page 50) that protects the tape from contamination whenever the cartridge is out of the drive. Behind the door, the tape is threaded onto a leader pin (shown in detail in Figure 2-14), which is used to pull the tape from the cartridge for use. A locking mechanism prevents the media from unwinding when the cartridge is not located in the drive.Figure 2-14 Leader pin attached to the tape mediumNotches Two sets of molded notches in the cartridge casing are on the sides near the rear. The first pair enables the robotic gripper to pull the cartridge out of the drive mouth after the cartridge has been unloaded. The second pair enables the drive to grip the cartridge and pull it into the loading position inside the drive.Misinsertion protection A cutout in the front side of the cartridge casing that prevents the cartridge from being inserted into the drive in the wrong orientation. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 51
  • 77. This feature prevents the use of unsuitable cartridges of similar, but not identical, construction. The various cartridges are color-coded for easy visual distinction as indicated in Table 2-2. (See also “Ultrium tape formats” on page 42.) Table 2-2 Data cartridge identification by case color Data cartridge Case color Ultrium 5 WORM Slate burgundy top, platinum (silver gray bottom) Ultrium 4 WORM Slate green top, platinum (silver gray bottom) Ultrium 3 WORM Slate blue top, platinum (silver gray bottom) Ultrium 5 Burgundy Ultrium 4 Green Ultrium 3 Slate blue Ultrium 2 Purple Ultrium 1 Black Even though the servo tracks are similar on Ultrium 1 and Ultrium 2 cartridges, Ultrium 2 cartridges are required with an Ultrium 2 drive to achieve Ultrium 2 capacity. Similarly, Ultrium 5 cartridges are required to achieve Ultrium 5 capacity. See 2.6.1, “IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compatibility” on page 90, for more information about media compatibility among the generations. LTO data cartridge capacity When processing the Ultrium tape cartridge, the Ultrium tape drive uses a linear, serpentine recording format. The Ultrium 4 drive reads and writes data on 896 tracks, 16 tracks at a time, and the Ultrium 5 drive writes data on 1280 tracks. The first set of tracks is written from near the beginning of the tape to near the end of the tape. The head then repositions to the next set of tracks for the return pass. This process continues until all tracks are written and the cartridge is full or until all data is written. To ensure that your IBM Ultrium Tape Drive conforms to the IBM specifications for reliability, use only IBM LTO Ultrium tape cartridges. The IBM TotalStorage LTO Ultrium data cartridges cannot be interchanged with the media used in other IBM non-LTO Ultrium tape products. Table 2-3 lists the native data capacity of Ultrium data cartridges. Table 2-3 Native capacity Data cartridge Native data capacity Ultrium 5 WORM 1500 GB (3000 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Ultrium 4 WORM 800 GB (1600 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Ultrium 3 WORM 400 GB (800 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Ultrium 5 1500 GB (3000 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Ultrium 4 800 GB (1600 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Ultrium 3 400 GB (800 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio)52 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 78. Data cartridge Native data capacity Ultrium 2 200 GB (400 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Ultrium 1 100 GB (200 GB at a 2:1 compression ratio)Metal particle tape mediumThe metal particle tape medium consists of a transparent polyethylene base material with twocoatings. On one side, the base has two fine coats of a strong yet flexible ferromagneticmaterial, dispersed in a suitable binder. This side is the surface on which the data is written.The back surface is coated with a non-ferromagnetic conductive coating.Metal particle media have high coercivity, which is a measure of their ability to retain theirmagnetic properties after the data is written to the tape. Coercivity is one of the factors inenabling a potentially longer shelf life than other media.Cartridge memory (LTO-CM)Within the cartridge is the LTO Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM), which is a passive, contactlesssilicon storage device that is physically a part of the cartridge. Information about the cartridgeand tape is written to the LTO-CM. The LTO-CM is only accessible and used by the drive itselfand contains no customer data. The LTO-CM is serial Electronically Erasable ProgrammableRead-Only Memory (EEPROM) with both read-only and rewritable areas. It is housed insidethe cartridge casing at the left rear (label side) corner as illustrated in Figure 2-13 on page 51,which shows the interior of the cartridge casing.The storage capacity of the Generation 5 LTO-CM is the same as the Generation 4 LTO-CM,which is 8160 bytes (4096 bytes for Generations 1, 2, and 3 cartridges). It is used to holdinformation about that specific cartridge, the media in that cartridge, and the data on themedia. A copy of this information is also kept in the first data set within the user data area andis given the data set number zero.Communication between the drive and the LTO-CM uses a contactless low-level radiofrequency (RF) field generated (in the IBM implementation) by the drive. The LTO-CM isnonvolatile storage that is updated by using the RF field. It requires no additional powersource. This type of technology has an expected shelf life of more than 30 years. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 53
  • 79. The LTO-CM has several distinct data fields as shown in Table 2-4. The fields align to 32-byte boundaries, because this size is the defined block access size. Table 2-4 Data fields stored in the LTO-CM LTO-CM information Read/write LTO-CM manufacturer’s data Tape labela Read-only Media manufacturer information Initialization datab Restricted write capability Cartridge status and tape alert flags Usage information Tape write pass Tape directory Read or write End-of-data information Mechanism-related Application-specific datac Vendor-unique data a. This field contains information about the tape, including a 10-byte field with the tape serial number. It is a read-only area and does not contain the volume label, which can be changed if the tape is reinitialized. b. This field is a restricted write field that is updated with changes when the tape is reinitialized. c. This field is for application data (such as the volume label) to be stored in the cartridge mem- ory. However, currently no Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) function is available to support writing to that area. Although transparent to the user, keeping this type of information enhances the efficiency of the drive and the cartridge. Data and block locations are stored in memory. For example, the end-of-data location is stored, so that when the tape is next loaded, the drive can use the fast locate function to move directly to the recording area and begin recording. Storing data about the age of the cartridge, the number of times it has been loaded, and the number of errors it has accumulated aids in determining the reliability of the cartridge. This data is of particular value if it is stored with the cartridge itself, so that whenever the cartridge is mounted on any host system, the history is accessible. This product is not the first tape product where information has been kept on the cartridge. However, previously it was written on the tape medium itself in a nonuser-accessible portion of the tape before the BOT marker, such as in the IBM 3590 Tape Drive.54 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 80. Barcode labelEach data and cleaning cartridge processed by an Ultrium Tape Library must have a barcodelabel. This barcode label is mandatory for libraries that have an installed barcode reader. Thelabel, as shown in Figure 2-15, contains a human-readable volume serial number or volumelabel and the corresponding machine-readable barcode.Figure 2-15 Barcode label exampleThe barcode has the following format: Quiet zones at each end of the barcode A start character indicating the beginning of the label A six-character volume label A two-character cartridge media-type identifier (L1, L2, L3, L4, or L5), which identifies the cartridge as an LTO cartridge (“L”) and indicates the LTO generation of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 Other identifiers are also specified by the LTO standard. Therefore, the LTO-3 WORM cartridge is identified by LT, the LTO-4 WORM cartridge is identified by LU, and the LTO-5 WORM cartridge is identified by LV. A stop character indicating the end of the labelWhen read by the barcode reader of the library, the barcode identifies the volume label of thecartridge to the tape library. The barcode volume label also indicates to the library whetherthe cartridge is a data, cleaning, or diagnostic cartridge.Tape cartridges are often supplied with the labels already attached, or you can attach a labelyourself. Operators must handle the cartridges and barcode labels in accordance with theinstructions in the operator guides that are supplied with the products. You must ensure thatlabels are removed cleanly, reapplied carefully, in good condition, and are not obscured ordamaged. The Ultrium cartridge features a recessed area for the label (see Figure 2-12 onpage 50). The label must be applied only in the recessed label area. If the label extendsoutside of the recessed label area, it can cause loading problems in the drive. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 55
  • 81. Volume label format The LTO cartridge label uses the Uniform Symbol Specification-39 barcode symbols. The volume label of a cartridge consists of six characters, starting from the left. Except for cleaning and diagnostic cartridges, these six characters are limited to the following ASCII characters: Uppercase A-Z (ASCII character code: 41h–5Ah) 0–9 (ASCII character code: 30h–39h) The volume label must consist of six, all uppercase alphabetic, all numeric, or alphanumeric characters, such as ABCGVE, 123621, or F8H5N9. The volume label cannot consist of fewer than six characters. A volume label format of CLNUnn represents a universal cleaning cartridge. A volume label of the form CLNvnn is used for a unique cleaning cartridge, where v is an alphanumeric identifier that represents the vendor of a drive-unique cleaning cartridge. (An IBM-unique cleaner cartridge uses the label format CLNInn.) This identifier is logged in the vendor information pages in the Ultrium Tape Drive. A volume label of the form DG(space)vnn is used for diagnostic and service cartridges. The drive uses the v to determine whether the drive-unique diagnostic cartridge is loaded. The nn represents a specific cartridge and is logged in the vendor information pages in the Ultrium Tape Drive. The internal and external labels on a cartridge do not need to match. Therefore, the volume label on the barcode label does not need to match the volume label recorded on the tape in the tape label area when it is initialized. However, it is preferable for them to match to avoid confusion. You can find more information in the “IBM LTO Ultrium Cartridge Label Specification” at: http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/media/lto/ Ordering barcode labels To order barcode labels, see Appendix B, “IBM LTO Ultrium and 3592 media” on page 873. Write-protect switch The write-protect switch is at the front of the cartridge to the left of the barcode label (see Figure 2-12 on page 50). The position of the write-protect switch on the tape cartridge determines whether you can write to the tape. You cannot write to the tape when the switch is pushed to the right. When the write-protect switch is set to inhibit writing, a visual lock mark, such as a padlock, is visible. In most cases, backup and recovery host application software is used to achieve the most benefit from using an LTO system. It is better to rely on the host application software to write protect your cartridges rather than to manually set the write-protect switch. This way, the host software can identify a cartridge that no longer contains current data and is eligible to become a scratch cartridge. If the switch is set and the host application sets the cartridge to scratch status, the tape drive is unable to write new data to the tape. Cleaning the cartridge Cartridges that are physically dirty on the outside of the casing can reduce the reliability of an Ultrium Tape Library and cause a loss of recorded data. If dirt is on the cartridge, you can wipe the outside surfaces with a lint-free cloth, which can be lightly moistened with the recommended tape unit cleaner or equivalent by the manufacturer.56 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 82. When cleaning a tape cartridge, do not allow anything wet (including the cleaning fluid) tocontact the tape inside the casing. Make sure that all cartridge surfaces are dry before thecartridge is inserted into a drive.Cartridge lifeThe magnetic tape inside the cartridge is made of highly durable materials. However, the tapewears after repeated cycles. Eventually, such wear can cause an increase in tape errors, recordsof which are stored in the LTO-CM. Cartridge performance can be tracked and monitored,enabling predictive failure analysis and enhancing data integrity. This tracking is doneautomatically, and the drive issues a message when errors on the tape exceed a threshold.The IBM Ultrium data cartridge has a usable life of 5,000 load and unload cycles in a typicaloffice computer environment. The data recorded on the cartridge has an archive storage lifeof a minimum of 30 years with less than 5% loss in demagnetization. The cartridge must bestored at 16 C (60F) to 25 C (77F), with 20–50% non-condensing humidity, and a wetbulb temperature of 26 C (79F) maximum.Cleaning cartridgeTo support client and application requirements and expectations for cleaning, each LTO drivevendor used to provide its own cleaning cartridge specifically for its Ultrium drives. To avoidpotential interoperability problems, the LTO consortium decided to introduce a universalcleaning cartridge. IBM only offers the universal cleaning cartridge type, and which can beused on any LTO drive type.The IBM Ultrium LTO Tape Drive was intentionally designed to be self-monitoring andself-cleaning. Therefore, use the automatic cleaning function provided with the library or byyour application as recommended by IBM. Each drive determines when it needs to becleaned and alerts the library or your application.To prevent recontamination of drive surfaces, you are limited to using a specific cleanercartridge a maximum of 50 times.Cartridge handlingTape cartridges are tough packages made of inexpensive materials that can storetremendous amounts of data, approaching data densities of hard disks. They can survive foryears in library environments where they are being gripped, poked, loaded, and unloaded.However, you must treat tape cartridges in a similar fashion as you treat hard disk drives. Thefollowing sections offer several suggestions to protect your data on tape cartridges.Ensure that proper procedures are in place to cover media handling, and make sure thatanyone who handles cartridges has been trained in those procedures. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 57
  • 83. Media shipping and handling: Procedures Ship cartridges in their original packaging or, preferably, ship and store in jewel cases. Use only recommended shipping cases that securely hold the cartridges in their jewel cases for transportation. Turtle Cases from Perm-A-Store (Figure 2-16) have been tested and found to be satisfactory. You can learn more about Turtle Cases at: http://www.turtlecase.com Figure 2-16 Turtle case Never ship a cartridge in a commercial shipping envelope without boxing or packaging. If you ship a cartridge in a cardboard or similar-type box, follow these guidelines: Double-box the cartridges with padding between the boxes, as shown in Figure 2-17. Pack the cartridges snugly so that they do not rattle around. If possible, place cartridges in polyethylene plastic wrap or bags to help seal out dust, moisture, and other contaminants. Figure 2-17 Double box Media shipping and handling: Inspecting If you receive media, inspect it before use: Inspect packaging for evidence of potential rough handling. Inspect cartridge for damage before using and storing.58 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 84. Check the leader pin for correct seating. If you see evidence of poor handling or shipping, ensure that the cartridge leader pin (Figure 2-18) is undamaged before inserting the cartridge in a drive or library, because a bad cartridge can damage a drive. Figure 2-18 Correct leader pin placement If the pin is loose or bent, look for cartridge damage and use the IBM Leader Pin Re-Attachment Kit, part number 08L9129, to correctly seat the pin. Note: Leader pin re-attachment must be done for data recovery purpose only. Once data is recovered and rewritten to a new tape, the repaired tape must be destroyed. Shipping summary Consider the following tips for shipping media: Package the media appropriately for shipping. Inspect media for damage or rough handling, and take appropriate action. Do not put damaged media in drives or libraries. Use data recovery services. For specific media types, check the Planning and Operator Guide for your product. With simple care and handling, you can get the most from your tape media.2.1.5 IBM LTO Ultrium common subassembly drive Certain elements of the Ultrium drive design are covered by the LTO format specification, such as anything related to writing the specified data format that enables tape interchange. However, there is no strict LTO definition in terms of how the drive module is constructed. Therefore, in this area, manufacturer drives might differ from each other in performance and specification, such as the data rate or quality design points. This section relates specifically to the IBM LTO implementation. However, it emphasizes again that the IBM LTO Ultrium cartridges are compatible with those of all other licensed manufacturers. The IBM LTO Ultrium common subassembly drive (Figure 2-19 on page 60) is a high-performance, high-capacity tape drive. The drive records data using the specified linear serpentine recording format on ½-inch tape housed within the LTO Ultrium cartridge. The data tracks are located by using preformatted servo tracks, as outlined in “Servo tracks” on page 43. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 59
  • 85. Figure 2-19 IBM LTO Ultrium common subassembly The original basic unit was the first-generation IBM LTO series of products. Subsequent generations of IBM LTO promote extensive reuse, making the IBM Ultrium drives extremely reliable. Especially starting in LTO-3, several reliability improvements have been made to tape path and internal tape handling. These units are a common subassembly and, therefore, do not have an IBM machine type. The subassembly is not available for clients to purchase directly, but only as a part number used in the assembly of other IBM machine types. The subassembly does not have its own power supply, but is powered by the library, frame, or casing into which it is integrated. The IBM machine types that integrate the subassembly are addressed in 2.6.6, “The IBM LTO Ultrium family of tape drives and libraries” on page 99, and in later chapters. The subassembly is sold on the other equipment manufacture (OEM) market to other LTO library manufacturers. The common subassembly is a single field-replaceable unit (FRU). That is, if it fails, the whole unit is replaced, and no parts or subassemblies within the unit are replaced when the drive is maintained by an IBM service support representative (SSR). Drive head When the cartridge is inserted into the drive, a threading mechanism pulls the leader pin and attached tape (see Figure 2-14 on page 51) out of the cartridge, across the read/write head, and onto a nonremovable take-up (machine) reel. The head can then read or write data from or to the tape. In generations 1 and 2, the drive has a 2 x 8 element head, reading or writing data eight tracks at a time (illustrated in Figure 2-20). The head is sized to cover the width of a data recording band (approximately a quarter of the tape width; see Figure 2-8 on page 46). Unlike the IBM 3590, for example, it does not cover the whole width of the tape. 8 data tracks 2 x 8 head elements 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 x 2 servo elements 0 1 2 3 4 5 Servo positions Servo positions within servo band within servo band Figure 2-20 Generation 1 and 2: One of eight element heads shown, with servo elements60 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 86. The write elements are immediately followed by read/verify elements. Therefore, two sets ofeight head elements (eight write elements and eight read elements) allow the tape to write inthe forward and reverse directions down the length of the tape. The head switcheselectronically from one set to another as the tape changes direction, as shown in Figure 2-21,which shows two enlarged pairs of head elements and the direction indicators. Two sets ofheads (read/write and write/read) are required because the tape is written and read in bothdirections.The LTO Generation 3, LTO Generation 4, and LTO Generate 5 drives have a 2 x 16 elementhead, reading or writing data at 16 tracks at a time. Conceptually, they are similar to the 8element head, except that they have elements of a smaller size. The 16 read/write heads areside by side similar to the sum of read/write and write/read heads in Figure 2-21. Thecorresponding 16th write/read head element (for writing the reverse wrap) is locatedimmediately face-to-face with the read/write element. Thus, only every second read/writehead corresponds to the LTO Generation 1 or LTO Generation 2 formats. LTO Generation 4drives cannot read LTO Generation 1 cartridges, and LTO Generation 5 drives cannot readLTO Generation 1 and LTO Generation 2 cartridges. The mechanism for writing data isexplained in “Data tracks” on page 45. Direction of tape movement s r w r w r w r w r w r w r w r w s s w r w r w r w r w r w r w r w r s 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 2 3 4 5 Direction of tape movement Servo positions Servo positions within servo band within servo bandFigure 2-21 Conceptual allocation of read and write heads for forward and reverse wrapFour servo elements are used: two for each set of read/write elements. The head uses bothservo tracks at each edge of the data band it writes, for increased accuracy in track-following,so that two servo elements are at each end of the head. As an example, Figure 2-20 onpage 60 shows a diagram of the top servo element 1 following servo position 3, used for thesixth wrap (a reverse wrap) in a data band. (The diagram is not to scale.) For moreinformation about this topic, you can find an animated conceptual explanation in the LTOUltrium technology primers on the LTO website at:http://www.lto-technology.com/newsite/html/about_tech.htmlThe animation provides a basic understanding of LTO technology and does not provide thesame level of detail outlined here. Nor does the animation detail the actual implementation inthe IBM Ultrium drives.Data compressionAs explained in 2.1.3, “Data compression” on page 49, data compression implementation candiffer from vendor to vendor. However, all vendors conform to the basic rules, and the datawritten can be read by the tape reader of any other vendor. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 61
  • 87. A drive may do compression based on two criteria. The first scheme being based on a decision that is made at the start of the write. This will look at the initial data and decide on whether the data is compressible or not. Using this decision the drive will perform compression or not for the full write of the tape. The second scheme is to dynamically change from compressed format and non compressed format during the entire write process, based on the data going into the buffer. This situation is not always advantageous as scheme swap code word output is 13 bits long. Therefore, to swap to a scheme and swap back costs 26 bits. The compression gain following the first scheme swap might benefit more than 26 bits over the previous scheme. If it does, the swap was well-advised. If not, the scheme swap increases the size of the output compressed data stream and reduces the compression rather than increases it. This result can occur if data compression is inferred by having the data compression engine observe how data that has already been output from the compression engine was compressed, that is, only by viewing data in the past. The only way to adapt by using scheme swapping within records, without being susceptible to inadvertent data expansion, is to use the IBM-patented scheme swapping technique. This method is preferred, because it looks at data ahead, rather than data behind. In the IBM implementation, a scheme swap is not automatically generated unless more compression gain appears within the look-ahead buffer than it costs to scheme swap and then swap back. This method is advantageous because small bursts of compressible data within an otherwise incompressible file might not make it worthwhile to scheme swap. If a scheme swap is optimal, the IBM implementation puts the scheme swap out where the change in data compressibility occurs, for maximum advantage. The LTO consortium decided, as many other vendors also do in the open environment, to indicate characteristics of LTO products for both native data and when assuming a data compression ratio of 2:1. For enterprise-related (mainframe) tape products, IBM and other manufacturers assume a compression ratio of 3:1, even though the IBM LTO and IBM 3592 use the same compression algorithm (SLDC). In any case, the real compression reached by the drive depends on the nature of the data. You must base all sizings on the native value. Interfaces The IBM LTO Ultrium drive is available with a choice of the following interfaces: SCSI: – Low Voltage Differential (LVD) – High Voltage Differential (HVD; LTO-1 and 2 only) Fibre Channel (FC) Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS) When ordering an IBM product offering, you choose the drive interface. You cannot change the interface on the drive. If you want a different interface, you must replace the drive assembly. Historically, SCSI connections were used for attachment of tape drives and libraries to Open Systems. Fibre Channel connections using SANs have become standard technology. SAS connections are becoming increasingly common. Attention: IBM LTO Ultrium 5 drives can only have FC or SAS connectivity.62 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 88. SCSI single endedSCSI single ended was the most common form of SCSI signaling. Many removable drives,scanners, and almost all 50-pin SCSI devices fit into this category. Often you do not see“single ended” or “SE” written on the documentation. If a device does not specifically indicateLVD, Ultra2 Wide, differential, or a similar definition, it is probably single ended. Typically,single-ended devices support a total bus length of 1.5 meters (5 ft.) or less.IBM high-performance SCSI tape drives (IBM 3590, IBM 3570, and LTO Ultrium drives) are alldifferential-attached drives, not single-ended drives.SCSI differential (HVD)HVD (often referred to as just differential) uses differential signaling. The idea behinddifferential signals is that each bus signal is carried on a pair of wires. The first wire of the paircarries the same type of signal as a single-ended SCSI. However, the second wire of the paircarries its logical inversion. The receiver of the signals takes the difference of the pair(therefore, the name), which makes it less susceptible to noise and capable of supportinggreater cable lengths. HVD and single-ended SCSI are incompatible with each other.In general, IBM HVD tape devices support an overall bus length of 25 m (82 ft.), usingpoint-to-point or multidrop interconnection (daisy chaining). For each daisy-chain device, youmust reduce the maximum cable length by 0.5 m (1.6 ft.).SCSI differential (LVD)The newer SCSI differential interface implementation, LVD, uses less power than the HVDdifferential interface and allows the higher speeds of Ultra2 SCSI. LVD requires 3.3 V dcinstead of 5 V dc for HVD.LVD is sometimes referred to as Ultra2 Wide SCSI, which is a general marketing term for16-bit Fast-40 or 80 MBps. Only LVD and HVD can potentially run in Ultra2 Wide mode andonly LVD in current commercially available products.IBM LVD tape devices support a bus length of 25 m (82 ft.) point-to-point and 12 m (39.4 ft.)by using multidrop interconnection (daisy chaining). For each daisy-chain device, you mustreduce the maximum cable length by 0.5 m (1.6 ft.).The terms “fast”, “wide”, and “ultra” indicate characteristics that are separate from thosecharacteristics implied by differential, single-ended, and high or low voltage. Table 2-5 showsthe SCSI terms that are used to describe different host and device adapters and what theyimply in regard to bus width and speed.Table 2-5 SCSI terms and characteristics SCSI term Bus width Speed Maximum Maximum number (bits) (MBps) length of devices SCSI 8 5 6m 7 Fast SCSI 8 10 3m 7 Fast Wide SCSI 16 20 3m 15 Ultra (Wide) SCSI HVD 16 40 25 m 15 Ultra (Wide) SCSI 2 LVD 16 80 25 m/12 m 15 Ultra 160 SCSI LVD 16 160 12 m 15A faster bus does not imply that an attached device supports that data rate, but that multipledevices can operate on the bus at that maximum speed. For a detailed table of SCSI terms Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 63
  • 89. and related specifications, see the SCSI Terms and Terminology Table from the SCSI Trade Association website at: http://www.scsita.org/terms-and-terminology.html To ensure best performance, if possible, avoid daisy chaining. Serial-attached SCSI Serial-attached SCSI (SAS) was introduced because parallel SCSI has a maximum bandwidth of 320 MBps. There was a need for a faster interface to attach tapes and disks on a host bus adapter (HBA). In 1981, Adaptec designed a standardized bus that ANSI approved. From that time forward, it was called Small Computer System Interface (SCSI). SCSI was designed to attach hard disks on an I/O bus. However, over the years, all types of devices were able to connect to the SCSI bus, such as tape drives, scanners, plotters, printers, and optical devices. As the types of devices changed, the bandwidth increased from 5 MBps up to 320 MBps, better known as Ultra320 SCSI. In 2003, the SCSI bus speed was increased up to 640 MBps, but it never became a new standard for the SCSI speed. One problem when the SCSI speed increases is a phenomenon called clock skew. Clock skew is a phenomenon in synchronous circuits in which the clock signal (sent from the clock circuit) arrives at different components at different times. This action is typically the result of two causes. The first cause is material variability, in which a signal travels faster or slower than expected. The second cause is distance. The further a signal has to travel, the longer it takes to arrive. Therefore, signals arrive at different points at different times. As the clock rate of a circuit increases, timing becomes more critical, and less variation can be tolerated while still functioning properly. The industry was looking for a new, faster interface. A serial version of SCSI was designed and approved in 2002 by the SCSI Trade Association and by the International Committee for Information Technology Standards. In 2005, the first devices came on the market with a SAS interface. The first generation of SAS has a native speed of 3 Gbps and the current generation of SAS is 6Gbps. Figure 2-22 shows future generations on the SAS road map. Figure 2-22 SAS road map2 2 Road map published by SCSI Trade Association at: http://www.scsita.org/sas_library/2011/06/serial-attached-scsi-master-roadmap.html64 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 90. A benefit of SAS is that it can communicate with Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA)devices. SAS has a point-to-point architecture and a bandwidth of 300 MBps. Because of itspoint-to-point architecture, more devices can be handled at the same time on the bus with amaximum of 128 targets. Another advantage of SAS is that the connection cables betweenthe HBA and the devices are much thinner and more scalable. SAS devices do not needexternal terminators. The I/O bus is electronically terminated.The total cable length from the device to the HBA is limited to 5.5 m (18.04 ft.). The total cablelength in an LVD configuration is 25 m (82 ft.) when a point-to-point connection is used or12.5 m (39 ft.) when a multidrop connection is used.Figure 2-23 shows an IBM 6 Gbps SAS adapter, part number 46M0907.Figure 2-23 SAS HBA with IBM part number 46M0907The Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), small form-factor IBM 6 Gb SASHBA, which is based on LSIs SAS2008 controller and can handle medium- to large-capacityserver storage applications by connecting an 8-lane PCIe adapter with one external x4SFF-8088 connector and four internal SATA connectorsTwo connecting interfaces are used for connecting the external devices: Mini-SAS (SFF-8088). Figure 2-24 shows an Mini-SAS (SFF-8088) connector.Figure 2-24 Mini-SAS (SFF-8088) connector SFF-8470. Figure 2-25 on page 66 shows an SFF-8470 connector. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 65
  • 91. Figure 2-25 SAS (SFF-8470) connector All IBM SAS tape drives have a Mini-SAS (SFF-8088) interface. SAS cables are available in several lengths with a maximum length of 5.5 m (18.04 ft.) and in any combination of the SFF-8470 and SFF-8088 connectors. The requirements for SAS bus connections are different than for the SCSI bus. Each tape drive is required to have a dedicated bus to the initiator, referred to as point-to-point connection. SAS architecture does not support multiple tape drives connected to a single host adapter port. The following IBM LTO tape drives are available with the SAS interface: IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Half-High Tape Drive IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High and Half-High Tape Drive IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High and Half-High Tape Drive Connector types When ordering cables, pay careful attention to the type of connector on both the cable and device, so that everything correctly plugs in together. This section identifies the major connector types. SCSI HD68 The HD68 connector (Figure 2-26) is the normal 68-pin SCSI connector. All IBM LTO SCSI drives, except the drives in the 3584, have an HD68 connector. Before 12 June 2001, all LTO tape drives in the IBM 3584 used HD68 connectors. Figure 2-26 HD68 connector SCSI VHDCI The very high density connector (VHDCI) is a mini-SCSI connector (Figure 2-27 on page 67), about half the width of the HD68 connector. The IBM LTO drives in the IBM 3584 have a VHDCI connector.66 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 92. Figure 2-27 VHDCI connectorFC SCThe duplex Subscriber Connector (SC) connector, shown in Figure 2-28, is a low-loss,push/pull fitting connector. The two fibers each have their own part of the connector. Theconnector is keyed to ensure correct polarization (transmit to receive and receive to transmit)when connected. Most 1 Gbps SAN devices, including IBM Ultrium 1 FC drives, use SCconnectors.Figure 2-28 SC ConnectorFC LCConnectors that plug into SFF or small form-factor pluggable (SFP) devices are called LCconnectors, shown in Figure 2-29. Also a duplex version is used so that the transmit andreceive are connected in one step. The primary advantage of these LC connectors comparedto SC connectors is that the LC connectors use a smaller form factor. Therefore,manufacturers of Fibre Channel components can provide more connections in the sameamount of space.Figure 2-29 LC connectorMost 2 Gbps or higher SAN devices, including the IBM Ultrium 2, 3, 4, and 5 FC drives, useLC connectors.Available interfaces for IBM Ultrium 1IBM Ultrium 1 drives offer the following connection types: Ultra2 Wide LVD SCSI using an HD68 connector Ultra Wide HVD SCSI using an HD68 connector Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 67
  • 93. FC-AL, 1 Gbps using SC connector (3584 installed drives only) SCSI drives installed in the 3584 using a VHDCI connector Available interfaces for IBM Ultrium 2 IBM Ultrium 2 drives offer the following connection types: Ultra 160 LVD SCSI using an HD68 connector Ultra Wide HVD SCSI using an HD68 connector Switched fabric 2 Gbps using an LC connector SCSI drives installed in the TS3500 Tape Library using VHDCI connectors The drive can work in fabric or FC-AL mode. According to the SNIA standard, first the drive tries to connect as a FC_AL. If this approach fails, the drive tries to log on as a fabric device. It does an autosensing on the speed and connects with 1 Gbps or 2 Gbps. With the IBM 3584, you can set the FC port speed and the FC protocol mode. Available interfaces for IBM Ultrium 3 IBM Ultrium 3 drives offer the following connection types: Ultra 160 LVD SCSI using HD68 connector 3 Gbps SAS 6 Gbps dual SAS on version 2 (V2) Half-High models Switched fabric 2 or 4 Gbps using LC connect SCSI drives installed in the 3584 use the VHDCI connector The drive can work in fabric or FC-AL mode. According to the SNIA standard, first the drive tries to connect as FC_AL. If this approach fails, the drive tries to log in as a fabric device. It does an autosensing on the speed and connects with 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, and 4 Gbps. With the IBM 3584, you can set the FC port speed and the FC protocol mode. Available interfaces for IBM Ultrium 4 IBM Ultrium 4 drives offer the following connection types: Ultra 160 SCSI LVD using HD68 connector 3 Gbps dual port SAS 6 Gbps dual SAS on version 2(V2) Half-High models 4 Gbps native Fibre Channel 8 Gbps using LC connector on version 2(V2) Half-High models The drive can work in fabric or FC-AL mode. According to the SNIA standard, first the drive tries to connect as FC_AL. If this approach fails, the drive tries to log in as a fabric device. It does an autosensing on the speed and connects with 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, 4 Gbps, or 8 Gbps (On V2). With the IBM 3584, you can set the FC port speed and the FC protocol mode. Available interfaces for IBM Ultrium 5 IBM Ultrium 5 drives offer the following connection types on both Full and Half-High models: 6 Gbps dual port SAS 8 Gbps native Fibre Channel The drive can work in fabric or FC-AL mode. According to the SNIA standard, first the drive tries to connect as FC_AL. If this approach fails, the drive tries to log in as a fabric device. It does an autosensing on the speed and connects with 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, 4 Gbps, or 8 Gbps.68 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 94. With the IBM 3584, you can set the FC port speed and the FC protocol mode. Note: When connecting Fibre Tape Drives to a Fibre HBA on the host server, make sure the Fibre Channel Tape Support option is enabled on the Fibre HBA so that proper class 3 error recovery is performed on the Fibre channel. See the HBA manufacturer for details about how to set this option.2.2 Tape encryption overview Data is one of the most highly valued resources in a competitive business environment. Protecting this data, controlling access to it, and verifying its authenticity while maintaining its availability are priorities in this security-conscious world. Tape encryption is a process that answers many of these needs. The IBM System Storage TS1120 (3592-E05), TS1130 (E06), TS1140 (E07), TS1040 (3588 F4A), and TS1050 (3588 F5A) Tape Drives can encrypt data as it is written to tape. The TS1120, TS1130 and TS1140 support any type of IBM TotalStorage Enterprise tape cartridge, including WORM cartridges. The TS1040 supports IBM Ultrium 4 data cartridges, and the TS1050 supports Ultrium 5 data cartridges for data encryption, including WORM cartridges. Encryption is performed at full line speed in the tape drive after compression. (Compression is more efficiently done before encryption.) Note: The encryption process is less than 1% of the performance impact on the read/write throughput. Encryption for the TS1120, TS1130 and TS1140 Tape Drives is available at no charge. These drives can be installed in the TS3500 Tape Libraries. The TS1120 and TS1130 Tape Drives can be installed in the TS3400 Tape Library. For the TS1040 and TS1050 Tape Drives, the application-managed encryption method is available at no charge. However, a billable feature code must be installed—FC5900, or for the TS3500 Tape Library, FC1604—to support transparent LTO encryption. You must also order FC9900 (encryption configuration). Supported Tape Libraries for the TS1040 and TS1050 Tape Drives are TS3100, TS3200, TS3310, and TS3500. Encryption adds significant strength to the security of your stored data without the processing overhead and the performance degradation associated with encryption performed on the server or the expense of a dedicated appliance. TS1120 Tape Drives: TS1120 Tape Drives produced before 8 September 2006, do not have the encryption capability. However, a chargeable upgrade is available (FC5592) to upgrade the TS1120. This encryption capability includes drive hardware and microcode additions and changes. Encryption keys are used to encrypt data when it is being written and to decrypt the data when it is being read from a data cartridge. The IBM Encryption Key Manager (EKM) and Tivoli Lifecycle Manager are the components that assist the TS1120 and TS1130 Tape Drives and the TS1040 and TS1050 Tape Drives in generating, protecting, storing, and maintaining encryption keys. A comprehensive overview and examples of tape encryption is contained in IBM System Storage Tape Encryption Solutions, SG24-7320. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 69
  • 95. 2.2.1 IBM Encryption Key Manager The Encryption Key Manager (EKM) is installed on a server in the network and communicates through TCP/IP with the tape library or the tape drive. The key manager operates on IBM z/OS®, i5/OS®, AIX, Linux, HP-UX, SUN Solaris, and Windows. The EKM can serve numerous IBM encrypting tape drives, regardless of where those tape drives reside. EKM has been replaced by the IBM Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager (TKLM). TLKM can be used to provide encryption key management services for the encrypting of data with the TS1130, TS1120, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drives. The EKM is part of the IBM Java environment and uses the IBM Java Security components for its cryptographic capabilities. The EKM and three other major components, shown in Figure 2-30, control tape encryption. Encryption Key Manager Config File Keystore Drive Table Figure 2-30 Encryption major components The encryption schema illustrated in Figure 2-30 consists of the following components: Encryption Key Manager The EKM obtains encryption keys and manages their transfer to and from the tape devices. Configuration file The configuration file records the keystore location and defines the EKM behavior. With the EKM configuration file, you can tailor the behavior of the EKM to meet the needs of your organization. Java security keystore The keystore is defined as part of the Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) and is an element of the Java Security components, which are, in turn, part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). A keystore holds the certificates and keys (or pointers to the certificates and keys) that are used by the EKM to perform cryptographic operations. The EKM supports several types of Java keystores, offering various operational characteristics to meet your needs. Tape drive table The tape drive table is used by the EKM to keep track of the tape devices it supports. The tape drive table is a non-editable, binary file whose location is specified in the configuration file.70 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 96. Important: Because of the critical nature of keys in your keystore, back up your keystore on a regular basis. This way, you can recover it as needed and can read the data cartridges that were encrypted by using the certificate with that drive or library. Do not encrypt your backups. The EKM is a process awaiting a key generation or key retrieval request that a tape drive or library sends over a TCP/IP communication path between the EKM and the tape library or tape drive. When a tape drive writes encrypted data, it first requests an encryption key from the EKM. Upon receipt of the request, the EKM generates an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) key and sends it to the tape drive. An AES encryption key is typically a random string of bits generated specifically to scramble and unscramble data. Encryption keys are created by using algorithms that ensure that each key is unique and unpredictable. The longer the key string is, the harder it is to break the encryption code. TS1120, TS1130, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drive encryption use 256-bit AES algorithm keys to encrypt data. Note: EKM should no longer be downloaded for new tape encryption installations. EKM can still be downloaded by existing EKM customers that have previously implemented EKM, or by i5OS customers who want to run their key manager on i5OS.2.2.2 Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager (TKLM) EKM has been replaced by the IBM Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager (TKLM). TLKM can be used to provide encryption key management services for the encrypting of data with the TS1130, TS1120, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drives. Similar to the Encryption Key Manager (EKM), the Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager serves data keys to the tape drive. The first release of Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager focuses on ease of use and provides a new graphical user interface (GUI) to help with the installation and configuration of the key manager. With Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager, you can create and manage the main encryption keys (certificates). If you already are using the existing Encryption Key Manager, you can migrate to the new Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager. Host software, including the Input/Output Supervisor (IOS) proxy, has no direct knowledge of which key manager is being used. Specification of either key manager is handled the same way, by using the EKM keyword on existing IOS commands. For additional information about the Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager, see the IBM Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager Information Center at: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v2r1/index.jsp More information on this offering can also be found on the TKLM website: http://www.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/key-lifecycle-mgr/2.2.3 Encryption methods The encryption methods for the TS1120, TS1130, TS1140, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drives differ slightly. The following sections address those differences. In this section we use the term Key Manager (KM) to represent both EKM and TKLM, Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager (TKLM) is the IBM strategic new platform for storage and delivery of encryption keys to encrypting storage end-point devices. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 71
  • 97. Symmetric key encryption Encryption of data by using a symmetric key and algorithm is sometimes called private key encryption or secret key, which is not to be confused with the private key in an asymmetric key system. In a symmetric key system, the cipher key that is used for encrypting data is the same as the cipher key that is used for decryption. The encryption and decryption ciphers can be related by a simple transform on the key, or the encryption key and the decryption key can be identical. In the IBM Tape Encryption solution (EKM and TKLM), the same encryption key is used for both encryption and decryption of the data. This key is protected by an asymmetric key algorithm and is never available in the clear. Symmetric key encryption is several orders of magnitude faster than asymmetric key encryption. In addition, the comparable key sizes for symmetric key encryptions versus asymmetric key encryption are an order of magnitude different. A 128-bit secret key is considered safe, while Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) suggests a 1024-bit key length. The IBM Tape Encryption solution uses an AES algorithm with a key length of 256 bits. The AES algorithm is based on the Rijndael algorithm. AES is an accepted standard that supports a subset of the key sizes and block sizes that the Rijndael algorithms support. Secret key algorithms can be designed to support encryption one bit at a time or by specified blocks of bits. The AES standard supports 128-bit block sizes and key sizes of 128, 192, and 256. The IBM Tape Encryption solution uses an AES 256-bit key. Other well-known symmetric key examples include Twofish, Blowfish, Serpent, Cast5, DES, TDES, and IDEA. Figure 2-31 shows the symmetric encryption data flow. Algorithm Encrypted Plain Text AES Data Symmetric Key AES_256_ITSO Encryption Process Decryption Process Algorithm Encrypted Plain Text AES Data Symmetric Key AES_256_ITSO Figure 2-31 Symmetric key encryption data flow Asymmetric key encryption Another important method of encryption that is widely used today is referred to as public/private key encryption or asymmetric encryption. When using this encryption methodology, ciphers are generated in pairs. The first key is used to encrypt the data, and the second key is used to decrypt the data.72 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 98. This technique was pioneered in the 1970s and represented a significant breakthrough incryptography. The RSA algorithm is the most widely used public key technique. The power ofthis approach is a public key, which is used to encrypt the data. This public key can be widelyshared, and anyone who wants to send secure data to an organization can use its public key.The receiving organization then uses its private key to decrypt the data, which makespublic/private key encryption useful for sharing information between organizations. Thismethodology is widely used on the Internet today to secure transactions, including SecureSockets Layer (SSL).Asymmetric key encryption is much slower and more computationally intensive thansymmetric key encryption. The advantage of asymmetric key encryption is the ability to sharesecret data without sharing the same encryption key. Figure 2-32 shows an encryption anddecryption data path when using public key encryption algorithms. In the diagram, the plaintext is enciphered using the public key and an RSA encryption algorithm, which yields theencrypted data. Starting with the enciphered text, a private key is used, with the RSAalgorithm to decrypt the data back to plain text. Algorithm Encrypted Plain Text RSA Data Asymetric Public Key Encryption Process Decryption Process Algorithm Encrypted Plain Text RSA AES Data Asymetric Private KeyFigure 2-32 Asymmetric key encryption data flowManaging encryptionYou can choose from three methods of encryption management. These methods differ inwhere you choose to locate your key manager application. Your operating environmentdetermines which is the best for you, with the result that key management and the encryptionpolicy engine can be in any one of the environmental layers in the following sections.Application-managed tape encryptionThe application-managed tape encryption method is best in operating environments that runan application that is already capable of generating and managing encryption policies andkeys, such as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. Policies specifying when encryption is to be usedare defined through the application interface. The policies and keys pass through the datapath between the application layer and the TS1120, TS1130, TS1140, TS1040, and TS1050Tape Drives. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 73
  • 99. Encryption is the result of interaction between the application and the encryption-enabled tape drive and is transparent to the system and library layers. Because the application manages the encryption keys, volumes written and encrypted with the application method can only be read by using the application-managed tape encryption method. System-managed tape encryption The system-managed tape encryption method can be used for Open Systems operating environments where no application that is capable of key management runs. Encryption policies specifying when to use encryption are set up through each instance of the IBM device driver. Key generation and management are performed by the key manager, a Java application running on the host or externally on another host. Policy controls and keys pass through the data path between the system layer and the TS1120, TS1130, TS1140, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drives. Encryption is transparent to the applications. System-managed tape encryption and library-managed tape encryption are transparent to one another. A tape encrypted by using system-managed encryption can be decrypted by using library-managed encryption. The reverse is true, if they both have access to the same key manager keystore. Library-managed tape encryption The library-managed tape encryption method is supported on the following IBM tape libraries: TS2900 Tape Autoloader with Ultrium 4 and Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drives TS3100 Tape Library with: – Ultrium 4 Full-High and Half-High Tape Drives – Ultrium 5 Full-High and Half-High Tape Drives TS3200 Tape Library with: – Ultrium 4 Full-High and Half-High Tape Drives – Ultrium 5 Full-High and Half-High Tape Drives TS3310 Tape Library with Ultrium 4 and Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drives TS3400 Tape Library with the TS1120 and TS1130 Tape Drives TS3500 Tape Library with the TS1120, TS1130, TS1140, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drives These tape drives can be installed in the TS3500 Tape Library, but the TS1120, TS1130, TS1140, and LTO tape drives cannot be intermixed within the same logical library. However, you can have TS1120, TS1130, and TS1140 Tape Drives in the same logical library. Key generation and management are performed by the key manager, a Java application running on a library-attached host. The keys pass through the library-to-drive interface. Therefore, encryption is transparent to the applications. When used with certain applications, such as IBM TSM, library-managed encryption includes support for an internal label option. When the internal label option is configured, the TS1120, TS1130, TS1140, TS1040, and TS1050 Tape Drives automatically derive the encryption policy and key information from the metadata that is written on the tape volume by the application. System-managed tape encryption and library-managed tape encryption are transparent to one another. A tape that is encrypted by using system-managed encryption can be decrypted by using library-managed encryption. The reverse is true, if they both have access to the same key manager keystore and both use AIX and the IBM device driver. Otherwise, this capability might not be feasible.74 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 100. 2.2.4 LTO Ultrium Tape Encryption The LTO Ultrium Tape Encryption for TS1040 and TS1050 differs from the TS1120, TS1130, and TS1140 Encryption. Unlike the TS1120, TS1130, and TS1140 Tape Drives, the TS1040 and TS1050 Tape Drives cannot store a wrapped form of the symmetric encryption key on the tape cartridge. The symmetric encryption key is stored in the keystore attached to the key manger. An associated key identifier or alias maps to the data key in the keystore. This alias is stored with each block of data on the tape. AES 256-bit encryption is used, as with the TS1120, TS1130, and TS1140 Tape Drives, to encrypt and decrypt the data on the data cartridge. The key manager for IBM tape products is IBM Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manage (TKLM) Write request The process for a write request to the LTO Ultrium Tape Drive TS1040 or TS1050 with encryption includes the following steps: 1. The LTO Ultrium Tape Drive receives a mount request for write at BOT with encryption. 2. The LTO Ultrium Tape Drive initiates a session with the key manager. The tape drive communicates through the library by using TCP/IP. The tape drive requests a data key and passes an optional key label. 3. The key manager authenticates the LTO Ultrium Tape Drive in its drive table. 4. The key manager retrieves a pregenerated AES-256 data key from the LTO drive. 5. The key manager sends a data key and key identifier to the LTO drive in a secure manner. 6. The LTO drive receives the key structures and embeds the key identifier in the data and encrypts and writes the data to the tape. Read or write-append request When an encrypted cartridge is mounted in the LTO Ultrium Tape Drive TS1040 or TS1050 in response to a specific mount request, the following steps are taken: 1. The LTO drive receives a mount request for a read or an append operation. 2. The LTO drive begins reading and finds an encrypted record. The key identifier is retrieved. 3. The LTO drive initiates a session with the key manager. The LTO drive communicates through the library by using TCP/IP. The key identifier is passed for decryption. 4. The key manager authenticates the LTO drive in the drive table. 5. The key manager retrieves the pregenerated data key that is referenced by the key identifier. 6. The key manager passes the data key to the LTO drive in a secure manner. 7. The LTO drive reads the data from or write-appends data to the data cartridge.2.3 IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Half-High Tape Drive The IBM System Storage TS2230 (3580 Model H3V) was introduced in 2010. It is a new generation of the IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Half-High drive. It is built on LTO Ultrium 5 technology and is referred to as a version 2 (V2) drive. While maintaining the same properties as the older drives, it provides the following improvements over the old model: Incorporates the improved LTO-5 Half-High drive technology A larger 256 MB internal buffer 6 Gbps SAS attachment Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 75
  • 101. Improved performance due to higher connection speed Figure 2-33 shows the TS2230 Tape Drive Figure 2-33 TS2230 Tape Drive The IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Half-High drive range consists of: TS2230 (3580 Model H3V) standalone drive. Tape drive sled inside a TS2900 Tape Autoloader (only supports the previous model) Tape drive sled inside a TS3100 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3200 Tape Library Benefits of the TS2230 Tape Drive 6 Gbps SAS interface. This provides better manageability and performance. SAS offers point-to-point architecture, enhanced scalability and compatibility with Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA). The drive contains a dual port, Mini-SAS (SFF-8088) SAS connector. WORM capability. This provides WORM (Write Once, Read Many) support for WORM media, helping customers comply with government and customer requirements in specific industries. Drive features The drive offers the following features: Dual port 6 Gbps Serial Attached Small Computer Systems Interface (SAS) Half-High form factor (smaller than previous model as seen in Figure 2-36 on page 83) Native storage capacity of 400 GB per cartridge (800 GB at 2:1 compression) Maximum native data transfer rate of up to 80 MB per second Burst data transfer rate of 600 MB per second 256 MB read-and-write cache Integrated electronics using IBM-engineered copper technology Single Character Display (SCD) operator panel Ready and Fault status lights Maintenance Mode functions Channel calibration System performance is further optimized by a feature called channel calibration, in which the drive automatically customizes each read/write data channel to compensate for variations in76 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 102. such things as the recording channels transfer function, the media, and characteristics of thedrive head.Data cartridge capacity scalingThe SET CAPACITY SCSI command enables a customer to capacity scale a data cartridge toenable faster random access. As an example, a customer could capacity scale a datacartridge to 20% of its normal length, which improves the average access time by almost afactor of 5; however, it also reduces the native capacity of the tape to 80 GB.Speed matchingTo improve system performance, the drive uses a technique called speed matching todynamically adjust its native (uncompressed) data rate to the slower data rate of a server.With speed matching, the drive operates at different speeds when reading or writing theUltrium 2 or Ultrium 3 cartridge format.Table 2-6 shows the speed matching rates for the TS2230 Tape Drive.Table 2-6 Speed matching data rates for the TS2230 Tape Drive Performance Parameters Generation 3 Media Generation 2 Media Generation 1 Media Speed matching data rates 80.0 35.0 20.0 MBps 76.1 33.7 19.2 72.3 32.3 18.5 68.4 31.0 17.7 64.6 29.6 16.9 60.8 28.3 16.2 56.9 26.9 15.4 53.1 25.6 14.6 49.2 24.2 13.8 45.4 22.9 13.1 41.5 21.5 12.3 37.7 20.2 11.5 33.8 18.8 10.8 30.0 17.5 10.0Cartridge compatibilityThe TS2230 Tape Drive uses the IBM LTO Ultrium 3, 400 GB Data Cartridge and iscompatible with the cartridges of its predecessor, the IBM Ultrium 2 Tape Drive. The driveperforms the following functions: Reads and writes Generation 3 and Generation 2. Only reads Generation 1 cartridges. Does not write prior generation format to current generation cartridge.The drive reads tapes that have been written by other licensed Ultrium 3 drives. It also writesto tapes that can be read by other licensed Ultrium 3 drives.In addition to using the IBM LTO Ultrium Data Cartridge with up to 400 GB capacity, the drivealso offers read/write capability for certified LTO Ultrium tape cartridges.Drive performancePerformance characteristics of the TS2230 Tape Drive are: Native data rate 80 MB/s (with Ultrium 3 media) Maximum sustained data rate (at maximum compression) 550 MB/s Burst data rate 600 MB/s Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 77
  • 103. Nominal load-to-ready time 12 seconds Nominal unload time 17 seconds Average rewind time 59 seconds By using the built-in data-compression capability of the tape drive, greater data rates than the native data transfer rate can be achieved. However, the actual throughput is a function of many components, such as the host system processor, disk data rate, block size, data compression ratio, SAS bus capabilities, and system or application software.2.4 IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High Tape Drive The IBM System Storage TS1040 (machine type 3588, Model F4A) and TS2340 (3580 Model L43/S43) are LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High tape drives. The TS1040 Tape Drive is designed to be installed in an IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library (machine type 3584). These drives and other LTO-4 Full-High drives offer high capacity, performance, and technology for the midrange Open Systems environment. The IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High drive range consists of: TS2340 (3580 Model L43/S43) stand alone drive. Tape drive sled inside a TS3100 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3200 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3310 Tape Library TS1040 (3588 F4A) tape drive sled within a TS3500 Tape Library The IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Full-High Tape Drive is a high-performance, high-capacity data-storage device that can back up and restore Open Systems applications. The drive can be integrated into an enclosure, such as a desktop unit, tape autoloader, or tape library. The characteristics of this drive and the IBM TS1040 Tape Drive are explained in this section. Figure 2-34 shows a TS2340 Tape Drive. Figure 2-34 LTO Ultrium 4 TS2340 Tape Drive Drive features LTO Generation 4 Full-High Tape Drive has the following characteristics: Host interface connections IBM Ultrium 4 drives offer these connection types: Ultra 160 Low Voltage Differential (LVD) SCSI using HD68 connector (not on TS1040) Switched fabrics 4 Gbit using LC connector (not in TS2340 standalone drive) SAS 3Gb (Not on TS1040)78 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 104. Performance Up to 120 MBps native transfer rate (up to 240 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio) Burst data transfer rate of 160 MBps for the SCSI and 300 MBps for the SAS interfaceThe transfer rate increases 50% from LTO Generation 3 Tape Drives (80 MBps native up to160 MBps compressed).Higher cartridge capacity 800 GB native (1.6 TB with a 2:1 compression ratio) using an Ultrium 4 cartridge. The internal read/write buffer size is 256 MB, and the total amount of data tracks is 896. The native storage capacity is 800 GB and 1600 GB with a 2:1 compression ratio.Per cartridge, 100% capacity increase from LTO Generation 3 Tape Drives (400 GBnative/800 GB compressed)WORM supportUses WORM cartridges so that you can store data in a non-erasable, non-rewritable format.New 256 AES encryptionAddresses security and compliance concerns by enabling the writing of encrypted data toLTO Ultrium 4 tape cartridges (unable to read encrypted data without access to the “key”),4 Gbps Fibre Channel interface for either point-to-point or FC-AL attachment.The IBM LTO Ultrium 4 drive, and the TS1040, were the first tape drives within the IBM LTOtape family to support tape encryption.Application-managed tape encryption is available at no charge. For system-managed tapeencryption and library-managed tape encryption, you must order FC5900 or FC1604(Transparent LTO Encryption) and FC9900 (Encryption Configuration) if you are planning toimplement tape encryption in your environment. To learn more about tape encryption, see2.2, “Tape encryption overview” on page 69.Compatibility with an earlier version Reads and writes LTO Generation 3 data cartridges Reads LTO Generation 2 data cartridgesTable 2-7 shows the native data transfer rate when a data cartridge of another generation isprocessed.Table 2-7 Native data transfer rate with various media Generation 4 Generation 3 Generation 2 media media media Supported methods of operating Read/write Read/write Read only Native data rate SCSI (MBps) 120 80 35 Native date rate SAS (MBps) 120 80 35 Native data rate Fibre Channel (MBps) 120 80 35Points to considerThe drive can work in fabric or FC-AL mode. Per SNIA standard, it tries first to connect asFC_AL, and if this fails, it tries to log in as a fabric device. It does an autosensing on thespeed and connects with either 1 Gbit, 2 Gbit, or 4 Gbit. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 79
  • 105. This drive does not autoconfigure if it has been set to force an explicit setting of these configurations. The drive can be forced to an explicit setting by serial port (LDI/ADI) and library port (LUN 1) commands, which write the vital product data (VPD). The Ultrium 4 drive attempts to connect at 4 Gbps, but autonegotiates down to 2 Gbps or 1 Gbps if the system or switch to which it is connected cannot support 4 Gbps. SAS drives autonegotiate speed. The SAS drives are dual-ported and use the SAS Drive Plug Connector, which supplies power to the drive. Speed matching To improve the performance of the LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drive, the tape drive uses a technique called speed matching to dynamically adjust its native (uncompressed) data rate to the slower rate of the HBA of the server. The LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drive negotiates with the HBA of the server to set up a speed with the best performance. If the server is between two of the native rates, the drive calculates the appropriate data rate at which to operate. Speed matching reduces backhitching. Backhitching is a condition that occurs when a data cartridge stops, reverses, and restarts motion. A backhitch is usually the result of a mismatch between the data rates of the connected server and the tape drive. The Ultrium 4 Tape Drive has a 256 MB internal data buffer compared to a 128 MB internal data buffer in the Ultrium 3 Tape Drive. For LTO-4 Full-High (FH) and version 1 Half-High (HH) the speed matching data rate is shown in Table 2-8. Table 2-8 LTO-4 FH and version 1 HH drives Performance Parameters Generation 4 Media Generation 3 Media Generation 2Media Speed matching data rates 120 80 30 MBps 103 70 26 84 60 22 66 50 19 48 40 15 40 30 30 For LTO-4 Full-High (FH) and version 2 Half-High (HH) the speed matching data rate is shown in Table 2-9. Table 2-9 LTO-4 FH and version 2 HH tape drive Performance Parameters Generation 4 Media Generation 3 Media Generation 2 Media Speed matching data rates 120.0 80.0 35.0 MBps 113.1 76.1 33.7 106.1 72.3 32.3 99.2 68.4 31.0 92.3 64.6 29.6 85.3 60.8 28.3 78.6 56.9 26.9 71.4 53.1 25.6 64.6 49.2 24.2 57.6 45.4 22.9 50.8 41.5 21.5 43.8 37.7 20.2 36.9 33.8 18.8 30.5 30.0 17.580 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 106. Servo and track layout technologyUltrium 4 has 896 data tracks compared to 704 data tracks in Ultrium 3 that are used to readand write data to the data cartridge. These tracks are grouped into five servo bands asexplained in “Servo tracks” on page 43. The high-bandwidth servo system features alow-mass servo to help more effectively track servo bands and to improve data throughputwith damaged media in less-than-optimal shock and vibration environments.Magneto-resistive head designMagneto-resistive head design using flat lap head technology in magneto-resistive heads forUltrium 4 helps minimize contact, debris accumulation, and wear on the tape as it moves overthe read/write heads.Surface Control Guiding MechanismThe IBM patented Surface Control Guiding Mechanism guides the tape along the tape path inthe LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drive. This method uses the surface of the tape, rather than theedges, to control tape motion. This method helps to reduce tape damage (especially to theedges of the tape) and tape debris, which comes from the damaged edges and canaccumulate in the head areaSeparate writing of multiple file marksWith separate writing of multiple file marks, you can request any write command of two ormore file marks to cause a separate data set to be written containing all file marks after thefirst file mark. This feature has the following advantages: Improves performance if a subsequent append overwrites somewhere after the first file mark. Typically indicates a point where an append operation might occur after the first of these file marks. Avoids having to rewrite data sets that contain client data and the first file mark if this type of an append occurs.Power managementThe Ultrium 4 Half-High Tape Drive power management function controls the drive electronicsto be turned off or to stay in a low-power mode when the circuit functions are not needed fordrive operations.Channel calibrationThe performance of the LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drive is further optimized by a feature calledchannel calibration. Channel calibration is the process by which the drive automaticallycustomizes each read/write data channel to compensate for variations in the recordingchannel’s transfer function, the media, and characteristics of the drive head.Sleep modeTo save energy, the LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drives use a feature called sleep mode. To enter sleepmode, the LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drive must be inactive for a minimum of 30 seconds. The LTOUltrium 4 Tape Drive goes out of this sleeping mode again after receiving a SCSI command, acommand across the library or drive interface (LDI or RS-422), or on a load or unload request.When in sleep mode, the drive response time to commands that do not require media motionincreases by up to ten microseconds. Commands that require media motion might be delayedan additional 100 milliseconds, because the tape must be retensioned. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 81
  • 107. The customer-centric Statistical Analysis Reporting System The customer-centric Statistical Analysis and Reporting System (ccSARS) provides information that reflects the current and overall health of the drive and any media recently used within the TS1040. The ccSARS can be used either directly by the host or a subsystem to monitor the systemic operational characteristics of the TS1040 and media. At the time of writing this publication, the TS3500 Tape Library is the only library that supports ccSARS.2.4.1 IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Half-High Tape Drive The IBM System Storage TS2240 (3580 Model H4V) was introduced in 2010 and is an improved version of the IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Half-High drive. It is built on LTO Ultrium 5 technology and is referred to as a version 2 (V2) drive. While maintaining the same properties over the older drive models, they provide the following improvements over the old model: Incorporates the improved LTO-5 Half-High drive technology 6 Gbps SAS attachment 8 Gbps Fiber Channel - single port (Only in TS3100 and TS3200 libraries) Improved performance due to higher connection speed Features of the Half-High Tape Drive are similar to the LTO Full-High Tape Drive explained in the previous section. The IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Half-High drive range consists of: TS2240 (3580 Model H4V/S4V) stand alone drive Tape drive sled inside a TS2900 Tape Autoloader Tape drive sled inside a TS3100 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3200 Tape Library Figure 2-35 shows a TS2240 Tape Drive. Figure 2-35 TS2240 Tape Drive Drive features The Ultrium 4 Tape Drive also includes the following characteristics: Half-High form factor (smaller than previous model as seen in Figure 2-36 on page 83) Native data transfer rate of up to 120 MBps Ultrium 4 tape cartridge native physical capacity of 800 GB (1.6 TB at a 2:1 compression ratio) Burst data transfer rate of 300 MBps 6 Gbps SAS dual port attachment 8 Gbps Fiber Channel attachment in TS3100 and TS3200 libraries 256 MB internal buffer Ultrium 4 tape cartridges drive encryption support 8 KB cartridge memory with Ultrium 4 media Integrated electronics using IBM-engineered copper technology Single Character Display (SCD) operator panel Ready and Fault status lights82 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 108. Maintenance Mode functions The IBM Ultrium 4 technology supports data encryption. The hardware encryption and decryption core and control core reside in the IBM Ultrium 4 Tape Drive. A larger internal data buffer helps improve data access rates and reduce cartridge fill and rewind times along with dynamic channel calibration that is designed to help increase data throughput. In addition to reading and writing to LTO Ultrium 4 tape cartridges, the LTO-4 Half-High Tape Drive can read and write to LTO Ultrium 3 cartridges and read LTO Ultrium 2 cartridges. Figure 2-36 shows the difference in size of the previous 3580 H4S model compared to the new 3580 H4V model. Figure 2-36 Model size comparison2.5 IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive The IBM System Storage TS1050 (machine type 3588, Model F5A) is an LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High drive designed to be installed in an IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library (machine type 3584). This drive and other Full-High LTO Ultrium 4 tape drives offer a high-performance, high-capacity data-storage device that is designed to back up and restore Open Systems applications. The drive can be integrated into an enclosure, such as a desktop unit, tape autoloader, or tape library. The characteristics of this drive and the IBM TS1050 Tape Drive are described in the following sections. The IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High drive range consists of: TS2350 (3580 Model HS53) standalone drive Tape drive sled inside a TS3100 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3200 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3310 Tape Library TS1050 (3588 F5A) tape drive sled within a TS3500 Tape Library Figure 2-37 on page 84 shows a TS2350 Full-High LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 83
  • 109. Figure 2-37 TS2350 LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive Drive features The LTO Generation 5 Full-High Tape Drive has the following characteristics: Full-High drive form factor Native data transfer rate of up to 140 MBps LTO Ultrium 5 data and WORM tape cartridge native physical capacity of up to 1.5 TB 8 Gbps Fiber Channel attachment 6 Gbps SAS dual port attachment A 512 MB internal buffer Application-managed encryption support for Full-High LTO Generation 5 SAS tape drive 8 KB cartridge memory with Ultrium 5 media LTFS single drive-use and Library Edition support IBM Linear Tape File System partitioning support Ethernet connection (limited use at this time) Better integrated electronics using IBM-engineered copper technology The IBM LTO Ultrium 5 technology supports data encryption. The hardware encryption and decryption core and control core reside in the IBM Ultrium 5 Tape Drive (available to the TS3100 and TS3200 with the 6 Gbps SAS interface). A larger internal data buffer helps improve data access rates and reduce cartridge fill and rewind times along with dynamic channel calibration that helps increase data throughput. In addition to reading and writing to LTO Ultrium 5 tape cartridges, the LTO-5 Half-High Tape Drive can read and write to LTO Ultrium 4 cartridges and read LTO Ultrium 3 cartridges. The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive offers high capacity, performance, and technology for the midrange Open Systems environment. This drive offers these connection types: 8 Gbps Fiber Channel interface for point-to-point or an FC-AL attachment (not on TS2350) 6 Gbps SAS for point-to-point attachment (not in TS3310 or TS1040). The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive is encryption-capable and designed to support application-managed tape encryption at no charge on the SAS and Fibre Channel tape drives. In case of library usage, system-managed tape encryption and library-managed tape encryption are supported with the Transparent LTO Encryption feature (FC5900). IBM Tivoli Key Lifecycle Manager is required for encryption key management with LTO Ultrium 5 drives. The IBM Ultrium 5 Half-High tape drive has a new LED from previous generations. This LED is used to identify when data being processed is being encrypted and when a cartridge is a secure data cartridge. The native data transfer rate is 140 MBps, and it uses the IBM TotalStorage LTO Ultrium 1500 GB data cartridge, which provides up to 3000 GB of storage with a 2:1 compression ratio.84 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 110. The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive uses the dual-stage 16-head actuator for precise headalignment to help support higher track density, improved data integrity, an independent tapeloader, and threader motors with positive pin retention. The pin retention mechanism helpsprevent loose tape wraps and stretching or breaking the tape. Also, the tape loader andthreader motors help improve the reliability of loading and unloading a cartridge and helpretain the pin even if the tension drops. The LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive has a 512 MBinternal data buffer. (In the LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive, the internal buffer is 256 MB).Basic points to considerKeep in mind the following points: The LTO Ultrium 5 Fibre Channel drive can operate as an NL port (FCAL support, or connection to an FL port on a fabric) or as an N port. As an N port, it supports direct connection to an F port (some legacy switches), also known as point-to-point to a fabric. The LTO Ultrium 5 drive autoconfigures to an N or NL port depending on whether it sees a loop or an F-port connection when the drive boots. This drive does not autoconfigure if it is set to force an explicit setting of these configurations. The drive can be forced to an explicit setting by serial port (LDI/ADI) commands, library port (LUN1) commands, or both that write the vital product data (VPD). The LTO Ultrium 5 Fibre Channel drive attempts to connect at 8 Gbps, but autonegotiates down to 4 Gbps, 2 Gbps, or 1 Gbps if the system or switch to which it is connected cannot support 8 Gbps. The LTO Ultrium 5 SAS drives autonegotiate speeds. There are no configurable topologies and, therefore, no feature switches associated with the SAS. The SAS drives are dual ported and use the SAS Drive Plug Connector, which supplies power to the drive. SAS is intended to be hot-pluggable. The LTO Ultrium 5 SAS drive attempts to connect at 6 Gbps, but autonegotiates down to 3 Gbps if the system to which it is connected cannot support 6 Gbps. Expander usage is not supported.The highlights of the LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive are explained in the following sections.Dynamic speed matchingThe LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive performs dynamic speed matching at one of 14 speeds toadjust the native data rate of the drive as closely as possible to the net host data rate (afterfactoring out data compressibility). This approach helps to reduce the number of backhitchrepositions and improves throughput performance. Backhitching is the condition that occurswhen a data cartridge stops, reverses, and restarts motion. A backhitch is the result of amismatch between the data rates of the connected server and the tape drive.Table 2-10 on page 86 shows the data rates for the LTO Ultrium 5 Drives. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 85
  • 111. Table 2-10 LTO-5 Drive speed matching data rates Performance Generation 5 Media Generation 4 Media Generation 3 Media Parameters Speed matching data 140.0 120.0 80.0 rates MBps 130.0 113.1 76.1 120.0 106.1 72.3 112.7 99.2 68.4 105.5 92.3 64.6 98.2 85.3 60.8 90.9 78.6 56.9 83.6 71.4 53.1 76.4 64.6 49.2 69.1 57.6 45.4 61.8 50.8 41.5 53.5 43.8 37.7 46.3 36.9 33.8 40.0 30.5 30.0 Servo and track layout technology The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive uses 1280 data tracks to read and write to Ultrium 5 tape. These tracks are grouped in five servo bands as explained in “Servo tracks” on page 43. The high-bandwidth servo system features a low-mass servo to help more effectively track servo bands and improve data throughput with damaged media in less-than-optimal shock and vibration environments. Giant magneto-resistive head design The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive uses the new giant magneto-resistive (GMR) head with beveled contouring for reducing friction (“stiction”), especially with smoother LTO Ultrium 5 media type. This head design is well-proven in Enterprise Tape products and helps minimize contact, edge damage, debris accumulation, and wear on the tape as it moves over the read/write heads. Surface Control Guiding Mechanism The Surface Control Guiding Mechanism guides the tape along the tape path in the LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive. This method uses the surface of the tape, rather than the edges, to control tape motion. LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drives uses flangeless rollers so that the media can float naturally. LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drives do not have flangeless rollers. The tape path is similar to the path for the LTO Ultrium 4 Half-High Tape Drive. The Surface Control Guiding Mechanism helps to reduce tape damage (especially to the edges of the tape) and tape debris, which comes from the damaged edges and can accumulate in the head area. Separate writing of multiple file marks Separate writing of multiple file marks requests any write command of two or more file marks to cause a separate data set to be written that contains all file marks after the first file mark. This feature has two advantages: It helps improve performance if a subsequent append overwrites somewhere after the first file mark. Writing multiple file marks typically indicates a point where an append operation might occur after the first of these file marks. This change helps prevent the rewrite of data sets that contain client data and the first file mark if such an append occurs.86 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 112. Power savingsThe LTO Ultrium 5 has the most dramatic power savings implementation of any IBM LTOUltrium generation. This power savings brings the wattage used by the drive down to a targetof 5 watts at the time of availability. This savings is realized in an unloaded state with nocommands being issued to the drive over Ethernet or host interface. The drive always seeksthe lowest power usage based on the operations that are being performed. Power savingsmode is automatically initialized and recovered by the drive. No interaction is needed by theuser.Graceful dynamic brakingThe LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive uses dynamic braking. If a power failure occurs, reelmotors maintain tension and gradually decelerate instead of stopping abruptly. The result isreduced potential for tape breakage, stretching, or loose tape wraps during a sudden powerdown.Statistical Analysis and Reporting SystemThe Ultrium 5 Tape Drive uses the Statistical Analysis and Reporting System (SARS) to helpisolate failures between media and hardware. The SARS uses the data cartridgeperformance history saved in the cartridge memory module and the drive performance historykept in the drive flash Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)to help determine the likely cause of the failure. SARS can cause the drive to request acleaning tape, to mark the media as degraded, and to indicate that the hardware hasdegraded. When a drive dump is taken from the drive, the Support Center can determine ifthe failure is in the tape drive itself or on the data cartridge.SkipSyncSkipSync is a new feature in which high flush operations, such as small files with filemarks,can be flushed without requiring a backhitch in the operation. This feature stays within thisLTO specification for vendor interchange operability while increasing streaming possibilities orperformance and reducing tape wear due to backhitching. SkipSync causes a degradation intotal capacity on tape down to 1 TB for an LTO-5 cartridge and degrades read-backperformance.Data Safe ModeData Safe Mode is a new feature that places the drive in a Logical WORM mode to enable thecustomer to write protect standard LTO Ultrium media. The drive does not allow writes fromany position except End of Data. Data Safe Mode is enabled by the user, automation device,or independent software vendor (ISV) by using a mode select command.Media partitioningMedia partitioning is now available with the LTO Ultrium 5 drive. Media partitioning allows forfaster data access by splitting the cartridge into two media partitions. WORM media is notpartitionable.IBM Linear Tape File System software applicationThe release of the IBM Linear Tape File System (LTFS) software application uses the LTOUltrium Generation 5 media partitioning functionality. LTFS provides a standard tape cartridgeformat at low cost and can be used without additional database applications. LTFS presentstape media as though it were a file system on a disk drive. It supports only IBM LTO Ultrium 5Tape Drives or higher generation IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 87
  • 113. Tape as a storage medium has many benefits: it is reliable, portable, low-cost, low-power, and high-capacity. However, tape is not particularly user-friendly or easy to use, it has no standard format, and data often cannot be used without first copying it to disk. With LTFS, accessing data stored on an IBM tape cartridge became as easy and intuitive as using a USB Flash drive. With LTFS file manager, reading data on a tape cartridge is as easy as dragging and dropping. Users can run any application designed for disk files against tape data without concern for the fact that the data is physically stored on tape. LTFS, which will work on LTO-5 and 3592 E07, and implements a true file system for tape. LTFS also supports library automation, including the ability to find data on a tape in a library without mounting and searching tape volumes. IBM LTFS provides support for IBM tape automation in addition to the single drive edition IBM Linear Tape File System. LTFS Library Edition provides the ability to create a single file system mount point for a logical library managed by a single instance of LTFS, running on a single computer system. In addition, it provides for caching of tape indices, and for searching, querying, and displaying tapes contents within an IBM tape library without the requirement to mount tape cartridges For more detail on LTFS go to Chapter 4, “IBM System Storage LTFS Single Drive Edition” on page 157 or Chapter 5, “IBM System Storage LTFS Library Edition” on page 231. Highly integrated electronics using IBM engineered copper technology IBM engineered copper technology reduces the total number of components in the drive, helps lower chip temperatures, and reduces power requirements. The Ultrium 5 drive electronics provide error correction of soft errors and in memory arrays. Cartridge compatibility The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive uses the IBM LTO Ultrium 1500 GB data cartridge and is compatible with the cartridges of its predecessor, the IBM Ultrium 4 Tape Drive. The drive performs the following functions: Reads and writes LTO Ultrium 5 cartridges to the LTO Ultrium 5 format. Reads and writes LTO Ultrium 4 cartridges to the LTO Ultrium 4 format. Reads LTO Ultrium 3 cartridges. Does not write LTO Ultrium 3, 2, and 1 cartridges. Reads tapes that have been written by other licensed LTO Ultrium 5 drives. The drive also writes to tapes that can be read by other licensed LTO Ultrium 5 drives. In addition to using the IBM LTO Ultrium Data Cartridge with up to 1500 GB capacity, the drive offers read/write capability for certified LTO Ultrium tape cartridges. Table 2-11 shows the native data transfer rate when a data cartridge of another generation is processed. Table 2-11 Native data transfer rate with various media Generation 5 Generation 4 Generation 3 media media media Supported methods of operating Read/write Read/write Read only Native data rate SCSI (MBps) 140 120 80 Native date rate SAS (MBps) 140 120 8088 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 114. Generation 5 Generation 4 Generation 3 media media media Native data rate Fibre Channel (MBps) 140 120 802.5.1 IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive IBM LTO Ultrium tape technology caters to the heavy demands of backup tape storage and archiving in the Open Systems environment. LTO Ultrium proven tape technology has been enhanced in the new IBM Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive to help provide increased capacity, enhanced performance, and reliability compared to LTO Ultrium 4. Drive data transfer rates are up to 140 MBps compared to 120 MBps native for LTO Ultrium 4. The single-reel IBM LTO Ultrium 1500 GB Tape Cartridge features a physical capacity of up to 3000 GB with a 2:1 compression ratio. The IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High drive range consists of: TS2250 (3580 Model H5S) standalone drive Tape drive sled inside a TS2900 Tape Autoloader Tape drive sled inside a TS3100 Tape Library Tape drive sled inside a TS3200 Tape Library Figure 2-38 shows a TS2250 Tape Drive. Figure 2-38 IBM TS2250 Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive Features of the Half-High Tape Drive are similar to the Full-High Tape Drive. Drive features The LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive also includes the following characteristics: Half-High form factor Native data transfer rate of up to 140 MBps LTO Ultrium 5 tape cartridge native physical capacity of 1500 GB (3.0 TB at a 2:1 compression ratio) 6 Gbps SAS dual port attachment A 256 MB internal buffer Application-managed encryption support for Half-High LTO Generation 5 SAS tape drive An 8 KB cartridge memory with Ultrium 5 media IBM Linear Tape File System (LTFS) partitioning support LTFS single drive-use and Library Edition support Ethernet connection (limited use at this time) Integrated electronics using IBM-engineered copper technology The IBM LTO Ultrium 5 technology supports data encryption. The hardware encryption and decryption core and control core reside in the IBM Ultrium 5 Tape Drive (available to the Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 89
  • 115. TS3100 and TS3200 with the 6 Gbps SAS interface). The internal data buffer helps improve data access rates and reduce cartridge fill and rewind times along with dynamic channel calibration that is designed to help increase data throughput. In addition to reading and writing to LTO Ultrium 5 tape cartridges, the LTO-5 Half-High Tape Drive can read and write to LTO Ultrium 4 cartridges and read LTO Ultrium 3 cartridges.2.6 IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 highlights This section addresses the highlights of the IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Tape Drives, such as drive and cartridge compatibility, LTO drive performance, drive operations, reliability, and cleaning the drive. It also illustrates the IBM LTO Ultrium family of tape drives and libraries and provides an overview of the multipath architecture.2.6.1 IBM Ultrium 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compatibility Table 2-12 shows the compatibility among the four generations of LTO data cartridges. The following rules describe the compatibility among the various LTO cartridge generations: Data cartridges one generation and earlier are read/write compatible. Data cartridges two generations and earlier are read only. Data cartridges three generations and earlier are not supported. However, with the LTO Ultrium 5 drive, only an LTO Ultrium 4 cartridge can be written at the LTO Ultrium 4 operating point (800 GB). More specifically, with the LTO Ultrium 5 drive, an LTO Ultrium 4 cartridge (800 GB) cannot be reformatted to the Ultrium 5 format (1500 GB). This concept is generally true when a data cartridge is used in a higher generation LTO Ultrium Tape Drive. Table 2-12, Figure 2-40 on page 92, and Figure 2-39 on page 91 provide an overview of the compatibility of the five generations of data cartridges. Table 2-12 shows the read/write compatibility among the five generations of data cartridges. Table 2-12 Ultrium data cartridge compatibility IBM Ultrium IBM TotalStorage LTO Ultrium Data Cartridge Tape Drive 1500 GB 800 GB 400 GB 200 GB 100 GB (Ultrium 5) (Ultrium 4) (Ultrium 3) (Ultrium 2) (Ultrium 1) Ultrium 5 Read/write Read/write Read only N/A N/A Ultrium 4 N/A Read/write Read/write Read only N/A Ultrium 3 N/A N/A Read/write Read/write Read only Ultrium 2 N/A N/A N/A Read/write Read/write Ultrium 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A Read/write Figure 2-40 on page 92 shows the read/write compatibility, the native sustained data rate, and the native physical data cartridge capacity. You can recognize the various generations of data cartridges quickly by the case color or media identifier at the right side of the barcode label. Table 2-13 on page 91 shows the different case colors and media identifiers for the different LTO Ultrium generations.90 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 116. Table 2-13 Cartridge color and media identifier LTO Ultrium Data Cartridge Case color Media identifier LTO Ultrium 1 Black L1 LTO Ultrium 2 Purple L2 LTO Ultrium 3 Slate Blue L3 LTO Ultrium 4 Green L4 LTO Ultrium 5 Burgundy L5 LTO Ultrium 3 WORM Slate Blue and Silvery gray LT LTO Ultrium 4 WORM Green and Silvery gray LU LTO Ultrium 5 WORM Burgundy and Silvery gray LVFigure 2-39 shows the compatibility among Ultrium 3, 4, and 5 data cartridges.Figure 2-39 IBM Ultrium 3, 4, and 5 compatibilityFigure 2-40 on page 92 shows the compatibility among Ultrium 2, 3, and 4 data cartridges. Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 91
  • 117. Figure 2-40 IBM Ultrium 2, 3, and 4 compatibility2.6.2 LTO performance IBM LTO drives provide high performance and will continue to improve with each new generation of products. If you run applications that are highly dependent on tape-processing speed, you can use the significant performance that is provided by the LTO Ultrium Tape Drives. IBM LTO Ultrium drives provide efficient tape operations and relief to users who have difficulty completing tape activities in the time available. If you have limited system backup windows, or if you have large amounts of disk data to back up, LTO Ultrium Tape Drives are ideal. By using the built-in data-compression capability of the LTO Ultrium drive, you can potentially achieve greater data rates than the uncompressed data rate. However, the actual throughput is a function of many components, such as the host system processor, disk data rate, block size, data compression ratio, SCSI bus capabilities, and system or application software. Installing multiple tape drives in general (or more than two in the case of IBM LTO) on a single SCSI bus can adversely affect data transfer rates. IBM LTO Ultrium 1 The IBM LTO Ultrium 1 Tape Drive has the following performance characteristics: 15 MBps native sustained data transfer rate 30 MBps sustained data transfer rate at a 2:1 compression ratio 60 MBps maximum sustained data rate (at maximum compression) 100 MBps burst data transfer rate for Fibre Channel 80 MBps burst data transfer rate for Ultra2 SCSI LVD drives 40 MBps burst data transfer rate for Ultra SCSI HVD drives 20 s nominal load-to-ready time 18 s nominal unload time92 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 118. 73 s average search time to first byte of data 110 s maximum rewind time 4 m/s read/write speed 6 m/s search/rewind speed 32 MB bufferIBM LTO Ultrium 2The IBM LTO Ultrium 2 drives provide more than twice the performance of IBM Ultrium 1 withsustained data rates of 35 MBps native and 70 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio. IBMUltrium 2 has faster load and unload time, faster data access time, faster rewind time, andfaster cartridge fill time compared with IBM Ultrium 1. The Ultrium 2 drive provides speedmatching with five speeds for the Ultrium 2 cartridge. The Ultrium 2 drive also reads andwrites to an Ultrium 1 cartridge at a higher speed than the Ultrium 1 drive.The IBM LTO Ultrium 2 Tape Drive has the following performance characteristics: 35 MBps native sustained data transfer rate 70 MBps sustained data transfer rate at a 2:1 compression ratio 110 MBps maximum sustained data rate (at maximum compression) 200 MBps burst data transfer rate for Fibre Channel 160 MBps burst data transfer rate for Ultra 160 SCSI LVD drives 40 MBps burst data transfer rate for Ultra SCSI HVD drives 15 s nominal load-to-ready time 15 s nominal unload time 49 s average search time to first byte of data 80 s maximum rewind time 6.2 m/s read/write speed 8 m/s search/rewind speed 64 MB bufferIBM LTO Ultrium 3The IBM LTO Ultrium 3 drives offer more than double the performance of IBM Ultrium 2 withsustained data rates of 80 MBps native and 160 MBps with a 2:1 compression ratio. IBMUltrium 3 provides speed matching with five speeds for both Ultrium 3 and Ultrium 2cartridges and reads and writes an Ultrium 2 cartridge at the speed of the Ultrium 2 drive.The IBM LTO Ultrium 3 Tape Drive has the following performance characteristics: 80 MBps native sustained data transfer rate 160 MBps sustained data transfer rate at a 2:1 compression ratio Over 200 MBps maximum sustained data rate (at maximum compression) 200 MBps burst data transfer rate for Fibre Channel 160 MBps burst data transfer rate for Ultra 160 SCSI LVD drives 15 s nominal load-to-ready time 15 s nominal unload time 54 s average search time to first byte of data 88 s maximum rewind time 6.2 m/s read/write speed 8 m/s search/rewind speed 128 MB buffer (256 MB in the Half-High v2 drive)IBM LTO Ultrium 4The IBM LTO Ultrium 4 Tape Drive has the following performance characteristics: 120 MBps native sustained data transfer rate Sustained data transfer rate at a 2:1 compression ratio: Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 93
  • 119. – For SCSI, 140 MBps – For SAS, 240 MBps – For FC, 240 MBps 12 s nominal load-to-ready time 17 s nominal unload time 57 s average search time to first byte of data 54 s average rewind time 8 m/s read/write speed 8 m/s rewind speed 256 MB buffer IBM LTO Ultrium 5 The IBM LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive has the following performance characteristics: 140 MBps native sustained data transfer rate Sustained data transfer rate at a 2:1 compression ratio – For SAS, 280 MBps – For FC, 280 MBps 12 s nominal load-to-ready time 17 s nominal unload time Average search time to first byte of data – 60 s for a Full-High drive – 75 s for a Half-High drive Average rewind time – 60 s for a Full-High drive – 75 s for a Half-High drive 8 m/s read/write speed Rewind speed – 10 m/s for a Full-High drive – 6.4 m/s for a Half-High drive Data buffer size – 512 MB for a Full-High drive – 256 MB for a Half-High drive Partial Response Maximum Likelihood (PRML) The IBM patented linear tape implementation of a Partial Response Maximum Likelihood (PRML) channel technology increases linear densities up to 33% and, consequently, data throughput. The key to the space-saving capability of PRML is that, on a read-back operation, the magnetic flux transitions are sampled. Then the sampling feeds logic algorithms that reconstruct the user’s data stream, rather than using the flux transitions themselves. The previous method of data encoding was Run Length Limited (RLL) encoding, which was also patented by IBM for use in earlier tape drives.94 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 120. Figure 2-41 compares both methods. IBM Linear Implementation of PRML Encoding User Data RLL Bits stored on tape With the IBM 0101110110 -Simple Peak 010010101001010 } Detection implementation of PRML encoding, PRML storing the same Bits stored on tape -Partial Response + data uses up to Maximum Likelihood 0101110110 33% less tape logic Figure 2-41 IBM linear implementation of PRML encoding2.6.3 Operating the LTO Ultrium drive The IBM subassembly has a simple status LED indicator, an unload push button, and a single-character display (see Figure 2-42 and Figure 2-43 on page 96). Operator panel of the LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive The operator panel (Figure 2-42) of the LTO Ultrium 5 Full-High Tape Drive consists of the following components: One status LED indicator (1) An unload button (2) One single-character display (3) One single dot on the single-character display (4) Figure 2-42 LTO Ultrium Full-High operator panel Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 95
  • 121. Operator panel of the LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive The operator panel (Figure 2-43) of the LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive consists of the following components: Two status LED indicators (1) An unload button (2) One single-character display (3) One single dot on the single-character display (4) A single LED for displaying the encryption activity (5) Figure 2-43 LTO Ultrium Half-High operator panel The status LED indicator The status LED indicator uses color and lighting to indicate the following information: The tape is in motion for reading or writing. The drive is rewinding, locating, or unloading the cartridge. The drive is in maintenance mode. A failure occurred, and the drive or media requires service. A microcode update is occurring. By using the unload push button, the operator can perform the following actions: Unload a cartridge. Enter maintenance mode and execute maintenance operations. Force a drive dump operation. The single-character display indicates errors and communicates messages, such as requests for cleaner tapes. The operator uses the single-character display for diagnostic and maintenance functions.2.6.4 Reliability The IBM LTO Ultrium tape format differs from earlier IBM products. Reliability and availability have the following features: Data integrity The drive performs a read after write for verification. Incorrectly written data, such as the result of a tape defect, is automatically rewritten by the drive in a new location. Data rewritten as the result of media defects is not counted against the drive error performance. The drive never records incorrect data to the tape media without posting an error condition.96 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 122. Power lossNo recorded data is lost as a result of normal or abnormal power loss while the drive isreading or writing data. If power is lost while writing data, only the data block that iscurrently being written might be in error. Any previously written data is not destroyed.Error correctionData integrity features include two levels of error correction that can provide recovery fromlongitudinal media scratches.Integrated head cleanerThe head of the drive must be kept clean to prevent errors that are caused bycontamination. During the load process, a brush integrated into the drive mechanismcleans the head before it is used with the tape. This brush keeps the head and media freeof debris on a continuing basis and requires fewer drive-cleaning operations.Surface Control Guiding MechanismThe Surface Control Guiding Mechanism, which is patented by IBM, guides the tape alongthe tape path by using the surface of the tape rather than the edges to control tape motion.By using grooved rollers (Figure 2-44), an air cushion builds between the tape and therollers that keeps the tape in the right position. LTO Ultrium 5 flangeless rollers areinstalled on all four rollers for Full-High tape drives to allow the tape to “float” naturally.This feature helps to prevent tape damage (especially to the edges of the tape) and debrisbuild-up on the roller that can accumulate in the head area, minimizing the chance ofphysical damage to the tape media.Figure 2-44 Surface Control Guiding MechanismFlat lap headThe flat lap head (Figure 2-45) improves contact between the read and write recordingelements and the tape, giving higher quality recording and readback of data.Figure 2-45 Flat lap head Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 97
  • 123. The Surface Control Guiding Mechanism and the flat lap head help minimize debris that is generated as the tape moves through its path, resulting in increased reliability of reading and writing data. This feature also potentially increases the life expectancy of the media by not using the edges of the tape to guide it over the read/write head, which historically was a major source of debris on the tape path. Statistical Analysis and Reporting System SARS is another IBM exclusive feature. Only IBM LTO drives provide this level of preventive diagnostic reporting. See 15.2.5, “Tape System Reporter” on page 827 for additional reporting information. The Ultrium drive uses this reporting system to assist in isolating failures between media and hardware. SARS uses the cartridge performance history saved in the cartridge memory module and the drive performance history kept in the drive flash EEPROM to determine the most likely cause of failure. It can then cause the drive to request a cleaner tape, to mark the media as degraded, and to indicate that the hardware has degraded. SARS reports the results of its analysis in the form of a Tape Alert if necessary (Figure 2-46). Log Sense Page Host/Server (0x2E) VPD history Summary Tape Tape Drive EEPROM Mount Alert Queue DRAM Hardware Hardware Current SARS SARS Mount Predictive Failure Analysis Firmware Volume Volume Mechanism area SARS Usage information SARS Summary area Mount Summary Queue Tape Cartridge Memory Mount Queue Combines cartridge and drive histories; checks and updates each mount or dismount to continuously monitor reliability data to support data integrity Figure 2-46 Statistical Analysis and Reporting System2.6.5 Cleaning the drive In addition to the integrated head-cleaning mechanism, clean the drive regularly, with automatic cleaning enabled where supported in the libraries. Automatic cleaning prevents drive shutdowns because of improper maintenance or contaminants that cause the drive to fail. In the unusual event that the drive head becomes clogged, you might need to use the specially labeled IBM LTO Ultrium cleaning cartridge supplied with each Ultrium Tape Drive product. The cleaning cartridge is good for 50 cleaning operations. If cleaning proves necessary, the LTO-CM memory in a cleaning cartridge is used to track the number of times that the cartridge has been used. After the cartridge has been used 50 times, the drive marks the cleaning cartridge as expired, which also protects you from accidentally reinserting a cleaning cartridge that has been used 50 times.98 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 124. Usage of cleaning cartridges: For normal operations of Ultrium Tape Drives do not use cleaning cartridges other than when automatically required (manual or user-initiated cleaning).2.6.6 The IBM LTO Ultrium family of tape drives and libraries The IBM LTO Ultrium family of tape drives and libraries (Figure 2-47) consists of the product offerings as indicated in the following lists, ranging from a standalone unit to a highly scalable automated library. Figure 2-47 IBM TS3500, TS3310, TS3200 and TS3100 Tape Libraries, TS2900 Tape Autoloader, TS2250 Tape Drive and TS2350 Tape Drive Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 99
  • 125. The product offerings are all based on a common tape drive subassembly packaged in various robotic and standalone environments. The right side of Figure 2-47 on page 99 shows the following tape drives and libraries (from top to bottom): The IBM System Storage TS2250 Tape Drive, is an external standalone or rack-mountable (optional) unit for the family of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape products. It features the LTO Ultrium 5 Half-High Tape Drive The IBM System Storage TS2900 Tape Autoloader is an external standalone or rack-mountable unit in the family of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape products. When it is mounted in a rack, it occupies one unit of the rack. It features one LTO Ultrium Half-High Tape Drive. The IBM System Storage TS2350 Tape Drive is an external standalone or rack-mountable (optional) unit for the family of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape products. It features the LTO Ultrium 5 Tape Drive. The IBM System Storage TS3100 Tape Library is a desktop or rack-mountable single drive unit that can hold up to 24 cartridges. A robotic system moves the cartridges to and from the drive. When it is mounted in a rack, it occupies two units of the rack. It features up to two LTO Ultrium Half-High Tape Drives or one LTO Ultrium Full-High Tape Drive. The IBM System Storage TS3200 Tape Library is a desktop or rack-mountable single or dual drive unit that can hold up to 48 cartridges. It has a three slot I/O station that must be shared when logical libraries are configured. When it is mounted in a rack, it occupies four units of the rack. It features up to four LTO Ultrium Half-High Tape Drives or up to two LTO Ultrium Full-High Tape Drives. The IBM System Storage TS3310 Tape Library is highly modular and vertically expandable. The smallest configuration includes a base module with one to two LTO Ultrium Full-High Tape Drives, 52.5 TB of native tape storage (35 slots), and 6 I/O slots. This tape library will be upgradeable in the future to a fully configured rack-mounted library 41U high. It will have up to 18 LTO Ultrium Full-High Tape Drives, over 603 TB of native tape storage (409 slots), and up to 54 I/O slots. The left side of Figure 2-47 on page 99 shows the IBM System Storage TS3500 Tape Library. This tape library is a larger modular enterprise class library with the potential to house a maximum of 192 IBM LTO or IBM 3592 Tape Drives in as many as 16 frames. The library can also be ordered with a dual accessor model option to help increase mount performance and overall system reliability and availability. The new LTO-5 technology can increase library capacity up to 88% compared to previous LTO technology, in the same foot print, at a typically lower storage cost. A TS3500 Tape Library with High Density (HD) frames can store over 30 petabytes (PB) of uncompressed data or 60 PB at a 2:1 compression ratio. Now, with the release of the new TS3500 Tape Library Shuttle Complex configuration that will support over 300 thousand LTO cartridges, you get an astounding capacity value of over 450 PB.2.6.7 Multipath architecture The patented multipath architecture is an IBM unique feature. The TS3100, TS3200, TS3310, and TS3500 Tape Libraries have implemented the second generation of the architecture. It uses the SCSI-3 Move Media command set that is featured in midrange and open libraries. The multipath architecture removes the need for a dedicated server plus middleware to control the use of a library by multiple hosts using various operating systems, because each drive has its own path to the control unit. Conventional tape libraries use a dedicated host port to communicate with the library, for example, for sending mount request commands. IBM LTO Tape Libraries use the same path to communicate with both the drives and the library controller, as shown in Figure 2-48 on page 101. This path is not one dedicated path, but it might be any path to any tape drive.100 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 126. Single control path Library Library Controller Controller Drive Drive Drive Drive Drive Drive Drive Drive IB M IBM Host Host Data path Drive management Data and Drive management and control paths multiple control paths Conventional tape library with a IBM TS3500 Tape Library with a dedicated host port LUN-1 multipath architectureFigure 2-48 Conventional tape library compared to multipath architectureFor conventional tape libraries, the control path is a single point of failure. In contrast, the IBMLTO Tape Libraries offer as many control paths as there are drives installed in the library.Therefore, if an individual control path failure occurs, you can communicate with your libraryover different, redundant control paths. As shown in Figure 2-49, if one path to a drive isbroken because of a defective switch port, cable, or HBA, communication to the librarycontroller can occur by using one of the other available paths. With automatic control pathfailover, this design constitutes a unique high-availability option. Library Controller Drive Server 1 Drive FC 2 Adapter smc0 Drive 3 smc1 Drive 4 Drive 5 Drive 6 Two control paths enabledFigure 2-49 Redundant control paths to the library controllerIn addition to the redundant control path, multipath architecture offers the additional benefit ofbuilt-in partitioning. With the partitioning feature of the IBM LTO libraries, you can divide thephysical library into several smaller logical libraries, which are independent of each other. The Chapter 2. Overview of IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Drives 101
  • 127. maximum number of logical libraries varies by model type. A logical library must contain at least one tape drive and cartridge cell and can consist of more than one tape drive sharing the same cartridge cells. Multiple heterogeneous hosts can share the library with this partitioning option. Each logical library has its own drives, cartridges, and control paths. Because of barriers between the logical libraries, cartridges cannot be moved from one logical library to another. Figure 2-50 shows three logical libraries, with two drives each and several cartridge storage slots dedicated to each of the heterogeneous servers. Library Controller Drive 1 to Host 1 Logical Library 1 Drive System i 2 App A Drive 3 to Host 2 Logical Library 2 Drive 4 Windows App B Drive 5 to Host 3 Logical Library 3 Drive System p 6 App C Up to 12 Multiple hosts "owning" separate Hosts per logical library slots and drives Frame (IBM 3584) Figure 2-50 IBM LTO Tape Library partitioned into three logical libraries2.6.8 Next generation multipath architecture The Advanced Library Management System (ALMS) is an optional extension to the IBM patented multipath architecture. The multipath architecture virtualized the library accessor. This architecture enabled a library to be partitioned into multiple logical libraries and allowed a single library accessor to be used by multiple host computers in a transparent manner. The ALMS virtualizes the SCSI element address for storage slots, I/O slots, and drives. ALMS provides enhanced automation functionality, such as dynamic partitioning, including storage slot pooling and flexible drive assignment. Tape drives can be assigned to any logical library and to multiple logical libraries using a web browser-based user interface. Logical libraries can be added, deleted, or easily changed nondisruptively. Storage capacity can be changed without any impact to host applications. ALMS is a feature with the TS3500 Tape Library and is explained in detail in 13.6, “Advanced Library Management System” on page 644.102 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 128. 3 Chapter 3. Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives This chapter describes the TS1100 Tape Drive family, its common characteristics, the differences between the four generations, and the IBM 3592 media characteristics. We focus on these models: IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape Drive (3592 Model E07) IBM System Storage TS1130 Tape Drive (3592 Model E06 and Model EU6) IBM System Storage TS1120 Tape Drive (3592 Model E05) IBM TotalStorage Enterprise 3592 Model J1A Tape Drive Withdrawn from marketing: The 3592 Model J1A is withdrawn from marketing but is still currently supported in various subsystems. The 3592 J1A is only explained briefly here.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2012. All rights reserved. 103
  • 129. 3.1 IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drive family The IBM System Storage TS1120 (Machine Types 3592-E05), TS1130 Tape Drives (Machine Types 3592-E06 and 3592-EU6) and TS1140 Tape Drives (Machine Type 3592-E07) offer a design focused on high capacity, performance, and high reliability for storing mission-critical data. With the introduction of the first generation of the new family of tape drives, IBM has advanced its high-end half-inch cartridge tape technology to a new level. The 3592 family has been increased, and improved with the addition of the IBM System Storage TS1140 Model E07 Tape Drive. The TS1140 is the fourth generation of the 3592 family, which provides the unprecedented capacity of 4 TB of uncompressed data on a single tape, and new levels of performance.3.1.1 The 1 TB background On 5 April 2002, IBM achieved an unprecedented feat at the time, where 1 TB of data was recorded, without compression, to a half-inch format tape. This record was a technological accomplishment that set the foundation for the 3592 Tape Drive family. In 2006 IBM further demonstrated the recording of 8 TB to a half-inch format tape, and in 2010 demonstrated recording 35 TB of uncompressed data to a half-inch format tape. IBM used the evolutionary progression of technology building blocks that it had set in place over the preceding years. From them, an enterprise tape drive road map was laid out to ultimately reach and far exceed the 1 TB in native cartridge capacity in 3592 Tape Drive generations. The 3592 Model J1A became the first tape drive generation of the Enterprise Tape family. It enabled the storage of 300 GB of data to a cartridge even when it is incompressible (900 GB with a 3:1 compressible data). An even more innovative achievement was that these same cartridges are designed to be reused by the second generation of 3592 Tape Drives, the TS1120 Model E05 to store more data. By using the JA media, you can store 500 GB and with the high capacity JB cartridge, 700 GB without compression. With the third generation of IBM 3592 Tape Drive using the JA media it was possible to store 640 GB and 1TB on the JB. This achieved the first milestone where IBM delivered a 1-TB technology to the market. With the fourth generation of 3592, the IBM TS1140 model E07, IBM has once again taken tape capacity to a new level. The TS1140 can store 1.6 TB of data on the JB cartridge, and 4 TB of data on the new advanced JC cartridge. IBM kept its promise documented in the road map for 3592 Tape Drives and provided a 4 TB tape drive. The TS1140 Tape Drive is not just a new drive, but proof of the IBM commitment to further tape technology development.3.1.2 Nomenclature The TS1140 Tape Drive has similar naming attributes as the TS1120 and TS1130: Machine type or model The 3592 Model E07 is the factory-built model. Note: Model 3592 E07 can only be upgraded from a 3592 E06. It is not possible to upgrade a 3592 EU6 to a 3592 E07. There is no Model EU7. The 3592 Model E07 drive displays as a 3592-4E, which indicates that this is a fourth generation 3592 drive and has the encryption feature enabled. Product name104 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 130. TS1140 is the product name. Because of many common considerations for the TS1120, TS1130, and the TS1140 Tape Drives, and to make reading more convenient, the name 3592-J1A is used for the first 3592 generation. The name 3592 model E is used for the IBM System Storage TS1120 Tape Drive, IBM System Storage TS1130 Tape Drive, and IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape Drives in the following chapters.3.2 Common characteristics of the 3592 Tape Drive family The 3592 Tape Drive family has the following common characteristics, which are addressed in this section: Technology enhancements Reliability and availability improvements Features for performance and capacity Media, which is reusable by all three generations3.2.1 Technology enhancements The 3592 Tape Drive family includes the following key features: Virtual backhitch, which is the optimum adaptive format and algorithm for improved start-and-stop write synchronize performance (see “Virtual backhitch (nonvolatile caching)” on page 112) High performance and robust dual microprocessor architecture One microprocessor operates the host attachment interface (running what is proven 3590 host attach microcode). The other microprocessor focuses strictly on writing data and reading data from tape. Each microprocessor resets the other microprocessor to act as a fail-safe. Statistical Analysis Recording System (SARS) algorithm with extended mount count Fast random access performance when operating on any of the Short Length Cartridge (SLC) types Support of an enhanced capacity scaling and segmentation format when operating on the full-length, read/write cartridge type JA, JB, and JC, enabling fast locate and read times Streaming Lossless Data Compression (SLDC) algorithm (enhancement of the Lempel-Ziv class 1 (LZ-1) data compression algorithm) Cartridge memory of 4 K designed for the 3592 to support advanced features Chapter 3. Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives 105
  • 131. 3.2.2 Recording format The IBM 3592 Tape Drive uses an advanced interleaved bidirectional serpentine recording technique that writes eight or sixteen or thirty-two (depending on the drive) data tracks at a time on a 3592 cartridge. The 3592 cartridge is a ½-inch, advanced metal particle, dual layer tape. The tape layout consists of five servo bands (prerecorded on the tape) and four data bands where the data is written (Figure 3-1). The servo bands provide location information to control the positioning of the head as it writes and reads data within the data band. This design is explained in detail in “Servo tracks” on page 108. As shown in Figure 3-1, the area between adjacent servo bands is a data band. The 3592 media has four data bands, each with a number of data tracks (128–288, which is different for each model). The data bands are numbered 2, 0, 1, and 3, where data band 2 is nearest the tape reference edge and data band 3 is farthest from the tape reference edge. Tape edge guard band Servo band pitch Data band 3 Data band 1 Servo band width Data band 0 Forward (BOT to EOT) tape motion Data band 2 Tape edge guard band Tape reference edge Figure 3-1 Layout of the servo and data bands on the 3592 media106 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 132. Each data band consists of data sub-bands, 8, 16 or 32, depending on the 3592 model, oneband for each of the write heads, as shown in Figure 3-2 (a J1A written cartridge). Eachsub-band is written by a given write-head position using a technique called a linearserpentine. With this technique, the tape moves back and forth longitudinally while the head isindexed up or down laterally at each pass. This technique makes it possible to write multipledistinct tracks in a given data sub-band. Servo location 0 Servo band N Servo location 7 Centerline of first data track in data sub-band 0 Data sub-band 0 Centerline of first data track in data sub-band 1 Data sub-band 1 . . . Centerline of first data track in data sub-band 7 Data sub-band 7 Servo location 0 Servo band N + 1Figure 3-2 Section of tape showing one data band and its surrounding servo bands Chapter 3. Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives 107
  • 133. Figure 3-3 shows a closer look at a data band. It demonstrates the serpentine method that is used to write data. The numbers on the right indicate the tracks. They are written simultaneously on each data sub-band in a converging spiral in 16 passes for J1A, 14 passes for E05, 18 passes for E06, and 13 passes for E07 on a JB cartridge, and 20 passes for a E07 on a JC cartridge. The tracks are written down (tape outbound from cartridge) and back (tape inbound to cartridge), each at a different lateral offset. Given the 8, 16 or 32 channel heads, 8, 16 or 32 tracks of data are written simultaneously in this linear serpentine pattern, each track in separate data sub-bands. After a given data band is full, a coarse-actuator motor moves the head to another quarter of the tape. This process continues until all four data bands are filled. Figure 3-3 Close-up view of two data sub-bands for J1A with 8 tracks and one servo band Servo tracks Servo tracks help to ensure accurate positioning of the tape drive head over the data track, so that the head does not stray onto an adjacent track. Servo tracks are necessary to support high-data densities on the tape where the tracks are extremely close together. The servo tracks are written at the time of cartridge manufacture, before the cartridge is usable for data storage and retrieval. Each tape write head has two servo heads, one servo head for each of the two servo bands that it spans. As shown in Figure 3-1 on page 106, five servo bands, numbered 0 through 4, make up the servo tracking mechanism on the 3592 tape. They are at specific distances from the tape reference edge1. Within the servo bands are servo stripes, which are groups that make up servo bursts. Four servo bursts make up a servo frame. The first two bursts (as written in the forward tape-motion direction) contain five servo stripes, and the second two bursts contain four servo stripes.108 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 134. Track following Each pair of servo bursts is at an angle to each other. The servo heads move so that they keep a constant value for the distance between the bursts by measuring the time taken between each burst (timing-based servo). In this way, the servo can follow a straight line within the servo band. Any small deviation away from the correct path causes a variation (plus or minus) in the gap between the bursts (Figure 3-4). If the servo head element follows a straight line along the servo band, the distance x remains constant. X - 0 X X + 0 Figure 3-4 Timing-based servo track Two servo bands are used simultaneously to provide two sources of servo information for increased accuracy. For this format, control positions within the servo band are used to reposition the head to write forward and reverse wraps, within each of the four data bands. This timing-based servo technology can be finely tuned. It can support extremely high-track densities for future 3592 generations, because more than eight positions can be defined within the same servo band, thus expanding the potential track densities. In addition to the significant advances in the tape coating process using the high-quality metal particle media, we can confidently fulfill the road map design for reformatting this same media at higher densities.3.2.3 Reliability and availability The 3592 Tape Drive incorporates and expands on the high reliability and function of previous IBM drives developed over many years of experience. It builds on proven technologies to enhance and apply new techniques to ensure high reliability and availability. Improved availability Improved availability includes the following characteristics: Single Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) When you place a service call, the IBM service support representative (SSR) does not replace any parts or subassemblies inside the canister. The new smaller drive unit means that for any failure within the drive, the IBM SSR exchanges the entire unit rather than performing lengthy diagnostics or component replacement in the field. Chapter 3. Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives 109
  • 135. Redundant, hot-pluggable power supplies In all configurations, the drives are seated in cradles that contain two power supplies. Each pair of power supplies can be used by one or two drives. One of these power supplies is sufficient to run both drives, and the second power supply is provided for redundancy. Retention of the Fibre Channel (FC) worldwide name ID during service action When a failed drive is exchanged, you do not have to reconfigure the attached hosts to recognize a replacement drive. This function also eliminates any issues with storage area network (SAN) hosts finding incorrect addresses during a system reboot. Advanced technology Advanced technology includes the following characteristics: Robust loader mechanism The loader mechanism is suitable for the heavy-duty cycle usage in mainframe systems. The leader block on the tape cartridge is replaced by a metal pin, which is enhanced over previous drive implementations for increased robustness. Elimination of drive pneumatics and mechanical adjustments The aerodynamic movement of the tape over the flat-lap head pulls the tape close to the head while the tape is moving and provides maximum efficiency in reading and writing. Because of the shape of the head, particles do not accumulate on the tape, eliminating the possibility of debris contaminating the tape surface. Air-bearing heads effectively cushion the tape moving across the head. However, whenever the tape stops, it relaxes toward the head surface. The head has a two-stage actuator: one mechanism for moving to the required tape wrap and another finer actuator for adjustments to the track-following servo. Straighter and shorter tape path for better tape tracking Tape tracking is improved by using grooved rollers to provide surface-controlled guiding. This enhancement decreases potential wear or damage on the edges of the tape and, with the shorter tape path, decreases lateral movement. Speed matching to reduce backhitching (see 3.2.4, “Features designed for capacity and performance” on page 111) Buffering, speed matching, and virtual backhitch algorithms all serve to eliminate physical backhitching. They improve performance and reduce the wear on the drive mechanics caused by continually braking and reversing direction. Channel calibration to optimize performance and data integrity The drive uses individual read/write data channel calibration, using sophisticated techniques that were originally implemented in disk technology. Enhanced service functions The following service functions were enhanced: Enhanced SARS recording The tape drive uses the SARS to assist in isolating failures between media and hardware. The SARS uses the cartridge performance history saved in the cartridge memory module and the drive performance history kept in the drive flash. The cartridge memory is a serial Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM), with both read-only and rewritable areas, to determine the more likely cause of failure. The SARS can cause the drive to request a cleaner cartridge (based on usage) to mark the media as degraded and to indicate that the hardware is degraded. SARS information is reported110 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 136. through the TapeAlert flags and through media information messages (MIMs) and service information messages (SIMs). Diagnostic information The drive maintains logs to assist engineering or service personnel. The logs are included in drive dumps and are accessible to service personnel in several ways, including through the new hot-pluggable service panel. Dumps are maintained over Power On Reset (POR). Additional temperature and voltage sensors to improve error isolation The drive contains sensors and circuits to detect errors. A temperature sensor monitors the temperature of the drive electronics. Voltage sensors detect when the power supply is out of tolerance. Other error checks, such as tape velocity checks, read/write data integrity checks, and servo checks, are performed by using circuitry and sensors. The drive microcode checks for logic errors to handle hardware-detected errors and to detect and report microcode-related errors. Drive status indicators and reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS) functions on the library drive interface The drive provides indicators for FC status, whether the power is good, and faults. However, the drive hot-pluggable service panel is the key service tool to perform test procedures and interpret results. You can now access many functions and information that were previously available only from this panel in the 3494 Library Manager interface, which is more convenient and accessible to clients and service personnel. Concurrent microcode update, switch new or old copy of drive code Backup drive vital product data (VPD card) stored from the drive When a drive is replaced, you can quickly download the VPD to the drive by using the backup, which reduces the time taken for repair. Functional microcode updates through the library manager broadcast You can update the firmware (microcode) in the 3592 Tape Drive in several ways, and the update no longer requires a Field Microcode Replacement (FMR) tape. You can update the firmware by using the following components: – FMR cartridge that contains the updated code – Host attachment (FC bus) by using the write buffer command or utilizing ITDT – RS-422 port to the drive if supported by the library automation – Ethernet port on 3592 E07 only Preventive maintenance The 3592 Tape Drive requires no preventive maintenance beyond the use of the cleaning cartridge. The 3592 media cartridges require proper care and appropriate handling and shipping procedures.3.2.4 Features designed for capacity and performance As mentioned previously, the unique features and specifications of the 3592 make it a true enterprise tape drive in both performance and reliability. The following sections explain these industry leading features in detail. Note: These are generic features for all 3592 drives. The 3592 E07 has advanced features which are covered in detail in 3.5, “The IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape Drive” on page 127. Chapter 3. Overview of IBM System Storage TS1100 Tape Drives 111
  • 137. Data buffer The drive has a large data buffer with read-ahead buffer management, which addresses the lowest band of data rates. It effectively collects more blocks of data in the buffer before writing to the drive at a higher speed. As a result of this data buffer, the drive stops and starts less often, which in general improves the overall performance and reliability of the drive and tape. Speed matching For medium data rates when operating from a host that cannot sustain the maximum 3592 data rate, the drive performs dynamic speed matching. The drive adjusts the native data rate of the drive as closely as possible to the net host data rate (after factoring out data compressibility). The 3592 drive operates at various speeds (between six and thirteen speeds depending on the drive used) when reading or writing the 3592 format in an attempt to match the effective host data rates. If the net host data rate is between two of the speed matching native data rates, the drive calculates at which of the two data rates to operate. Speed matching reduces the number of required backhitches. In some environments, the backhitch of the drive is masked by the data buffer of the drive. Therefore, the system throughput is not improved or reduced by speed matching. Cartridge memory In the cartridge is the cartridge memory, which is a passive, canticles silicon storage device (4096 bytes) that is physically a part of the cartridge. The cartridge memory holds information about that specific cartridge, the media in the cartridge, and the data on the media. It supports the high-resolution tape directory feature (see “High-resolution tape directory” on page 112). Communication between the drive and the cartridge memory occurs through a noncontact, passive radio frequency interface, which eliminates the need for physical connections to the cartridge for power or signals. High-resolution tape directory The 3592 drive maintains a tape directory structure with a higher granularity of information about the physical position of data blocks and file marks on the media. This feature gives the 3592 drive improved nominal and average access times for locate operations. Locate times are uniform. They are based on the position of the block or file mark on the tape independent of the uniformity of the block size or file mark distribution along the length of the tape. Therefore, the 3592 locate and space performance is targeted to be completely and individually dependent on the longitudinal position on tape of the target block or file mark. This might be specified in the following ways: Locate time to any block or file mark on tape is equal to the longitudinal position or locate speed. A block at the physical end of tape (EOT) on a J1A Tape Drive requires less than 82 seconds to retrieve. No block must exceed this locate time. A block closer to the beginning of tape (BOT) takes a linear proportionately shorter time to retrieve. Virtual backhitch (nonvolatile caching) The 3592 stages write data through an intermediate DRAM buffer on its way to tape. This buffer is volatile, because it does not retain what is stored in it if power is lost. For streamed writes (or reads), this buffer yields considerably improved performance. The streamed writing ceases for want of data in the following situations: A pre-3592 drive performs a streamed write to tape and the buffer empties. A synchronizing command is received that forces the buffer to be written to tape.112 IBM System Storage Tape Library Guide for Open Systems
  • 138. Any non-immediate write-type command (such as how file marks are typically written) isconsidered a synchronizing command. Non-immediate write-type commands require thedrive to store data to tape before the returning command completes (with good status) inresponse to that command. By definition, this action forces all the data in the volatile buffer tobe written to tape.When streaming writes cease, a pre-3592 Tape Drive halts the tape and repositions itupstream of where the writing ended. From this action, subsequently re