Chapter 14: Installation
Objectives <ul><li>Be familiar with the system installation process. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand different types of conve...
Installation & Operations <ul><li>Managing the change to a new system is one of the most difficult tasks in any organizati...
Implementing Change As-Is System To-Be System Transition Unfreeze Analysis & Design <ul><li>Move </li></ul><ul><li>Technic...
CULTURAL ISSUES AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Cultural Issues <ul><li>Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty-avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism vs. collect...
CONVERSION
Conversion <ul><li>Conversion  is the technical process by which a new system replaces an old system </li></ul><ul><li>Thr...
Conversion Strategies
Selecting Conversion Strategies <ul><li>Risk, cost, and time: choose any two </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Elements of Migration Plans
CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Change Management <ul><li>The process of helping people adopt & adapt to the to-be system and its accompanying work proces...
Resistance to Change <ul><li>What is good for the organization is often not good for the people in it </li></ul><ul><li>Pe...
Costs & Benefits of Change
Revising Management Policies <ul><li>Management policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De...
Work Process Structuring Tools <ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs must be revised to match t...
Assessing Costs & Benefits <ul><li>Two perspectives: organizational & adopters’ </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the effects on ...
Motivating Adoption <ul><li>Provide clear and convincing evidence of the need for change </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic strat...
Organizational Attitudes
Training <ul><li>Adoption is enabled by providing the skills needed to adopt the change </li></ul><ul><li>Training  should...
Selecting Training Methods Classroom Training One-on-One Training Computer Based Training Cost to develop Medium Low-Mediu...
POST-IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITIES
System Support <ul><li>The  Operations Group  is responsible for running the system post-installation </li></ul><ul><li>Ty...
Elements of a Problem Report <ul><li>Time and date of the report </li></ul><ul><li>Contact information for support person ...
System Maintenance <ul><li>The process of refining the system to make sure it continues to meet business needs </li></ul><...
Processing a Change Request
Summary <ul><li>Cultural Issues and Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Change Managemen...
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Ch14

  1. 1. Chapter 14: Installation
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Be familiar with the system installation process. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand different types of conversion strategies and when to use them. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand several techniques for managing change. </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar with post-installation processes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Installation & Operations <ul><li>Managing the change to a new system is one of the most difficult tasks in any organization </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion planning normally begins while the programmers are still coding </li></ul><ul><li>Change management focuses on people </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance can account for 80% of IS budget </li></ul>
  4. 4. Implementing Change As-Is System To-Be System Transition Unfreeze Analysis & Design <ul><li>Move </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul>Refreeze Support & Maintenance
  5. 5. CULTURAL ISSUES AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  6. 6. Cultural Issues <ul><li>Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty-avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism vs. collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity vs. femininity </li></ul><ul><li>Long vs. short-term orientation </li></ul>
  7. 7. CONVERSION
  8. 8. Conversion <ul><li>Conversion is the technical process by which a new system replaces an old system </li></ul><ul><li>Three major steps to a conversion plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire and install needed hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three dimensions to a conversion plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion modules </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Conversion Strategies
  10. 10. Selecting Conversion Strategies <ul><li>Risk, cost, and time: choose any two </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even after testing, bugs may exist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundant resources for transitions can be pricey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow and safe or fast and risky? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Elements of Migration Plans
  12. 12. CHANGE MANAGEMENT
  13. 13. Change Management <ul><li>The process of helping people adopt & adapt to the to-be system and its accompanying work processes without undue stress </li></ul><ul><li>Key roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Build it and they will come” doesn’t work! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Resistance to Change <ul><li>What is good for the organization is often not good for the people in it </li></ul><ul><li>People perform their own personal cost-benefit analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most will overestimate costs and underestimate benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must take into account the transition process cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived costs and benefits determine attitude </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Costs & Benefits of Change
  16. 16. Revising Management Policies <ul><li>Management policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define how work processes should be performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how people are rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No computer system will be successfully adopted unless management policies support its adoption </li></ul>
  17. 17. Work Process Structuring Tools <ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs must be revised to match the to-be system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurements and Rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt to motivate desired (acceptance) behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource Allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct effect is the actual reallocation of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic effect shows that management is serious about the new system </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Assessing Costs & Benefits <ul><li>Two perspectives: organizational & adopters’ </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the effects on both end-users, and their middle managers </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to persuade opponents to go along </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant management changes may be required to prevent grassroots derailing efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The success of the organization may actually hinder willingness to adopt a new system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why fix it if it ain’t broke?” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Motivating Adoption <ul><li>Provide clear and convincing evidence of the need for change </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic strategies to motivate adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change management goal is to support and encourage the ready adopters and help them win over the reluctant adopters </li></ul>
  20. 20. Organizational Attitudes
  21. 21. Training <ul><li>Adoption is enabled by providing the skills needed to adopt the change </li></ul><ul><li>Training should not focus on using the system </li></ul><ul><li>Training should focus on helping the users accomplish their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom training is most common, but others are better for specific situations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Selecting Training Methods Classroom Training One-on-One Training Computer Based Training Cost to develop Medium Low-Medium High Cost to deliver Medium High Low Impact Medium-High High Low-Medium Reach Medium Low High
  23. 23. POST-IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITIES
  24. 24. System Support <ul><li>The Operations Group is responsible for running the system post-installation </li></ul><ul><li>Types of system support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-demand training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level I support should satisfy 80% of problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level II support staff address the remaining problems after a Problem Report is filled out by level I </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Elements of a Problem Report <ul><li>Time and date of the report </li></ul><ul><li>Contact information for support person taking the report </li></ul><ul><li>Contact information of the person who reported the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Software and/or hardware causing problem </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Description of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Action taken </li></ul><ul><li>Disposition (problem fixed or forwarded to system maintenance) </li></ul>
  26. 26. System Maintenance <ul><li>The process of refining the system to make sure it continues to meet business needs </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive than initial development </li></ul><ul><li>Change requests are smaller versions of a system request </li></ul>
  27. 27. Processing a Change Request
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Cultural Issues and Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>Post-implementation Activities </li></ul>
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