Psychology- Anna Freud


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  • in page 8 there´s a quote which says 'when these mechanisms are cominat in a person, the person is usually crazy'. i think recent psychodynamic theorie say that we live our daily life with our ego defenses, in a way that they can be adaptative or mal adaptative. we need them to be happy.
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Psychology- Anna Freud

  1. 1. Helena Yeung IB Psychology Y1 <ul><li>Anna Freud. </li></ul>
  2. 2. “… She became at very least her father's symbolic successor.” - Dr. C. George Boeree
  3. 3. Anna Freud and the Ego <ul><li>Her father focused more on the unconscious id, but Anna put more emphasis on the Ego. </li></ul>
  4. 4. -Rose Edgcumbe
  5. 6. Signal Anxiety and Types of Anxiety <ul><li>&quot;not directly a conflicted instinctual tension but a signal occurring in the ego of an anticipated instinctual tension&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>-Anna Freud </li></ul>
  6. 7. Defense mechanisms- <ul><li>Freud mentioned them, but Anna systematically organized them. </li></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectualization </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul><ul><li>Identification with the Aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul>Introduced by Anna Freud- When you identify with the person that is causing you anxiety Doing good deeds so you feel good about yourself.
  7. 8. Level One Defense Mechanisms
  8. 10. Level Three Defense Mechanisms
  9. 12. <ul><li>Biological unity between mother and child </li></ul><ul><li>A dependence on an object relation </li></ul><ul><li>The child finds a constant object to replace mother </li></ul><ul><li>The child is torn between good and bad feelings to a person </li></ul><ul><li>The phallic-oedipal stage </li></ul><ul><li>Latency period </li></ul><ul><li>The preadolescent prelude to the adolescent revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul>Developmental Lines
  10. 13. <ul><li>All structures of personality (The Id, Ego, Superego) are present by the end of the phallic stage. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical person establishes balance by the age of 5, so by the latency stage, the person’s ego can defend from anxiety. </li></ul>
  11. 14. “ Anna Freud claimed that all people will have their balance destroyed in adolescence.” - Richard M. Lerner <ul><li>Until…Adolescence </li></ul>WHY?
  12. 15. Alteration in Drives <ul><li>Because of puberty, you grow adult genital drives, and therefore the balance is disrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>Called developmental disturbance because it in universal and inevitable. </li></ul>Incest is unacceptable in most cultures, therefore, a defense against this must be formed, causing a personality change. “ The adolescent is necessarily involved ‘in dangers which did not exist before and with what he is not accustomed to deal. Since at this stage, he lives and functions still as a member of his family unit, he runs the risk of allowing the new genital urges to connect his old love objects, that is, his parents, brothers, sisters’” - Richard M. Lerner.
  13. 16. Alteration in Ego Organization- <ul><li>The newfound drive causes the person much disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to unpredictable behavior because the person tries all formerly useful defenses against the new urges </li></ul><ul><li>Puts strain on the person because these formerly useful defenses are not as effective </li></ul><ul><li>Develops defense mechanism- INTELLETUALIZATION </li></ul>Intellectualization = talking back to your parents. Using intellectual reasons to justify one’s behavior
  14. 17. Alterations in Object Relation <ul><li>The chance of accidentally acting on the newfound genital drives is so large, that… </li></ul>“ Nothing helps here except a complete discarding of the people who were important love objects of the child, that is, the parents.” - Anna Freud
  15. 18. And therefore causes….alteration in ideals and social relations <ul><li>Once having broken ties with parents, the adolescent has also changed all former ideals and views. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore- the adolescent is left without ideals or social ties. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes the adolescent to find substitutes- friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be justified, and the newfound genital drive (which is the cause for all the alterations) can possibly be dealt with in a way arguably less severe than incest. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Research Methods <ul><li>She based her research on her dad’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>She worked as a teacher, therefore, has first hand observational experience with children </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Long term study of patients- from childhood to adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>She encouraged pooling of information from all analysts </li></ul>
  17. 20. Limitations of her work- <ul><li>Like her father, her work cannot be falsified. </li></ul>Her view on adolescents is very stereotypical! Not all of them are like that. “ Her work is an extensive theory and doctors regard clinical work over extensive theory therefore Anna Freud’s work isn’t that popular. Doctors prefer a simpler approach, but as we look into her theory, it’s clear that a too simple approach is inadequate.” -Edgcumbe
  18. 21. Anna Freud Biographical Essay. (1998). Anna Freud. In Encyclopedia of World biography Supplement, Vol. 18. Gale Research [Web]. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved November 21 1008, from Anna Freud. In Wikipedia [Web]. Media Wiki. Retrieved November 20 2008, from Boeree, C. G. (1998). Anna Freud 1895-1982. Retrieved November 23, 2008, from Personality Theories Web site: Defense Mechanism. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved November 20 2008, from Edgcumbe, R. (2000). Anna Freud: A View of Development, Disturbance and Therapeutic Techniques. Routledge. Lerner, R. M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Developement. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Life and Work of Anna Freud. Retrieved November 19, 2008, from Freud Museum London Web site: Whetham, P (2006). Psychology. Melton, Australia: IBID. Works Cited