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DevNet Conference 2002 - Contesting Development. Pathways to Better Practice. The Institute of Development Studies at Massey University hosted the 3rd Biennial conference of the Aotearoa New Zealand ...

DevNet Conference 2002 - Contesting Development. Pathways to Better Practice. The Institute of Development Studies at Massey University hosted the 3rd Biennial conference of the Aotearoa New Zealand International Development Studies Network (DevNet), from 5-7 December 2002.

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DevNet2002 DevNet2002 Presentation Transcript

  • Ecotourism as a Conservation Strategy in Komodo National Park, Indonesia Henning Borchers University of Auckland
  • Argument
    • Ecotourism in Komodo fails to deliver on claims that it benefits local communities
    • Adoption of an ecotourism discourse is more conducive to furthering an exclusionary conservation approach: ‘Parks without people’
  • Topics of Discussion
    • Conservation in Komodo National Park
    • Sustainable Development
    • Sustainable Use
    • Ecotourism
  •  
  •  
  • "...one of the world's richest marine environments"
  • Conservation in Komodo NP
    • Emphasis on ecological objectives vs. human needs
    • The Nature Conservancy (TNC) supports the national conservation agency since 1995
    • Restrictions on resource use without adequate alternatives for park residents
    • “ Incentives (financial, social) need to be developed to attract people living in the park to move to the adjacent larger islands”
  •  
  • Kampung Komodo
  • Conservation and Development
    • ‘Best practice’: Reconcile conservation goals with human needs
    • Sustainable Development
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
    • Conservation
    • Sustainable use
    • Benefit sharing
    • “ Determined to conserve and sustainably use biological diversity for the benefit of present and future generations”
  • Sustainable Use in Komodo
    • Customary resource use restricted or prohibited
    • Provision of alternative livelihoods in buffer zone
      • Fish farming
      • Seaweed farming
    • Ecotourism as “perhaps the most obvious sustainable use of the Park’s resources”
  • Ecotourism myths
    • Socio-economic benefit
    • Community-based
    • Low ecological impact – small scale
  • In Komodo…
    • Tourism is externally owned and operated: park residents receive no benefits
    • Decisions regarding tourism development have been top-down
    • Plans for “larger-scale ecotourism activities” and “an expanded speciality dive market, possibly with a shift towards semi-mass tourism”
  • Why ecotourism?
    • Sustainable use in accordance with current ‘best practice’ in conservation
    • Meets policy requirements of donor agencies in accordance with the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity
    • Ecotourism is considered ‘more sustainable’ than customary forms of resource use –prioritisation
  • Summary
    • Double standard in conception of sustainability
    • Restriction on customary resource use without alternatives in marine resource use
    • Tourism provides no alternatives
    • Marginalisation of local communities and promotion of ‘voluntary resettlement’: ‘parks without people’
    • Adoption of ecotourism discourse allows conservationists to advance exclusionary protected area approach
  • The Potential of Ecotourism?
    • Ecotourism as an additional source of income for some park residents
    • Provide for customary or alternative forms of resource use
      • Redefine sustainability/sustainable use
      • Alternative livelihood programs
      • Support self-sufficiency
      • Generate local support for conservation
  • Any questions?