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DevNet Conference 2002 - Contesting Development. Pathways to Better Practice. The Institute of Development Studies at Massey University hosted the 3rd Biennial conference of the Aotearoa New Zealand International Development Studies Network (DevNet), from 5-7 December 2002.

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  • DevNet2002

    1. 1. Ecotourism as a Conservation Strategy in Komodo National Park, Indonesia Henning Borchers University of Auckland
    2. 2. Argument <ul><li>Ecotourism in Komodo fails to deliver on claims that it benefits local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of an ecotourism discourse is more conducive to furthering an exclusionary conservation approach: ‘Parks without people’ </li></ul>
    3. 3. Topics of Discussion <ul><li>Conservation in Komodo National Park </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotourism </li></ul>
    4. 6. &quot; of the world's richest marine environments&quot;
    5. 7. Conservation in Komodo NP <ul><li>Emphasis on ecological objectives vs. human needs </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature Conservancy (TNC) supports the national conservation agency since 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on resource use without adequate alternatives for park residents </li></ul><ul><li>“ Incentives (financial, social) need to be developed to attract people living in the park to move to the adjacent larger islands” </li></ul>
    6. 9. Kampung Komodo
    7. 10. Conservation and Development <ul><li>‘Best practice’: Reconcile conservation goals with human needs </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul>
    8. 11. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) <ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable use </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit sharing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Determined to conserve and sustainably use biological diversity for the benefit of present and future generations” </li></ul>
    9. 12. Sustainable Use in Komodo <ul><li>Customary resource use restricted or prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of alternative livelihoods in buffer zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seaweed farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecotourism as “perhaps the most obvious sustainable use of the Park’s resources” </li></ul>
    10. 13. Ecotourism myths <ul><li>Socio-economic benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based </li></ul><ul><li>Low ecological impact – small scale </li></ul>
    11. 14. In Komodo… <ul><li>Tourism is externally owned and operated: park residents receive no benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions regarding tourism development have been top-down </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for “larger-scale ecotourism activities” and “an expanded speciality dive market, possibly with a shift towards semi-mass tourism” </li></ul>
    12. 15. Why ecotourism? <ul><li>Sustainable use in accordance with current ‘best practice’ in conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Meets policy requirements of donor agencies in accordance with the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotourism is considered ‘more sustainable’ than customary forms of resource use –prioritisation </li></ul>
    13. 16. Summary <ul><li>Double standard in conception of sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction on customary resource use without alternatives in marine resource use </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism provides no alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Marginalisation of local communities and promotion of ‘voluntary resettlement’: ‘parks without people’ </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of ecotourism discourse allows conservationists to advance exclusionary protected area approach </li></ul>
    14. 17. The Potential of Ecotourism? <ul><li>Ecotourism as an additional source of income for some park residents </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for customary or alternative forms of resource use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefine sustainability/sustainable use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative livelihood programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate local support for conservation </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Any questions?