Behavior Engineering  Gamification Summit    June 21, 2012          Nir Eyal       NirAndFar.com          @nireyal
“WTF? businesses”                NirAndFar.com
Patterns           NirAndFar.com
Vitamins or painkillers?                     NirAndFar.com
Selling painkillers      - Obvious need - stop pain      - Quantifiable market      - Monetizable                         ...
Selling vitamins    - Emotional need, not efficacy    - “Makes me feel good knowing...”    - Unknown market               ...
Vitamins or painkillers?                     NirAndFar.com
Habit when not doingcauses pain.               NirAndFar.com
Habit-forming technologyPleasure                     Painseeking                  alleviationVitamin                   Pai...
"The Cigarette of this Century"                   - Ian Bogost                           NirAndFar.com
"We wanted flying cars, insteadwe got 140 characters."                 - Peter Thiel                          NirAndFar.com
How engineerautomaticity?                NirAndFar.com
Desire engines create habits                        NirAndFar.com
The Desire EngineTrigger                 Action   External   InternalCommitment         Var. Reward                       ...
Triggerexamples?   NirAndFar.com
Trigger Examples   External       Internal    Alarms        Emotions Advertising      RoutinesCalls-to-action   Situations...
Negative emotions provide     internal triggers   Dissatisfied   Boredom   Indecisive     Lonesome   Lost           Fear  ...
Action         NirAndFar.com
whendoing < thinking       =     action
Fogg Behavior Model                                  B = m.a.t.motivation                       triggers                  ...
Behaviors to Actions with     Cross-Functional Teams= marketingmotivation                      triggers =                 ...
Variable Reward                  NirAndFar.com
We crave predictability• Variable rewards  drive us nuts• Compulsion to make  sense of cause and  effect• Dopamine system ...
The search for rewards             the            Tribe     the        the     Hunt       Self                       NirAn...
Search for Social     Rewards         - Acceptance the     - SexTribe    - Power                        NirAndFar.com
Search for Resources          - Food  the     - Money Hunt     - Information                          NirAndFar.com
Search for Sensation          - Mastery the      - Consistency Self     - Competency          - Purpose                   ...
Var Rewards Levers• Type• Frequency• Amplitude                 NirAndFar.com
Commitment             NirAndFar.com
Commitment     • Where user does a       bit of “work.”     • “Pays” with       something of value:       time, money, soc...
Little commitments,                big results                          Group 1:                               83% refused...
The logic of commitment • Should I ‘spend’ (time, money, effort ...) on      this? • Only an idiot would ‘spend’ on someth...
Commitments make  the next action    more likely.               NirAndFar.com
Desire Engine CanvasTrigger               ActionCommitment       Var. Reward                     NirAndFar.com
How to use a              Desire Engine1. Think of what the INTERNAL TRIGGER will be. What’s the   existing habit you’re a...
Use this for good.                 NirAndFar.com
Examples if   Time
Twitter (Consumer)T                                                 A    Facebook, friend, email ...                      ...
Twitter (Creator)T                                                  A    App icon, mention, message                       ...
Email  T                                               AIcon on phone                                  Open unreadProcrast...
Farmville   T                                                 A   Facebook feed, email ...                                ...
Spectator sports  T                                                       AEverywhere                                     ...
Shopping   T                                                        AEverywhere                                         Br...
Please raise your phone       in the air.                   NirAndFar.com
Leave Feedback, Win a        Prize!OpinionTo.us    (slides at end of survey)    Nir@NirAndFar.com
Tribe, Hunt, or Self?                   NirAndFar.com
Tribe, Hunt, or Self?                   NirAndFar.com
Tribe, Hunt, or Self?                   NirAndFar.com
• Searching, searching and  never done                        NirAndFar.com
The MDA Gaming Model                      Mechanics:                 The Rules and ActionsTrigger                         ...
Habit Testing             Identify            Find habitual                users   Modify                   CodifyAdapt us...
Products must adapt
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Nir Eyal - "The Automatic Customer: How to Design User Behavior"

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In an age of increasing online distractions, companies need to form habits to stay relevant in users’ lives. Nir Eyal discusses the latest in Behavior Engineering to explain how businesses create indispensable products. Nir will walk through his innovative framework, which he calls the “Desire Engine” to explain the fundamental elements of habit formation.

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  • Specifically, I was fascinated by the WTF? businesses. Those who were ridiculed at first as a toy, then they got massive. Can anyone name some? FB, Twitter, Zynga, Instagram, Groupon What made them unique?
  • This preso is a compilation of patterns I found which remerged time in again in products that seemed to create habits in users What I found in common was...
  • Stopped and asked myself an often asked customer dev question. Were these companies selling vitamins or painkillers? We’re told by lean methodology to make painkillers, right?
  • Great for lean methodologies And much, much better than old way of building things in a vacuum Can certainly build great businesses of of these type of products Especially when: - Technological disruption occurs to bring down price Products that alleviate pain, easy to sell - painkillers
  • Products that make us feel better about ourselves, but we don’t really need - vitamins
  • Who thinks vitamins? Why? Who thinks painkillers? Why?
  • It’s true that it’s better to sell painkillers, but these companies created compulsions out of something that started as fun. These companies mastered the process of creating habits by moving us from pleasure seeking to pain avoidance. This is how all habits ultimately end up. Creating habits is a super power we need to use wisely. We’re moving into a new age where our everything is becoming more addictive.
  • Phones and technology have us addicted, and we don’t know the full consequenses yet. So this presentation is about bringing awareness to the mechanisms that create habit forming technology ..
  • As well as inspire you to build better things. These design patterns can be used for good, and it’s time we use habit design to improve peoples lives.
  • Desire engines - the desire engine is four steps that when done again and again, create habits. But what is a habit? Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsc iously. But ha bits must be triggered. For the purposes of a business, the goal is to get the user to self-trigger a desire for the product. Therefore, the desire engine, when used in succession, creates internal trigger which causes a person to act automatically, creating a habit.
  • Moves users from external triggers to internal triggers
  • the spark plug of the engine. They are also known as cues who can name a trigger in your life?
  • Internal responses are self-triggered where external are through some form of intentional messaging. As you can imagine, external triggers are expensive and companies would much prefer you trigger yourself so they don’t have to do it for you.
  • Fundamental to a habit is when doing is easier than thinking, and here’s how to engineer that
  • Land of: Motivation = Marketing - discovering what user really wants Ability and triggers = good user interface design, if you make something easier to do, they do it more often
  • Cross function teams! Land of: Motivation = Marketing - discovering what user really wants Ability and triggers = good user interface design, if you make something easier to do, they do it more often
  • Behavior gold-mine. Once you start looking for variable rewards you’ll see them everywhere in things we think of as habit forming
  • Makes out dopamine system go nuts, creating intense cravings for understanding to bring order where there is none Think of our primative brains which stopped evolving 200K years ago. Everything we don’t control we seek to understand
  • All variable rewards are about the search, The dopamine system is all about searching and never finding. Anticipation, wanting Caveman story? Combining together can make more powerful
  • These things are about the joy of playing with ones self Kids from birth want to touch things, understand the sensation generated by things How does something feel, taste, sound, look, smell, that is novel and interesting This is sensory - play for the sake of sensation, it feels good, it also is why drugs feel good Mastery - need to feel we are more powerful than something - need to dominate, need to complete something (like a checklist) - points, targets Consistency - moral onbligations or need to prove that we are what we think we are. This is also the need for accomplishing goals, need for self-actualization - levels, challenges “ Self Determination Theory” Competence  Seek to control the outcome and experience mastery [14] Relatedness  Is the universal want to interact, be connected to, and experience caring for others [9] Aut onomy Is the universal urge to be causal agents of one&apos;s own life and act in harmony with one&apos;s integrated self; however, Deci and Vansteenkiste [13] no te t his does not mean to be independent of others
  • ... and personal data lets companies adjust these in real time. For the first time, through so-called “big data” analysis, companies are able to understand each user’s particular rewards schedule. If the user is becoming less engaged, these games can juice up the frequency or magnitude of the rewards to keep the user playing. Toying with users’ individual rewards schedule on a massive scale was impossible just a few years ago. Today it is commonplace because it
  • This is where the behavior designer asks for some “work” from the user. The brain is fully washed with dopamine and ready for more so the user is asked to “pay”
  • Palo Alto residents shown a picture of a gigantic sign that would read “drive carefully” in front of house, Nearly cover up the front of house. Asked if they’d agree to post it on lawn. Group 2 was ASKED if they could display a 3 INCH sign 2 weeks before. It was so small that almost all had said yes.
  • The more core the VR is, the more potentially habit forming*Make sure to use in on-boarding
  • now playing to avoid pain, so sell us the painkiller
  • 5 - Call and response (not Q&amp;A) – stay super open to the crowd answering questions for themselves, always answer each question with (what do you all think?)
  • Invented right here in SF by Charles Fey 90% of people attending Gamblers Anonymous meetings in Las Vegas played only machines. $1 billion per day is wagered on them, $35 billion in revenue Mostly about The Hunt - opportunity to win resources, money
  • Invented right here in SF by Charles Fey 90% of people attending Gamblers Anonymous meetings in Las Vegas played only machines. $1 billion per day is wagered on them, $35 billion in revenue Mostly about The Hunt - opportunity to win resources, money
  • Tribe - acceptance, influence Hunt - information Self - mastery - need it to be done + sensory humor,
  • Moves users from external triggers to internal triggers
  • if challenge is too low, it’s boring Flow requires challenge
  • Nir Eyal - "The Automatic Customer: How to Design User Behavior"

    1. 1. Behavior Engineering Gamification Summit June 21, 2012 Nir Eyal NirAndFar.com @nireyal
    2. 2. “WTF? businesses” NirAndFar.com
    3. 3. Patterns NirAndFar.com
    4. 4. Vitamins or painkillers? NirAndFar.com
    5. 5. Selling painkillers - Obvious need - stop pain - Quantifiable market - Monetizable NirAndFar.com
    6. 6. Selling vitamins - Emotional need, not efficacy - “Makes me feel good knowing...” - Unknown market NirAndFar.com
    7. 7. Vitamins or painkillers? NirAndFar.com
    8. 8. Habit when not doingcauses pain. NirAndFar.com
    9. 9. Habit-forming technologyPleasure Painseeking alleviationVitamin Painkiller NirAndFar.com
    10. 10. "The Cigarette of this Century" - Ian Bogost NirAndFar.com
    11. 11. "We wanted flying cars, insteadwe got 140 characters." - Peter Thiel NirAndFar.com
    12. 12. How engineerautomaticity? NirAndFar.com
    13. 13. Desire engines create habits NirAndFar.com
    14. 14. The Desire EngineTrigger Action External InternalCommitment Var. Reward NirAndFar.com
    15. 15. Triggerexamples? NirAndFar.com
    16. 16. Trigger Examples External Internal Alarms Emotions Advertising RoutinesCalls-to-action Situations Emails Places Stores People NirAndFar.com
    17. 17. Negative emotions provide internal triggers Dissatisfied Boredom Indecisive Lonesome Lost Fear Tense Confusion Fatigued Powerlessness Inferior Discouraged
    18. 18. Action NirAndFar.com
    19. 19. whendoing < thinking = action
    20. 20. Fogg Behavior Model B = m.a.t.motivation triggers ability NirAndFar.com
    21. 21. Behaviors to Actions with Cross-Functional Teams= marketingmotivation triggers = interaction design ability = product NirAndFar.com
    22. 22. Variable Reward NirAndFar.com
    23. 23. We crave predictability• Variable rewards drive us nuts• Compulsion to make sense of cause and effect• Dopamine system drives the search NirAndFar.com
    24. 24. The search for rewards the Tribe the the Hunt Self NirAndFar.com
    25. 25. Search for Social Rewards - Acceptance the - SexTribe - Power NirAndFar.com
    26. 26. Search for Resources - Food the - Money Hunt - Information NirAndFar.com
    27. 27. Search for Sensation - Mastery the - Consistency Self - Competency - Purpose NirAndFar.com
    28. 28. Var Rewards Levers• Type• Frequency• Amplitude NirAndFar.com
    29. 29. Commitment NirAndFar.com
    30. 30. Commitment • Where user does a bit of “work.” • “Pays” with something of value: time, money, social capital, effort, data ... NirAndFar.com
    31. 31. Little commitments, big results Group 1: 83% refused Group 2: 76% acceptedFreedman & Fraser, 1966 NirAndFar.com
    32. 32. The logic of commitment • Should I ‘spend’ (time, money, effort ...) on this? • Only an idiot would ‘spend’ on something not good. • Since I spent on it before and I am not an idiot, it must be good. • Takeaway: Consistency is a cognitive hackProps to Jesse Schell NirAndFar.com
    33. 33. Commitments make the next action more likely. NirAndFar.com
    34. 34. Desire Engine CanvasTrigger ActionCommitment Var. Reward NirAndFar.com
    35. 35. How to use a Desire Engine1. Think of what the INTERNAL TRIGGER will be. What’s the existing habit you’re attaching to?2. Confirm the EXTERNAL TRIGGER touches the user near the existing habit. Ensure user understands “what it’s for?”3. Prompt the intended ACTION - Make sure it’s very simple and defined. Ex - We want user to scroll4. Add VARIABLE REWARDS - Mix the type (hunt, tribe, self), change frequency, and amplitude.5. Ask for the COMMITMENT - Does it increase the likelihood of next cycle? NirAndFar.com
    36. 36. Use this for good. NirAndFar.com
    37. 37. Examples if Time
    38. 38. Twitter (Consumer)T A Facebook, friend, email ... ScrollC VR Information Follow (Hunt) NirAndFar.com
    39. 39. Twitter (Creator)T A App icon, mention, message Re-Tweet or Boredom, curiosity, Tweet LonesomeC VR Connect with Social feedback others: (Tribe) @ reply, DM ... NirAndFar.com
    40. 40. Email T AIcon on phone Open unreadProcrastinate, anxiety, messagesthoughts of others.... C VR Tribe, hunt and Write back self NirAndFar.com
    41. 41. Farmville T A Facebook feed, email ... PlayBoredom, lonesome,loss aversion = anxiety C VR • Build farm • Points (hunt) • Invite others • Personalized • Pay $ virtual goods (self) NirAndFar.com
    42. 42. Spectator sports T AEverywhere WatchBoredom, anxiety ... C VR Identify self as fan Outcome (Self) Buy stuff Fandom - belonging (Tribe) Attend events Capturing the win (Hunt) NirAndFar.com
    43. 43. Shopping T AEverywhere BrowsePowerlessness,dissatisfaction, anxiety ... C VR Buy Hunting the object (Hunt) Brand self Shopping with friends (Tribe) Anchor price Capturing the deal (Self) NirAndFar.com
    44. 44. Please raise your phone in the air. NirAndFar.com
    45. 45. Leave Feedback, Win a Prize!OpinionTo.us (slides at end of survey) Nir@NirAndFar.com
    46. 46. Tribe, Hunt, or Self? NirAndFar.com
    47. 47. Tribe, Hunt, or Self? NirAndFar.com
    48. 48. Tribe, Hunt, or Self? NirAndFar.com
    49. 49. • Searching, searching and never done NirAndFar.com
    50. 50. The MDA Gaming Model Mechanics: The Rules and ActionsTrigger Action Aesthetics: Emotional Dynamics: Response Generated Response Based on User Input Commitment Var. Reward NirAndFar.com
    51. 51. Habit Testing Identify Find habitual users Modify CodifyAdapt user flow Understand based on commonalities learnings (Habit Path) NirAndFar.com
    52. 52. Products must adapt
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