GSummit SF 2014 - Deconstructing the Four Basic Models of Gamification by Tony Ventrice

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  • Working at Badgeville, I’ve had the opportunity to work on many gamification projects and as a systems designer its been my goal to identify the commonalities and underlying mechanisms. What I’ve realized is there are 4 basic models.
  • I want to ask a common question, but through a structural perspective.
    The common understanding is these three things, which I call PBL. But PBL is not even close to the full picture.
    Let’s think about an analogy.
    So if I come to you and say I need a car, which one would you recommend I get? Which one is best?
    Depends on what you need it for.
    Haul loads off road
    Go fast
    Conserve gas
  • The realization is, you can’t jump in and start building without first knowing the context and the problem you are trying to solve.
    Rule #1: always start from the beginning
    It’s a four step process
  • Its not enough to say you want to make more money or save more money. You have to have an idea of how, you will make or save money.
    You need goals that are specific enough that you can track them, and focused enough that you can influence them
  • There are two things people look for in the things they do: validation and reward. Is this intrinsically valued and is this extrinsically valued.
    I like to categorize validation as coming in four forms.
  • Another rule.
    Validation confirms the behavior.
    Reward undermines the behavior – the implicit message is: “I need to be paid to do this”

    Its easy to walk away from a financial reward (can I live without this money?), it’s a lot harder to walk away from validation, to walk away from being a winner, from being socially valued.
  • The first two steps together constitute defining the situation.
  • Explain what a ‘community knowledge share’ is
  • Its one thing to tell someone they’ve contributed. It’s another to show them how they’ve contributed.
  • Sometimes the story of improved health isn’t as evident as we’d like.
  • So we’re able to think like the business owner and think like the end user and we have two sets of objectives.
    Does that mean we have an infinite number of combinations?
    Yes and No. Yes there are infinite combinations, but they all map to 4 basic models
  • ‘characterized by’
  • Let’s look at each of these in more detail.
  • Situations with end points or rolling status
  • So which of the 4 models are called for?
  • There is already a context of money – you’re asking employees to put in extra effort to save the company money, it makes sense to give some of that savings back to the employees.
  • Certainly potential for community. Sticking to a fitness program is more effective with a peer group.
    Give people an opportunity to build a sense of expertise in this new way of living

Transcript

  • 1. Badgeville Confidential Information Deconstructing the Four Basic Models of Gamification Tony Ventrice Sr. Game Systems Designer COPYRIGHT BADGEVILLE 2014, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  • 2. Badgeville Confidential Information What is Gamification? What is a ‘car’? • Points • Badges • Leaderboards Which one is ‘best’? • Wheels • Seats • Motor From a structural perspective
  • 3. Badgeville Confidential Information Rule #1 Design from the beginning 1. Company goals 2. User goals (employee or customer) 3. Methods (mechanics) 4. Balance
  • 4. Badgeville Confidential Information 1. Company Goals Different problems, different solutions. What is your company trying to do? • Engage customers for longer • Convert to paid customers • Get employees to follow process • Train more effectively How are you going to measure success?
  • 5. Badgeville Confidential Information 2. User Goals What does your customer / employee desire? • Validation • Feeling structured / free from doubt • Feeling smart / knowledgeable • Feeling successful / accomplished • Feeling valued / socially relevant • Reward
  • 6. Badgeville Confidential Information Rule #2 Validation is always more effective (but less often used) • Validation • Long term effect • Requires intimate understanding of user priorities • Reward • Short term effect • Requires no understanding
  • 7. Badgeville Confidential Information Define the situation In terms of Company Goals and User Goals • Three examples
  • 8. Badgeville Confidential Information Example Scenario Community Knowledge Share Company wants • Improved productivity through: • Increased communication • Faster resolutions • Document creation User wants • Recognition for knowledge / talent
  • 9. Badgeville Confidential Information Example Scenario Employee Expense Management Company wants • Fewer invalid expenses • Combined reports • Overall savings in process overhead and expenses paid Employee wants • Clear ‘rules’ • Feeling of accomplishment
  • 10. Badgeville Confidential Information Example Scenario Fitness / Medical Adherence Company wants • Sustained usage User wants • Improved health • Clear and simple instructions
  • 11. Badgeville Confidential Information 3. Methods Choosing the tools to address the goals Set of all possible Company Goals Set of all possible User Goals + = 4 Basic Models • Community • Performance Management • Competition • Redemption
  • 12. Badgeville Confidential Information The Four Basic Models Community (Specialization, cooperation, talent recognition) • Precedent: military badges Performance Management (Scheduled performance) • Precedent: quotas Competition (Competitive timed challenges) • Precedent: sales drive (top seller wins prize) Redemption (Real world prizes) • Precedent: sandwich card All have real-world precedents
  • 13. Badgeville Confidential Information Community Possible scenarios • Q&A • Knowledge share • Workplace content creation • Affinity / Fan • UGC marketplace Specialization, Cooperation, Talent recognition
  • 14. Badgeville Confidential Information Community Attributes • Reward users with social recognition for intelligence and skill. • Typically involves a context of content creation (documents, Q&A, articles, videos, etc). • Typically requires quality validation (otherwise it just measures affinity). • Public visualization of earned status. • Consistent effort-to-status balancing across specializations.
  • 15. Badgeville Confidential Information Performance Management Possible scenarios • Sales or Services performance • Customer Tiered Loyalty • Fitness Training • Medical Adherence Scheduled performance tracking
  • 16. Badgeville Confidential Information Performance Management Attributes • Repeating, scheduled tasks • Fair, obtainable goals and metrics • Reward users with recognition for success and performance • Possibly extrinsic rewards, for exceeding expectations • Persistent record of significant performances. • Able to compare self with peers and past self performance.
  • 17. Badgeville Confidential Information Competition Possible scenarios • Unscheduled employee performance • Promotion • Event / Tradeshow Competitive, timed, challenges
  • 18. Badgeville Confidential Information Competition Attributes • End points or rolling status • Unlimited participation opportunity (never ‘enough’) • Visualization of competition standings • Recognition of winners (celebration equal to effort) • Possible extrinsic rewards for winners • Able to be instantiated/ programmed • Teams, to involve everyone
  • 19. Badgeville Confidential Information Redemption Possible scenarios • Earned-entry Raffles (uncertain payout) • Earned coupons (certain payout) • Earned currency + store (choice payout) Quid pro quo
  • 20. Badgeville Confidential Information Redemption Attributes • Prize budget • Limited alternatives (there’s no going back) • Economic contract – effort for payout. • Economy balanced in your favor (no costly cheating opportunities or loopholes) • Clear, consistent payout goals
  • 21. Badgeville Confidential Information Rule #3 The four basic models can be combined The models are systems. • A complex game can have many systems. Just like you can have more than one car in your garage. • From the user’s perspective, they are one program but from the perspective of a systems designer, they are separate— each can stand on its own. Outside observer: Fire department Fire chief: Tanker truck, Light response, Fire engine
  • 22. Badgeville Confidential Information Deconstruction An easy way to focus: • Ask what the end user is getting out of the experience Community Performance Management Competition Redemption Gamification Identify and isolate the 4 basic models in all of your motivational initiatives (social status) (scheduled structure) (victory) (earned prizes)
  • 23. Badgeville Confidential Information Example Scenario Community Knowledge Share User wants • Recognition for knowledge / talent Community Perf. Mgt. Competition Redemption Yes No No No
  • 24. Badgeville Confidential Information Example Scenario Employee Expense Management Employee wants • Clear ‘rules’ • Feeling of accomplishment Community Perf. Mgt. Competition Redemption No No Yes Yes
  • 25. Badgeville Confidential Information Example Scenario Fitness / Medical Adherence User wants • Improved health • Clear and simple instructions Community Perf. Mgt. Competition Redemption Yes Yes No No
  • 26. Badgeville Confidential Information Review Rule #1: Start from the beginning (what does the end user want?) Rule #2: Validation is always more effective than extrinsic incentives Rule #3: The four basic models can be combined (but be able to identify where one ends and another begins) Use Cases? Questions?Community, Performance management, Competition, Redemption
  • 27. Badgeville Confidential Information Thank You