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  1. 1. Phytonutrients • Which phytonutrients are associated with improved heart health and CVD prevention? • What are the mechanisms by which they act? • What foods, spices and herbs do they come from? • How much is needed daily/weekly? • Are supplements effective, safe, cost-effective?
  2. 2. What is a phytonutrient/phytochemical? • Phytonutrients serve an immune function in plants • May decrease the risk of developing certain cancers, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease when included in our diet • Colorful fruits and vegetables are the best sources for phytonutrients • Various phytonutrients have different functions
  3. 3. Divisions of phytonutrients • Pigment compounds • Organized by color groups: Red, White, Yellow/Orange, Blue/Purple, Green
  4. 4. Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Health • Allicin- Garlic (White) • Quercetin- Onions (White) • Anthocyanins- Blueberries (Blue/Purple) • Resveratrol- Red Grapes (Blue/Purple)
  5. 5. The “Cardio Phytonutrient Gap” • “Prudent Intake”- recommended amount of a phytonutrient – determined by the average levels of phytonutrients in a diet with the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables • According to America’s Phytonutrient Report[1]: – 83% of Americans do not meet the PI level for allicin and quercetin – 76% do not meet the PI level for anthocyanidins and resveratrol
  6. 6. • Organosulfur compound • Demonstrates antibacterial, anticancerous, hypolipidemic, and antiplatelet effects • Cooking destroys allicin • Sources: garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, chives • ~4 mg allicin/clove garlic
  7. 7. • Possible mechanism: – Reduces cholesterol levels[2] • Reduces lipoproteins that transport triglycerides – Prevents “platelet aggregation”, or clotting[3][4] – Lowers blood pressure – May reduce severity of atherosclerosis and fat deposition • PI: 0.85mg/day[1], 5.95 mg/week
  8. 8. • Used for treating conditions of the heart and blood vessels, including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, heart disease, and circulation problems[6] • Flavonoid • Sources: onions, apples, green and black teas • Baking and ing onions increases amount of quercetin • Boiling decreases amount of quercetin
  9. 9. • Mechanism – Lowers blood pressure – Reduces risk of heart attack and stroke[8] – Reduces LDL levels in blood • Study done on overweight individuals, dose of 150mg/day[9] – May protect against chronic inflammation • PI: 17.9mg/day[1], 125.3 mg/week • ~10 mg/medium-sized (150 g) apple
  10. 10. • Protects against cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes[7] • Stilbenoid • Sources vary greatly in their concentrations of resveratrol – 0.24-1.25 mg/cup red grapes[11] • PI: 8.2 mg/day, 57.4 mg/week
  11. 11. Resveratrol • Possible mechanism: – Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol – Inhibits proinflammatory agents – Increases cellular antioxidants in smooth muscle • Helps protect the vascular system from oxidative stress
  12. 12. Anthocyanins • Commonly used for treating visual acuity and treating circulatory disorders[5] • Experimental evidence suggests they have anti- inflammatory properties and are beneficial in treating diabetes[5] • Sources: Grapes, berries • Can be cooked without degrading • PI:22 mg/day[1], 154 mg/week • 7.2 ± 0.5mg/gram of fresh blueberries[12]
  13. 13. Anthocyanins • Possible Mechanism – Lowers blood pressure • Stimulates release of endothelial nitric oxide, which dilates blood vessels – Lowers cholesterol – Reduce inflammatory response – Inhibits oxidation of LDL’s •  prevents atherosclerosis
  14. 14. Supplements • Are phytonutrient supplements effective? – Yes, they are effective however they are not quite as effective as getting the nutrients naturally. • Are they safe? – Yes, phytonutrients are safe at suggested intake levels. – Research is still being done to determine the long- term effects of phytonutrients. • Are they cost effective? – Whether or not they are effective varies on the brand you get however one brand that is consistently cost effective is “PhytoNutrient Essentials”.
  15. 15. Resources 1.America’s Phytonutrient Report, Nutrilite Institute: us/Media/APR%20Heart%20Health.pdf 2.Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, Fakler P, Sullivan T. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta- analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2008;8:13. 3. Manaster Y, Shenkman B, Rosenberg N, Savion N. Allicin and disulfiram enhance platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3- fibrinogen binding. Thromb Res 2009;124:477-482. 4. Hiyasat B, Sabha D, Grotzinger K, et al. Antiplatelet activity of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Pharmacology 2009;83:197-204. 5. 6. QUERCETIN.aspx?activeIngredientId=294&activeIngredientName=QUERCETIN 7. 8. Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Jimenez R, Santos-Buelga C, Osuna A. Antihypertensive effects of the flavonoid quercetin. Pharma Reports 2009;61:67–75. 9. Egert S, Bosy-Westphal A, Seiberl J, et al. Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high- cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Br J Nutr 2009;30:1-10. 10. 11. Higdon J, Drake VJ, Steward WP (May 2008). "Resveratrol".Micronutrient Information Center. Linus Pauling Institute. 12. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing Virachnee Lohachoompol, George Srzednicki, John Craske J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004 December 1; 2004(5): 248–252.