Languge skills Receptive skills – speaking and listening Productive skills – reading and writing
Reading involves: Recognition of letters Recognition of words Recognition of meaning of words Making sense of text Understanding the connection between sentences
Connection of the sentences: By grammar and vocabulary;
Connection of the sentences: By grammar and vocabulary By knowlegde of the world
The boy was surprised because he girl was much fasterat running than he was. Then he found out that hermother had won a medal for running at the OlympicGames.
Connection of the sentences: By grammar or vocabulary – cohision By the knowledge of world - coherence
Reading subskills: Reading for specific information – scanning Reading for gist – skimming Reading for detail Extensive reading (mind intensive reading)
Key concepts: Learners transfer their subskills from L1 to L2 Giving opportunities for extensive reading helps students develop their fluency in reading (both in and out of class) As teachers we follow the language levels when working with reading – letter – word – phrase – sentence – text. Choose the right texts for your learners. Simplify the task or make it more difficult Use authentic materials Different comprehension tasks develop different subskills
The activities in a reading lesson: Pre-reading activities Main activities Post activities
Writing is a productive skill.Involves: Producing letters Producing words Producing sentences Prtoducing texts
Writing subskills: Accuracy Communicating a message
Stages of writing: Brainstorming Making notes Planning Writing a draft Editing (correcting and impoving) Producing another draft Proof-reading (checking for mistakes)
Writing skills differ at different age: At primary level we teach how to write letters and words, post cards, invitations. At secondary level we need to focus on longer texts (letters, emails etc.) When teaching writing we focus both on accuracy and communicating a message. Personalisation drives the development of writing.