Who makes no mistakesmakes nothing.Making a different mistake every day is notonly acceptable, it is the definition ofprogress. ~Robert Brault
Types of mistakes: Slips – are the result of ... Errors – are the result of ... tiredness lack of knowledge insufficient focus on form emotions circumstances
Slips are easily corrected by thestudents themselves......unlike the errors, as learners donot understand what is wrong.
2 main reasons why students makeerrors: Inerference – influence from L1 on L2. Students may use sound patterns, lexis or grammatical structures from their mother tongue. Developmental errors – being in the learning process, students unconsciously work out and organize L2. Overgeneralization – I worked – I goed.
Interlanguage Once students start learning language, they see the second language through their life experince and learning skills. They analise it and reorganize, so it is not fixed.
Interlanguage and errors areunavoidable and neccesary tolearning process.
Correction Learners must be ready for correction; Learning process is individual, teachers should feel the right time for active correction; Teacher should think of the stage (pre-, task, post - ) when choosing the way of correction.
Correction is considered to be helpfulif it is done on the thorough analysis.There are 3 main ways of organizingcorrection.
Firstly: Support you learners’ process with sufficient exposure to lots of interesting language at the right level. A teacher speaks English, books are in English, listening, video etc.
Secondly: Give you students enough space to practice their L2. Do not concentrate only on Teacher – Student interaction. Pair work, group work, chain work – sometimes a teacher needs to step back.
Thirdly: Draw your stidents attention to the language forms. Drills, controlled practice, pier correction, etc.
If student lacks languageexposure this may result in“fossilised errors”.
Tips. Before starting correction think of the aim – fluency of accuracy. Don’t be a strict police officer – errors may occur from time to time. If it is a slip, make your students correct it on their own, just give them a signal. When it’s work on fluency, ignore all the mistakes. Students’ confidence is the mission. Mistakes may have different level of importance, correct the most crucial which bother communication. Different learners may need to be corrected in different ways. Errors are useful for both learners and teachers.
Unit 12Differences between L1 and L2 learning. A great deal of what is called CommunicativeLanguage Teaching is based on what isessentially a nativist view of second language(L2) acquisition. A nativist view assumes –consciously or unconsciously – that somehowL2 learning can and should be like learning ournative language (L1).
Main differences:L1 L2 Starts since the very childhood; At primary/ secondary school or Learnt by expposure and picking even adulthood; up, without analysing; Learnt by exposure but with taught With strong motivation - L1 specific language; acquisition is an essential, With different motivation (strong/ biologically–driven process, little/ no); essencial life skill; Doesn’t surround and limited by Surrounds an individual every day – classes; family, kindergarden, etc; Use in unnatural environtment – With long silence period (a baby controlled practice, in pairs; listens to for many months before Not so much time to experiment – starts speaking; needed to be produced as soon as Enough space to play and taught; experiment with new language; Teacher simplifies the language. A lot of communicative practice.
L1 learning is nearly alwayssuccessful, while the L2 learningvaries a lot in how successful it is.
Tips: Make circumstances close to L1 learning – exposure to a rich language variety + opportunities to focus on form; Motivation; Personalize teaching to individual student’s needs and preferences – vary teaching style, approaches, materials Mind silence period; Show students other ways of language practice out of class – radio, skype, films, books; Simplify you language, avoid overcorrection, scaffold their fluency, motivation, confidence, leave space to experiment; Give as much praise and encouragement in class as possible.
Unit 13 Learnercharacteristics
Learning styles Wholistic approach is based on natural preferences how to take in information of each individual learner. The idea is to use in teaching dominating physical senses and the way of interacting with others.
Commonly mentioned styles: Visual – learning through seeing; Auditory – through hearing; Kinaesthetic – through using the body; Group –through working with others; Individual – through working alone
Learning strategies: L.strategies are convenient ways to learn, process new information chosen by our learners. The right learning strategy helps develop learners’ autonomy.
Examples of learning strategies: Repeating new word until you learn them; Experimenting with new language in conversations; Guessing the meaning of unknown words; Asking for informal assessment; Recording yourself speaking; Writing all new words on separate card to remember them; Paraphrasing.
It is believed that learners choosetheir learning strategies according totheir learning style and personalitytype. This leads to a conclusion that thereare no best learning strategies.
Strategies make learning successful.Teachers should show the learnersthe variety of strategies.
Age influences the learners’characteristics and therefore studentslearn in different ways.
Influence of maturity oncharacteristics: Need for moving around the class; Attention span; Abstract thnking; Discipline problems; Taking risks at experimenting; Confidence; Focus on form; Life experience.
Past language learning experience
Tips: Adopt teaching to individual needs and characterisics; Learning strategies and past experience are more relevant to teaching teenagers or adults; Observe, ask the learners through questionnaires; Learners characteristics are not fixed; Learning to learn strategy – show how, but do not spoonfeed;