Nikitina AnastasiyaCommunications Department Chuvash State University
The media of Russia is diverse, with a wide range of broadcast andprint outlets are available to the consumer, offering all kinds ofperspectives and catering for all tastes. In total, there are 93,000 media outlets in Russia, including 27,000newspapers and magazines and 330 television channels. Television isthe most popular source of information. There are three televisionchannels with a nationwide outreach, and a multitude of regionalchannels. Local and national newspapers are the second most popularchoice, while the Internet comes third. In all media spheres there is amixture of private and state-ownership. There is no lack of independentmedia in Russia, especially in print media, radio and the internet. The organisation Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes anannual ranking of countries based upon the organisations assessment oftheir press freedom records. In 2011-12 Russia was ranked 142nd out of179th countries, which was an improvement from the preceding year.
Russia has very wide range of printmedia. There are over 400 dailynewspapers, covering every field, andoffering all kinds of perspectives. Thetotal number of newspapers in Russia is8,978, and they have a total annualcirculation of 8.2 billion copies. There arealso 6,698 magazines and periodicalswith a total annual circulation of 1.6billion copies. Russia has the largestnumber of newspaper journalists in theworld (102,300), followed by China(82,849) and the United States (54,134),according to statistics published byUNESCO in 2005.
Newspapers are the second most popular media in Russia, after television.Local newspapers are more popular than national ones, with 27% of Russiansconsulting local newspapers routinely and 40% reading them occasionally.For national newspapers, the corresponding figures are 18% and 38%,respectively. According to figures from the National Circulation Service agency, the mostpopular newspaper is Argumenty i Fakty which has a circulation of 2.9 million.It is followed by Weekly Life (1.9 million), TV Guide (1.2 million) and PermRegion Izvestiya (1 million). However, only about half of all Russiannewspapers are registered with the agency. Some of the leading newspapers in Russia are tabloids, including Zhizn. Themost important business newspapers are Vedomosti and the influentialKommersant. Many newspapers are opposition-leaning, such as the criticalNezavisimaya Gazeta and Novaya Gazeta, which is known for itsinvestigative journalism. The main English-language newspapers are MoscowTimes, St Petersburg Times and Moscow News. 6 of the 10 most circulatedRussian newspapers are based in Moscow, while the other 4 are based inother cities and regions.
Коmsomolskaya Pravda - mass circulation, left- Trud - left-leaning daily leaning daily Argumenty i Fakty - Kommersant - daily, popular weekly business-orientated Novaya Gazeta - twice- Moskovskij Komsomolets weekly, known for its - popular daily investigative journalism Izvestia - popular business Vedomosti daily The Moscow Times - Rossiyskaya Gazeta - English-language daily government-owned daily The Moscow News - Nezavisimaya Gazeta - English-language weekly pro-opposition privately owned daily
Television is the most popular media in Russia, with 74% of thepopulation watching national television channels routinely and 59%routinely watching regional channels. There are 330 televisionchannels in total. 3 channels have a nationwide outreach (over 90%coverage of the Russian territory): First Channel, Rossiya and NTV.According to 2005 television ratings, the most popular channel wasFirst Channel (22.9%), followed by Rossiya (22.6%). The surveyresponders local TV company was third with a rating of 12.3%. Thethree national TV channels provide both news and entertainment,while the most popular entertainment-only channels are STS (10.3%rating) and TNT (6.7%). The most popular sports channel is Russia 2(formerly Sport; rating 1.8%), while the most popular culture channelis Russia K (formerly Kultura; rating 2.5%). Russia K and Russia 2 havethe third and fourth largest coverage of all Russian TV channels, withRussia K reaching 78.9% of the urban and 36.2% of the ruralpopulation and Russia 2 reaching 51.5% and 15.6%, respectively.Regional television is relatively popular in Russia, and according to a2005 report by TNS Gallup Media, regional audiences rely mainly onnews and analysis provided by regional channels.
Main television channelsRossiya - national, state-owned channel - news and entertainmentFirst Channel - national, state-owned channel - news and entertainmentNTV - national commercial channel - news and entertainmentRussia K - state-owned - culture and artsRussia 2 - commercial - sportsSTS - commercial - entertainmentTV Center - owned by Moscow city government - news and entertainmentRen TV - Moscow-based commercial station with strong regional networkRussia Today - state-funded, international English-language news channel
Radio Russia - national networkRadio Mayak - state-run national networkRadio Yunost - youth stationEcho of Moscow - news and analysisRusskoye Radio - major private networkVoice of Russia - state-run external service, broadcasts in English and other languages
Itar-Tass The Information Telegraph Agency of Russia is the major news agency of Russia. It is headquartered in Moscow.RIA Novosti Russian International News Agency is a Russian state- owned news agency . The agency publishes news and analysis of social-political, economic, scientific and financial subjects on the Internet and via e-mail in the main European languages, as well as in Persian, Japanese, Chinese and Arabic. It has a correspondent network in the Russian Federation, CIS and over 40 non-CIS countries.Interfax It is part of the Interfax Information Service Group, a group of approximately 30 companies that consist of national, regional and branch information agencies under the Interfax name.
Currently Internet access inRussia is available to businessesand home users in various forms,including dial-up, cable, DSL,FTTH, mobile, wireless andsatelliteIn September 2011, Russiaovertook Germany as theEuropean market with the highestnumber of unique visitors online.Russian Internet is also known asRunet.
Gazeta.ru is a Russian online newspaper coveringpolitics and business. The first issue was published on 28February 1999. As of November 2011, gazeta.ru was thethird most popular news outlet in all of Runet. Lenta.Ru is a Moscow-based news website in Russianlanguage, owned by Rambler Media Group whichbelongs to Prof-Media. It is considered one of the mostpopular Russian language online resources with over 600thousand visitors daily. REGNUM News Agency is a Russian federal onlinenews service disseminating news from Russia andabroad from its own correspondents, affiliate agenciesand partners. Today, REGNUM covers events in allregions of Russia, neighboring countries in Europe,Central Asia and Transcaucasus.
TV Pervyi kanal - www.1tv.ru Rossiya - www.rutv.ru TVC - www.tvc.ru NTV - www.ntv.ru Sport - www.rtr-sport.ru Ren-TV - www.ren-tv.com Centre TV - www.tvc.ru Russia Today - www.russiatoday.ru Radio Echo Moskvy - www.echo.msk.ru Mayak24, 67.22FM and 549 AM. - www.radiomayak.ru NTV plus - www.ntvplus.ru Radio Russia - www.radiorus.ru Voice of Russia - www.ruvr.ru
Izvestia Moscow-www.izvestia.ru Komsomolskaya Pravda - www.kp.ru Moskovsky Komsomolets - www.mk.ru Novaya gazeta - www.novayagazeta.ru Nyezavisimaya Gazeta - www.ng.ru Kommersant - www.kommersant.ru The Moscow Times - www.themoscowtimes.com Sovetskyi Sport - www.sovsport.ru Rossiiskaya gazeta - www.rg.ru Argumentiy i Faktiy - www.aif.ru
1.Do you generally trustthe media?a) Yes, I do.b) I don’t take anything for granted, but don’tdeny, either.c) I don’t trust it.
2. What media seems to bethe most relevant andimportant nowadays(providing the greatest impacton your life)?a)TVb)Internetc)Pressd)Radio
3.How often do you watch TV?a)every day for several hoursb)rather oftenc)a few hours a weekd)I rarely watch/don’t watchat all
4.How often do you look forinformation in the Internet?a) every day for several hoursb) rather oftenc) a few hours a weekd) I watch rarely/neverwatch.
5.What kind of material do youlook for on the Internet?a) usual news (economics,politics)b) technical, educationalnews(news that deal with yourspeciality)c) sports news , fashion , art,music, etc.d) news on private life ofcelebrities, sensational news
6.Do you use online forumsto communicate andreceive information (e.g.“Facebook”, “Incontact”,etc..)?a)Yes, I spend a lot of timeon the forums.b) Yes, sometimes I do.c) I rarely do it/don’t do.
7. Do you read newspapers?a) Yes, regularly.b) Yes, often.c) Sometimes.d) Very seldom/ never.
8.What type of newspapers doyou prefer?a) general news(“MK”,”AIF”,etc)b) business, specialized (e.g.“Kommersant”)c) entertaining, cultural(“culture” ,etc)d) yellow press
9. Do you read magazines?a) Yes, several magazines amonth.b) Yes,a magazine a month.c) I read them several times amonth.d) I don’t read them.
10. Do you listen to the radio?a) Yes, every day.b)Yes,a few hours a week.c)From time to time.d)I don’t listen to it.
11.What , in your opinion, does modern mass media lack?a)freedom of speechb)reliabilityc)professionalism in theinformation presentationd)originalityg)censorshipe) lack of desired topicz) other