Famous Events in Journalism By Anna Shorina Chuvash State University
The beginningAs in ever event, there is always a first foreach. Whether this first moment is etchedin stone or widely believed to haveoccurred through historical research is thedifference in placing actual dates on theoccasion or speculate about a period oftime. Journalism is no different.
The very first organized form ofjournalism can be dated back toprehistoric times when transmittingnews was performed through theword of mouth system. Ancientmonarchical governments were ableto develop a more reliable system ofwritten reports.
The RomanEmpire from JuliusCaesar and beyondrecorded and distributed adaily report of politicalnews and acts of theRoman colonies. AncientEgypt was another empirethat practiced this type ofjournalism.
When we start countingby specific years, 1456 canbe the first significant datein journalism history.Johannes Gutenberginvented the first movabletype printing press whichled way to the widedistribution of the Bibleand other books.
The invention of journalism Journalism as we knowit today is relativelyyoung. It started inEurope in XVII centuryand came to Russia onecentury later.
Jean Chalaby (1996) argues thatjournalism is an Anglo-Americaninvention.
In ‘Journalism as an Anglo-Americaninvention: A comparison of the developmentof French and Anglo-American journalism1830s-1920s’, he develops this argumentthrough a comparison of French and Anglo-American journalism.
People Chalaby’s work is aligned to thatof journalism scholars such asSchudson (2001), who interrogatedthe core journalistic concept ofobjectivity.Michael Schudson- (born November 3,1946) isan American academic sociologistworking in the fieldsof journalism and its history, andpublic culture.
The MercuriusGallobelgicusappeared as theworlds firstperiodical in1592.
It was issued in Latin semi-annuallyand generally distributed at bookfairs. While the periodical provideinformation to the reader, thepublishing dates gave more animpression of reviewing recenthistory than reading the latest news.
First regular newspaper But in 1665 this all changed. The Oxford Gazette became known as the first regularly published newspaper.
Incidentally, some contribute the invention ofthe newspaper to the English courts way ofcommunicating to London what wasoccurring. London, at the time, was sufferingthe affects of the plague and the English courttransferred to Oxford to avoid falling victim.When the plague went away and the Englishcourt returned to Oxford, the Gazette survivedthe move and set up publishing in London.
An earlier newsbook, The Continuation ofOur Weekly News, had previously beenpublished in London on a regular basis since1623.
The first printer in the U.S. In the U.S., the printing was regulated by thePress Restriction Act. This act made itmandatory for the printers name and place ofpublication to be included on each printeddocument. In 1638, Stephen Day became thefirst printer in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
“Publick occurrences” The first gossip newspaper, Benjamin HarrissPublick Occurrences both Foreign andDomestick was published in 1690 and wasclosed down after one issue.
Unwanted story Apart from not being licensed, thenewspaper published an unfavourable story ofthe French King having an affair with his sonswife. Censorship had arrived to the U.S.shores.
In 1721, the birthof James FranklinsNew EnglandCourant occurred.Most expertsconsider this to bethe first realcolonial newspaper.
Not-so-serious newspaper As was the case of most early newspapers, the NewEngland Courant was more of a hobby than a full-timenewspaper and the news was usually biased on thepolitical beliefs of Franklin.
Unfortunately forFranklin, his politicalbeliefs were on theopposite side of theones in power. While Franklineventually had togive up publishinghis newspaper.
His younger brother Ben learned from theexperience he shared with his older brother and, in1729, Ben Franklin moved to Philadelphia where hetook over the Pennsylvania Gazette.
By 1750, weekly newspapers had grown to 14in the six largest colonies. Some were eventurning over a profit for their owners.
In the history of the U.S. journalism, 1835marked the beginning of New York Heraldunder James Gordon Bennett.
Getting steady This newspaper introduced the world to themodern concept of the newspaper. The NewYork Herald was a capitalist institution free ofgovernment or political party control. Withinfifteen months, the circulation grew to 40,000.
The New York Tribune The New York Tribune began print in 1841and was known as the first newspaper to carrynational influence with it. By the eve of theCivil War, the Tribune was getting demands forthousands of copies from any parts of the U.S.The New York Times was founded in 1851 andrepresented the principle of balancedreportage with high-level writing.
In 1848, the wire service originated with sixlarge New York newspapers working together toprovide coverage of Europe. This eventuallyevolved into what is known today as theAssociated Press and ten years later the first-evercable transmission of European news through thetransatlantic cable was received.
First radio broadcast While the nineteenth century witnessnewspapers growing across the U.S., the nextsignificant events didnt occur until 1901 whenGugliemo Marconi and his colleagues weresuccessful in sending the first wireless signalacross the ocean. Broadcast news was on thebrink of existence. In 1912, it arrived with thefirst radio broadcast in Los Angeles.
In 1920, the first radiostation, KDKA inPittsburgh brought inbroadcasts of election andsports results. In the1930s, Franklin DelanoRoosevelt took fulladvantage of the newtechnology of radiobroadcasting to comfort aweary nation through theGreat Depression with aseries of fireside chatsthat were broadcastednationally on thedeveloping radio
Where as the Civil Warbrought the need toinaugurate high-speedtransmission from remoteareas through thetelegraph; World War IIprovided the foundation ofthe need to demonstratethe value of radio. Leaderssuch as Winston Churchilland Roosevelt used radiobroadcasting as a tool toinstall hope and faith intheir fellow countrymenduring the tryingtimes. Edward Murrow ofCBS became the father ofthe reporter in the warzone.
Recovering newsprint The growth of the radio, followed by theintroduction of mainstream journalism intotelevision saw the decline of the newspaper. Itwasnt until Al Neauharth founded the USAToday in the 1980s as a national "hometown"newspaper did journalism in print recoversome of its prestige and following.
1997 saw journalismmoving into a newfrontier. Internetjournalism got a muchneeded boost when theDallas Morning Newsbroke the story aboutTimothy McVeighconfessing to theOklahoma Citybombing on their website.
Journalism has grown through many differentforms and measures. It has fought againstcensorship as well as it has been used as atool of manipulation by government leaders.Still, there are many boundaries to exploreand the journalists of tomorrow will be theones leading the path. The history ofjournalism is ongoing and forever changing. Aslong as there are journalists willing to keep thedesire to inform alive, journalism will continueto adapt to the technologies of tomorrow.