History of Print Journalism in Britain “It was while making newspaper deliveries, trying to miss the bushes and hit the porch, that I first learned the importance of accuracy in journalism. ” Charles Osgood By Shorina Ann Chuvash State University
The beginning Newspapers began circulating in the 17th century. The first newspapers were printed in Germany in 1609. The first newspaper in England was printed in 1621. (However the word newspaper was not recorded until 1670).
At first newspapers only printed foreign news. They did not print domestic news until 1641. The first successful daily newspaper in Britain was printed in 1702. Then in 1730 a newspaper called The Daily Advertiser began publishing stock exchange quotations.
In Britain in 1785 the Daily Universal Register was first published.
In 1788 it was renamed The Times. The Times- daily newspaper published in London, one of Britain’s oldest and most influential newspapers. It is generally accounted, with The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph, one of Britain’s “big three” and has long been recognized as one of the world’s greatestnewspapers.
Other papers. Meanwhile the Observer was founded in 1791.
The Daily Telegraph was first published in 1855.
The Manchester Guardian was founded in 1821. It changed its name to The Guardian in 1959.
The Financial Times began in 1888. Its an international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and printed in 24 cities around the world. Founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, the Financial Times competed with four other finance-oriented newspapers, in 1945 absorbing the last, the Financial News (founded in 1884).
Meanwhile The News Of The World was published in 1843. It was launched by John Browne Bell heralded as "The Novelty of Nations and the Wonder of the World" priced at just 3d. "Our motto is the truth, our practice is fearless advocacy of the truth," said Bell. His intention was, he said, "to give the poorer classes of society a paper that would suit their means, and to the middle as well as the richer a journal which, by its immense circulation, should command their attention". By the end of 1844 circulation had reached 18,000 and ten years on it had the largest circulation of any weekly paper.
The newspaper begun as a 2 ½ -penny broadsheet whose main function was to publicize a system of typography in which Walter was then interested. It became The Times on January 1, 1788 publishing commercial news and notices , along with some scandal. History of The Times
The founder’s son, John Walter 2, took over the newspaper in 1803. He expanded it from 4 pages to 12 large pages, and, by the time control of the paper passed to his son, John Walter 3. In 1848, the foundations of The Times' reputation as Britain’s preeminent national journal and daily historical record had been laid.
Getting stronger positions Under its first great liberal editor, Thomas Barnes ( editor from 1817 to 1841), The Times developed into a strong independent newspaper popularly described as the “Thunderer”.
From rare to common Newspapers became far more common in the late 19th century. In the 18th century and the early 19th century stamp duty was charged on newspapers, which made them expensive. However in 1855 stamp duty on newspapers was abolished and they became cheaper and more common.
In the mid-19th century newspaper reporters began to use the telegraph as a means to get news to their newspapers quickly. Then in 1880 The New York Graphic became the first newspaper to print a photo.
In Britain the first tabloid newspaper was the Daily Graphic published in 1890. In 1891 it became the first British newspaper to print a photo.
By the mid-1800s it had become a widely respected influence on British public opinion, and its circulation had grown from 5 000 in 1815 to 40 000 in1850.
The Times maintained rigorous standards of reporting and writing and strove for meticulous accuracy. It came to be ruled by tradition, although its editorial views were independent, articulate , and strong.
It was also seen as the very epitome of the British establishment, yet repeatedly it introduced innovative changes.
Editors who left an impact on the paper. John T. Delane became editor in 1841, and in his 36-year tenure his brilliant journalistic imprint was left on every aspect of the paper. In the midst of expanding The Times’ national coverage, he hired the world’s first war correspondent, William Howard Russel, to cover the Crimean War ( 1853-56) The British government first learned of Russian peace proposals in The Times.
An unfortunate turn Late in the 19th century, overspending and inadvertent publication of a forgery against the Irish hero- Charles Stewart Parnell brought The Times’ finances, reputation and circulation to a serious low.
As part of recovery effort, The Times entered into an agreement with the publishers of Encyclopedia Britannica for advertising and selling the 9th and 10th editions. It was not until 1908- when the sensationalist press lord Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, purchased the paper- that The Times was financially secure, but its editorial reputation continued to deteriorate until Lord Northcliffe’s death in 1922.
From the past to the future In the 1950’s, when Sir William Haley , then the director general of BBc, became the editor(1952-67). The Times once again became a great newspaper. Makeup and editorial changes were introduced to make the paper livelier and more interesting. Sir William Haley
News was put permanently on its front page in 1966 in place of advertisements. Later that year it was announced that Roy Thomson, owner of The Sunday Times was acquiring the paper, and , beginning the following year, the two papers were published by the newly created Timed Newspaper Ltd.
Modern typesetting and printing equipment were subsequently acquired , which led to a disabling strike that resulted in suspension of publication for a year in 1978-79.
But the newspaper and its reputation survived , and The Times continued to thrive. In 1981 Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation Ltd. acquired the paper through its purchase of Times Newspapers.
Modern Newspapers In the 20th century newspapers became still more common. The Daily Mail was first published in 1896, The Daily Express was first published in 1900 and the Daily Mirror began publication in 1903.
In 1964 The Daily Herald became The Sun and The Daily Star was founded in 1978. Meanwhile The Sunday Telegraph was founded in 1961 and in 1962 The Sunday Times became the first newspaper to publish a Sunday colour supplement. The Mail on Sunday began in 1982. The Independent was first published in 1986. Also in 1986 Today became the first colour newspaper in Britain.
By the beginning of the 20th century Fleet Street was the centre of the British newspaper industry. However in the 1980s newspaper owners moved away from Fleet Street. At that time computer technology replaced the old labour-intensive methods of printing.
The Press Complaints Commission was created in 1990. Metro, a free newspaper for commuters was first published in 1999. Then in 2010 an abbreviated version of the Independent called i was launched However in 2011 The News Of The World ceased publication.