AdvertAdvertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage,persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners;sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action. Mostcommonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to acommercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is alsocommon.
History.Egyptians used papyrus tomake sales messages andwall posters. Commercialand ancient Arabia. Lostand found advertising onpapyrus was common inmessages and politicalcampaign displays havebeen found in the ruins ofPompeii Ancient Greeceand Ancient Rome.
Wall or rock painting forcommercial advertising isanother manifestation of anancient advertising form,which is present to this day inmany parts of Asia, Africa, andSouth America. The traditionof wall painting can be tracedback to Indian rock artpaintings that date back to4000 BC.History tells us thatOut-of-home advertising andbillboards are the oldest formsof advertising.
As education became an apparentneed and reading, as well as printing,developed advertising expanded toinclude handbills.In the 18th centuryadvertisements started to appear inweekly newspapers in England. Theseearly print advertisements were usedmainly to promote books andnewspapers, which becameincreasingly affordable with advancesin the printing press; and medicines,which were increasingly sought afteras disease ravaged Europe. However,false advertising and so-called "quack"advertisements became a problem,which ushered in the regulation ofadvertising content.
In the early 1920s, the first radio stations wereestablished by radio equipment manufacturers andretailers who offered programs in order to sell moreradios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profitorganizations followed suit in setting up their own radiostations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups.When the practice of sponsoring programs waspopularized, each individual radio program was usuallysponsored by a single business in exchange for a briefmention of the business name at the beginning and endof the sponsored shows. However, radio station ownerssoon realized they could earn more money by sellingsponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiplebusinesses throughout their radio stations broadcasts,rather than selling the sponsorship rights to singlebusinesses per show .Commercial television in the 1950s
This practice was carried over to commercial television in the late1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was fought between thoseseeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that theradio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to beused only non-commercially and for the public good.The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC,originally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company, butincorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada,advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade thefederal government to adopt a public funding model, creating theCanadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States,the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of theCommunications Act of 1934 which created the FederalCommunications Commission (FCC).However, the U.S. Congress didrequire commercial broadcasting companies to operate in the"public interest, convenience, and necessity". Public broadcastingnow exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public BroadcastingAct which led to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and NationalPublic Radio (NPR).
In the early 1950s, the DuMont TelevisionNetwork began the modern practice of sellingadvertisement time to multiple sponsors.Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsorsfor many of their programs and compensated byselling smaller blocks of advertising time to severalbusinesses. This eventually became the standardfor the commercial television industry in theUnited States. However, it was still a commonpractice to have single sponsor shows, such as TheUnited States Steel Hour. In some instances thesponsors exercised great control over the contentof the show—up to and including having onesadvertising agency actually writing the show. Thesingle sponsor model is much less prevalent now,a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall ofFame.The advertising business model has also beenadapted in recent years. A new development isMedia for equity.