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  • In the book All for the better: A story of El Barrio , Evelina Lopez learns that many of her neighbors are poor but don’t receive food package because it was only available to people who fill out a proper form. Evelina then decides to find a solution for her neighbors. She becomes an activist on the behalf of her community and eventually founds a social group called United Bronx Parents Group.

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  • 1. Cause-and-Effect Interdisciplinary Lit-Kit about Saving the Earth, and NYC Life & People Target grade level: Fourth Grade Gladys Aponte, Marianna Davydova, Keren Park, and Edna Xie Professor Mercado QSTA 410.80 Fall 2009
  • 2. Table of Contents Vocabulary Semantic Web 45 Annotated Bibliographies 46 - 47 Activity # 4: Causes and Effects of Global Warming 37- 44 Activity # 3: Causes and Effects of Recycling 26 - 36 Science Objectives 25 Activity # 2: Causes and Effects of Living in Spanish Harlem 14 - 24 Activity # 1: Causes and Effects of Immigration 7- 13 Social Studies Objectives 6 Interdisciplinary Standards 5 NYS English Language Arts Standards 4 Focus/Purpose & Rationale 3 Slide Number
  • 3.
    • Focus/Purpose: We have designed this Lit-Kit in order to combat the increasing difficulty students are having with comprehending cause-and-effect relationships.
    • Rationale: We strongly believe that by using this Lit-Kit, students will improve their knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships, which will be a springboard for many of the critical-thinking skills they will need to participate in the 21 st century world. Our Lit-Kit, embodies a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach because we incorporate the two core content areas of science and social studies that respond to this specific literacy need. Given that our four activities are intertwined by this common thread of comprehending cause-and-effect relationships, our Lit-Kit strives to promote powerful connections among the core content areas.
    • In addition, we believe that mastering the comprehension of cause-and-effect relationships will forever build a solid foundation for students to use this literacy strategy in other contexts in life, not just in the urban classroom. Most importantly, we believe that by being competent in understanding cause-and-effect relationships, students will acquire a critical 21 st century skill that will be advantageous for them as future global citizens of the world. This is why we chose to focus our Lit-Kit on two global themes of saving the Earth (science) and understanding the people and lives of NYC (social studies).
  • 4.
    • NYS English Language Arts Standards
    • Standard 1 : Language for Information and Understanding
    • Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information.
    • Standard 3: Language for Critical Analysis and Evaluation
    • Students will listen, speak, read, and write for critical analysis and evaluation. As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to present, from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgments on experiences, ideas, information and issues. Students will increase competence in using the organizational pattern of cause and effect to read and write expository texts.
  • 5. Interdisciplinary Standards Social Studies Science Standard 1- History of the United States and New York 3: Study about the major social, political, economic, cultural, and religious developments in New York State and United States history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups. Standard – 4.XV (15): “ Science is an ongoing process. Most often there is a question or problem that initiates an investigation searching of or a possible solution or solutions. There is no single prescribed scientific method to govern an investigation. It is important that students practice the skills outlined below. For younger students, the emphasis is on discovery. For older students, the emphasis is on formulating and investigating their own questions.”
  • 6. Social Studies Activities
    • 1. Causes and Effects of Immigration
    • Students will be able to identify several causes and effects (consequences and benefits) of immigration.
    • 2. We can change our city!
    • Students will read and learn about some issues that arise in the cities. Then they will exam and identify what are some causes of these issues. Students will become change-makers in the city by creating some effective solutions to address these issues.
  • 7. Causes and Effects of Immigration Activity # 1:
  • 8. “ Although slavery had long been abolished, white landowners treated the black tenant farmers harshly and unfairly.” -Lawrence Students will be able to identify and classify several causes and effects (consequences and benefits) of immigration. Objective:
  • 9. Hmm…what is this book about?
    • The Great Migration (by Jacob Lawrence ) is a wonderful storybook filled with paintings by the author himself! Lawrence’s parents were among those who migrated between 1916-1919 (the first wave of The Great Migration) and his compilation of paintings show events from this life-altering historical movement. The nonfiction book is written in a simple and informative historical narrative style, so students will be easily engaged and enthralled by Lawrence’s captivating story.
  • 10. Background Knowledge:
    • Students’ background knowledge should consist of a general understanding of the main ideas that deal with the causes and effects of immigration, such as:
    • Immigration is the voluntary movement of people from one country to live permanently in another.
    • Throughout history, countless millions of people have moved to another country for various reasons.
      • Some leave their homeland to avoid starvation or to escape unbearable family situations.
      • Many move to avoid revolution and war.
      • Others are escaping religious or political persecution.
      • Some immigrants were brought to a new land against their will, as slaves.
      • Some immigrate to be reunited with their loved ones.
      • Some move in search of adventure.
      • Throughout history, the number one reason has always been economic opportunity - - the search for better land or a better job.
      • Recently, many professional people have emigrated because of better opportunities elsewhere.
  • 11. Task: Students will interview an immigrant or someone who remembers why their ancestors came to this country about his or her experiences. They can consider the following connections: -a family member, -a neighbor or friend.
  • 12. Task Preparations: To prepare for the interviews, students are to prepare index cards with questions that will inform them of the following:
    • CAUSES of immigration: Why people leave their native countries.
      • What country did you come from?
      • How old were you when you left?
      • Why did your family decide to leave?
      • What do you remember about the conditions in your native country?
    • EFFECTS of migration: The consequences and results of immigration.
      • How did your life change in America?
      • What was the biggest challenge you faced as a new immigrant?
      • Are glad you came? Why or why not?
  • 13. Assessment : Students will be evaluated through their written responses in the following group activity:
  • 14. Objective : Students will identify the causes and effects of events that influence the lives and experiences of the Latino immigrants living in Spanish Harlem during The Great Depression.
  • 15. All For The Better: A Story Of El Barrio (Stories Of America Series ) By Nicholasa Mohr This wonderful book describes the lives of Spanish immigrants during the time of The Great Depression. Also this informative book is about a Puerto Rican Girl who left her family to live with her aunt in the Spanish Harlem community of New York City, during the dark era of The Great Depression. It depicts an inspirational story about how the actions of one caring, young girl cause changes in her community. Evelina becomes an activist who helps and finds solutions for her poor neighbors in Spanish Harlem.
  • 16.
    • Prior to this activity, students will have visited, explored and examined the neighborhood of Spanish Harlem located in the north-eastern part of Manhattan.
    • Also, students will have a prior understanding of The Great Depression. They can visit the following website to refresh their background knowledge about The Great Depression.
    • http://www.pocanticohills.org/amprogress/Children_and_The_Great_Depression.htm
  • 17.
    • After reading the book, students will write about the lives of the Latino immigrants living in Spanish Harlem during the time of The Great Depression.
    • Based on the reading, they will complete a graphic organizer to clearly identify causes and effects of certain events that have shaped the lives and experiences of these Latino immigrants.
  • 18.  
  • 19.
    • Students will work in groups of four or five to create a poster that says one proposal to improve the lives of the people in Spanish Harlem.
    • Make sure to write the reasons (causes) and effects of their proposal.
  • 20. CAUSES ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Effective results ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 21. Science Activities
    • 1. Recycling
    • Students will be able to observe and identify the cause and effects of recycling, and use this information to convince others to recycle in different ways.
    • 2. Causes and Effects of Global Warming
    • Students will, with the use of two informational books and technological tools, be able to determine the cause-and-effect relationships in the content of global warming.
  • 22. Activity 1: Recycling Objective : Students will be able to observe and identify the cause and effects of recycling, and use this information to convince others to recycle in different ways.
  • 23. Garbage (Great Source, Volume 4, Issue 6) This engaging and educational magazine, a nonfiction text, discusses the different kinds of garbage that people throw out. This magazine also offers great suggestions on what we can do to help conserve our planet. Two of the engaging features of this text are the short stories ( such as “Rummaging for Treasure”) and the short skits (such as “Quick Response”), both of which provide information regarding the causes and effects of recycling. Hmm…what is this magazine about?
  • 24. Example of Short Skit:
  • 25. Example of Recycling Tips:
  • 26. Recycling Video
    • An informative video about recycling milk cartons: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8BT8ZSV5bg
    Poster from the Alberta Dairy Council (Canada)
  • 27. Background Knowledge:
    • The different types of objects that can be recycle or reuse (i.e. – paper, cups, jars, aluminum cans, glass)
    • What new materials can be made from recyclable items:
      • Aluminum cans can be chopped, melted, made into bars, and then into thin sheets which are made into new cans.
    After reading informational texts and watching the video about recycling, students will have acquired the following background knowledge:
  • 28. Facts & Benefits of Recycling:
      • Protecting the environment.
      • Producing new things from recyclable material costs less money, uses less energy, and uses less of the Earth’s resources.
      • Less energy = less pollution from factories
      • Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to run a TV for three hours or the equivalent of a half a gallon of gasoline
      • Recycling one glass bottle saves enough electricity to light a 100-watt bulb for four hours.
      • If all of our newspapers were recycled, we could save about 250 million trees each year! If every American recycled just one-tenth of their newspapers, we could save about 25 million trees each year.
  • 29.
    • Students will be assigned to go to different classrooms and conduct a small survey with each teacher and student.
    • Students will record their data on their tally sheet, as they ask each teacher and student questions about recycling, which are on the worksheet.
    Task :
  • 30. Student’s “Recycle Survey” worksheet:
  • 31. Teacher’s Task:
    • After all the students are done collecting their data from their assigned classroom, the teacher will create a class chart with the students, that represents all of the students’ data.
      • Adding the total number of students who said yes/no to the question “Do you recycle at home or in school.”
      • Adding the total number of students who recycle paper, plastic, metal, and/or glass.
    • Teacher will look over the class chart with the students and analyze their data.
    • From the class chart, students will explain the different effects of people who do or do not recycle, according to the data.
  • 32.
    • For homework, students will create a recycling pamphlet, and will use information from what they have just learned about recycling to convince others to recycle. Students must incorporate the following:
      • The causes and effects of recycling.
      • The results from the class “Recycle Survey.”
      • Four examples of how people will benefits of recycling.
      • Three suggestions on how people can reuse, reduce, or recycle garbage.
    • Afterward, students can present their pamphlets to the classrooms that do not recycle to spread the message.
    Assessment
  • 33. Activity # 2
  • 34.
    • Objective: Students will, with the use of two informational books and technological tools, be able to determine the cause-and-effect relationships in the content of global warming.
  • 35. Hmm…what is this book about?
    • Why Are the Ice Caps Melting?: The Dangers of Global Warming. By Anne Rockwell.
    • This informational trade book, full of educational illustrations, offers an introduction to the causes and effects of global warming. It describes the balance Earth needs from the greenhouse effect, the dangers of extra greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide), deforestation, the extinction possibilities of animals such as polar bears and plankton plants. This remarkable book also describes the many ways people can help stop global warming, such as planting trees and recycling.
  • 36. Hmm…what is this book about?
    • This is My Planet: The Kids ’ Guide to Global Warming. By Jan Thornhill.
    • This phenomenal informational book also presents the causes and effects of global warming, and uses in-depth explanations, awe-inspiring photographs, and charts to engage readers. It describes how Earth works like a natural greenhouse, how the climate is changing, the main greenhouse gases, the effects rising temperatures has on the crucial balance of ecosystems, and the changes scientists see in the oceans and on land. Like Rockwell, Thornhill also offers many ways people can help stop global warming, such as not using bottled water, and riding bikes.
  • 37. Background Knowledge:
    • In a preceding lesson, students will have already re-learned the concept of cause-and-effect relationships. Also, they will have already read the global warming introductory book, Why Are the Ice Caps Melting?: The Dangers of Global Warming , by Anne Rockwell. Their background knowledge should consist of a general understanding of the main topics that deal with the causes and effects of Global Warming, such as:
    • - greenhouse gases -glaciers melting (polar ice caps) -increase in extreme weather (floods/draughts)
    • - greenhouse effect -sea levels rising -dangers to animals and humans
    • - examples of climate change.
  • 38. Task:
    • After watching the educational Climate Change video ( http://www.climatechangeeducation.org/videos/youtube/seedsindia.html ), and reading This is My Planet: The Kids ’ Guide to Global Warming , students will complete the following task:
    • Work, in pairs, to fill out this Cause-and-Effect graphic organizer/worksheet about global warming on Earth.
  • 39. Assessment #1:
    • First, will recap what they learned in lesson today by logging on to the following EPA Global Warming website: http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/global_warming_version2.html .
    • For homework, students will complete this interactive educational game and complete the short global warming quiz at the end. Quiz questions include:
    • “ 1) What is the most common greenhouse gas emitted from human activities?;
    • 2) In which of the following ways do people increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?;
    • 3) Greenhouse gases cause global warming by: ”
    “ Since most scientists agree that human-produced greenhouse gases are responsible for Global Warming, it ’ s up to us to do something about it. ” – Thornhill
  • 40.
    • Second, using the information they have learned from the 2 books, and the video, students will, individually, write a newspaper article portraying their understanding of the causes and effects of global warming on Earth. Using facts from the two books and video, students must incorporate at least 5 causes and 5 effects in their articles. Articles must also include at least 2 suggested solutions (such as Reducing, Reusing & Recycling) for saving the Earth and slowing the rate of the harmful effects of global warming. In addition, for extra credit, students can use the facts on the following educational websites to write their Global Warming newspaper articles:
    • http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/
    • http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/specials/articles/0,28285,1114036,00.html
    • http://www.cooltheearth.org/climate-101/
    Assessment #2:
  • 41.  
  • 42. Annotated Bibliography
    • Climate Change Kids Site . http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/global_warming_version2.html
    • This colorfully educational website presents the concepts and terminology of global warming and climate change in a very kid-friendly format that is engaging and informative. The content is explored in a fun game format that gradually teaches students and let’s them work at their own pace before answering five short questions that recap what they have learned in the game about greenhouse gases, global warming, and how we can prevent global warming from becoming more dangerous.
    • Cool the Earth: Get the Big Picture on Global Warming . http://www.cooltheearth.org/climate-101/
    • This educational website also exposes students to the introduction of global warming, wherein it includes easy-to-comprehend paragraphs about the history, definition, causes, and effects of global warming. This website discusses many of the terminology that are associated with global warming, and it also offers current event news about what is being done in US politics to prevent global warming from becoming more hazardous.
    • Department of Ecology State of Washington . http://www .ecy.wa.gov/programs/swfa/kidspage/trivia.html
    • This website provides various recycling facts that identify the reasons and benefits of why people should recycle. Not only is this website kid friendly, it’s also very easy to navigate, and students are able to research more about the different types of items that can be recycled (e.g. aluminum, glass, paper, plastic) with a click of the button.
    • Department of Environmental Conservation . http://www.dec.ny.gov/education/46831.html
    • This website provided the result of “New York Recycles!” poster contest of 2009 and present students’ creative poster from grades K – 12. Through the process of creating the poster, students need to know the effects of recycling and not recycling in order to create a conveying piece of art that makes other want to do what’s right for the planet.
    • Do Something, Inc . http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-recycling
    • This is a great website for students to research and learn more about recycling. There are tons of facts and information about recycling and other environmental issues (e.g. global warming, energy conservation, pollution), and suggestions on what students can do to take action in recycling, such as starting a recycling program in the school, collecting cans and bottles from kids after lunch.
    • Latham, Donna, and Linde, Barbara. Garbage . Wilmington: Great Source Education Group, 2001. Print.
    • This magazine is a suitable source for students in the third grade to learn about the causes and effects of recycling. There are various forms of text, such as short stories, skits, poems, and fact or fiction statements that provide information about the different types of objects we can recycle, and suggestions on what students can do to promote recycling. The field guide to recycling was also very informative on how people can reuse, reduce, and recycle different items. This magazine would be a good introduction to the unit of recycling, and teachers should think of other sources that provide more information about what happens within a landfill, which is one of the major reasons why we should recycle.
    • Lawrence, Jacob. The Great Migration . New York: The Phillips Collection, 1993. Print.
    • Lawrence’s story, filled with his own paintings, exposes the hardships people faced when they migrated North between 1916-1919 (the first wave of The Great Migration). Students will be intrigued by Lawrence’s paintings, and simple and engaging language. It is intended for students above eight years old, and can definitely be a source for junior high school students. It is a great book to use for this Lit-Kit because it is packed with over a dozen causes and effects for the students to analyze. Lawrence describes the many incentives for migrating North, and the various results and consequences for those who moved. The narrative is well structured and informative.
    • Rockwell, Anne. Why Are the Ice Caps Melting?: The Dangers of Global Warming . New York: HarperCollins, 2006. Print.
    • This informational trade book, full of educational illustrations, offers an introduction to the causes and effects of global warming. It describes the balance Earth needs from the greenhouse effect, the dangers of extra greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide), deforestation, the extinction possibilities of animals such as polar bears and plankton plants. This remarkable book also describes the many ways people can help stop global warming, such as planting trees and recycling. It is written in very kid-friendly language and fits very appropriately into our Lit-Kit’s focus.
  • 43. Annotated Bibliography Time For Kids: Global Warming Special Report . http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/specials/articles/0,28285,1114036,00.html This informational website exposes students to the introduction of global warming, wherein it includes easy-to-comprehend paragraphs about the definition, causes, and effects of global warming. This website discusses many of the terminology that are associated with global warming, and it also offers suggestions about what is what we can do to prevent global warming from becoming more hazardous. The Great Migration Resources Page. http://www.uic.edu/educ/bctpi/pt3/greatmigration.html This website is a great guide for teachers to find sources about the topic of migration. It includes a map with historical data, documents dating back to the time they occurred, and even letters of the migrants themselves! Some of the words on this website are too complicated for students to use, but it is a very informative website for adults. The links to the primary sources can be used in lessons, and if used correctly, they will catch the students’ interest in the subject. The website itself is very plain and simple, but when linked to the sources, the appearance is more welcoming. Overall, the website was very reliable and informative with relevance to our Lit-Kit. Thornhill, Jan. This is My Planet: The Kids ’ Guide to Global Warming . Berkeley, CA: Publishers Group West, 2007. Print. This phenomenal informational book also presents the causes and effects of global warming, and uses in-depth explanations, awe-inspiring photographs, and charts to engage readers. It describes how Earth works like a natural greenhouse, how the climate is changing, the main greenhouse gases, the effects rising temperatures has on the crucial balance of ecosystems, and the changes scientists see in the oceans and on land. Like Rockwell, Thornhill also offers many ways people can help stop global warming, such as not using bottled water, and riding bikes. This book is also very kid-friendly and makes learning about this content fun because of the cool facts and statistics that are accompanied by easy-to-comprehend photographs and charts.
  • 44.