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A.t.m-air travel management
A.t.m-air travel management
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A.t.m-air travel management

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  • 1. LO2History of United Kingdom On May 1, 1707, the Kingdom of England (including Wales) andthe Kingdom of Scotland merged as a political union known as the UnitedKingdom of Great Britain. This is the result of agreed terms, signed byparliaments of England and Scotland, under the Treaty of Union. QueenAnne is the first monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Great Britain withthe Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain andIreland On January 1, 1801. This is the result of several centuries ofhistoric events including the invasions of ruling Normans in Ireland, theIrish Rebellion of 1641, and War of American Independence. The unioneliminated the separate Parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland creatingan integrated Parliament of the United Kingdom. Ireland sent roughly 100MPs to the House of Commons and 28 peers to the House of Lords. During the 19th and early 20th century, the rise of IrishNationalism emerged particularly in the Catholic population. Movementfor the cancellation of the Act of Union is known as ―Home Rule‖ andmany campaigns have failed including the one in 1912 that passed theHouse of Commons but was voted out in the House of Lords. In 1916, anone-sidedly declared ―Irish Republic‖ was announced in Dublin andresulted to the Anglo-Irish War that lasts until 1921. The Anglo-IrishTreaty of 1921 formed the Irish Free State and left the BritishCommonwealth without constitutional ties with UK and 6 northern Irishcounties remained part of the United Kingdom. The Royal andParliamentary Titles Act 1927 renamed the United Kingdom of Great
  • 2. Britain and Ireland to United Kingdom of Great Britain and NorthernIreland. Culture of the United Kingdom The culture of the United Kingdom refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people. It is informed by the UKs history as a developed island country, major power, and its composition of four countries—England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—each of which have preserved distinct customs, cultures and symbolism. As a result of the British Empire, significant British influence can be observed in the language, culture and institutions of a geographically wide assortment of countries, including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, the United States and the British overseas territories. These states are sometimes collectively known as the Anglosphere, and are among Britains closest allies. As well as the British influence on its empire, the empire also influenced British culture, particularly British cuisine. Innovations and movements within the wider culture of Europe have also changed the United Kingdom; Humanism, Protestantism, and representative democracy have developed from broader Western culture. The Industrial Revolution, with its origins in the UK, brought about major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation, and had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the world. The social structure of Britain during this period has also played a central cultural role. More recently, popular culture of the UK included notable movements in music such as the British invasion and Britpop, while British literature, British cinema, British television and British poetry is respected across the world.
  • 3. As a result of the history of the formation of the United Kingdom, thecultures of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are diverseand have varying degrees of overlap and distinctiveness.The culture of the United Kingdom refers to the patterns of humanactivity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and itspeople. It is informed by the UKs history as a developedisland country,major power, and its composition of four countries—England, NorthernIreland, Scotland and Wales—each of which have preserved distinctcustoms, cultures and symbolism.As a result of the British Empire, significant British influence can beobserved in the language, culture and institutions of a geographicallywide assortment of countries, including Australia, Canada, India, NewZealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, the United States and theBritish overseas territories. These states are sometimes collectivelyknown as the Anglosphere, and are among Britains closest allies. Aswell as the British influence on its empire, the empire also influencedBritish culture, particularly British cuisine. Innovations and movementswithin the wider culture of Europe have also changed the UnitedKingdom; Humanism, Protestantism, and representative democracy havedeveloped from broader Western culture.The Industrial Revolution, with its origins in the UK, brought aboutmajor changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation, and hada profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of theworld. The social structure of Britain during this period has also played acentral cultural role. More recently, popular culture of the UK includednotable movements in music such as the British invasion and Britpop,while British literature, British cinema, British television and Britishpoetry is respected across the world.As a result of the history of the formation of the United Kingdom, thecultures of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are diverseand have varying degrees of overlap and distinctiveness.
  • 4. Attractions / United Kingdom 1. Big Ben Big Ben There were two bells cast as the clock towers hour bell. A first, a 16 ton weighing bell was cast by John Warner and Sons in 1856. Since the Clock Tower was not yet completed, the bell was hung temporarily in the Palace Yard. The bell soon cracked so it was recast in 1858 in the Whitechapel Bell Foundry as a 13.5 ton bell. Unfortunately soon after this bell was placed in the belfry in July 1859, it cracked as well. This time, instead of yet again recasting the bell, the crack was repaired and a lighter hammer was used to prevent any more cracks.The hour bell was probably named after Benjamin Hall, Clockface the First Commissioner of Works. Some sources however claim the bell was named after Benjamin Caunt, a British heavyweight boxing champion.
  • 5. The Clock The clock was the largest in the world and still the largest in Great-Britain. The clockfaces have a diameter of almost 25ft (7.5m). The hour hand is 9ft or 2.7m long and the minute hand is 14ft (4.25m) long. The clock is known for its reliability, it has rarely failed during its long life span. Even after the nearby House of Commons was destroyed by bombing during World War II, the clock kept on chiming. The clocks mechanism, designed by Edmund Beckett Denison, has a remarkable accuracy. The clocksrate is adjusted by simply adding small pennies on the shoulder of thependulumThe TowerThe tower was constructed between 1843 and 1858 as the clock tower ofthe Palace of Westminster, now better known as the Houses ofParliament. The clock tower - its official name is Saint Stephens tower -is 316ft high (96m) and consists of a 200ft (61m) high brick shaft toppedby a cast iron framed spire. The clockfaces are 180ft / 55m aboveground level Tower BridgeBridge HistoryPlans for the Tower Bridge were devised around 1876 when the east ofLondon became extremely crowded and a bridge across the Thames inthat area of the city seemed a necessity. It would take another eight years- and lots of discussions about the design - before construction of thebridge started.The bridge, designed by city architect Horace Jones in collaborationwith John Wolfe Barry, would eventually be completed in 1894. Five
  • 6. contractors and nearly 450 workers were involved in the construction ofthe 265 meter long bridge. It took 11,000 tons of steel to build theframework. At the time many people disliked its Victorian Gothicdesign, but over time the bridge became one of Londons most famoussymbols.MechanicsTower bridge raisingThe proximity of the harbor and its location in the direction of the searequired for the bridge to allow the passage of large vessels. Hence thedecision to create a moveable bridge which can be opened toaccommodate boat traffic. The mechanism to open the bridge is hiddenin the two towers. Until 1976, when the mechanism became electrified,steam power was used to pump water into hydraulic accumulators whichpowered the engines.Each deck is more than 30 meters wide and can be opened to an angle of83 degrees. When opened the bridge has a clearance of almost 45 meter.It used to open almost 50 times a day but nowadays it is only raisedabout 1,000 times a year.Tower Bridge at nightBridge lifts are pre-scheduled (for cruise ships, etc) so visitors can checkthe bridges website to find out when it will rise and lower.Visiting the BridgeTaking photographs of the Tower bridge is a favorite London touristactivity, but you can also go inside the bridge, where youll have a
  • 7. magnificent view over London from the walkway between the twobridge towers.Inside the bridge is the Tower bridge Exhibition, a display area thatencompasses the walkway and the two famous towers where you canobserve the Victorian engine room. Visitors can learn about the historyof the bridge via photos, films, and other media.Currently the bridge is undergoing a renovation project that should becompleted in 2012London EyeA Landmark for the new MillenniumThe structure was designed by the architectural team of David Marksand Julia Barfield, husband and wife.They submitted their idea for a large observation wheel as part of acompetition to design a landmark for the new millennium.None of the entrants won the competition, but the couple pressed on andeventually got the backing of British Airways, who sponsored theproject.ConstructionConstruction of the observation wheel took more than a year and a halfto complete. In the process over 1700 tonnes of steel were used for thestructure and more than 3000 tonnes of concrete were used for thefoundations.The futuristic looking capsules, accommodating up to 25 passengers,
  • 8. were transported all the way from France by train through the chunnel.Each egg-shaped capsule is 8 meters long and weighs 500kg. The 25meter (82 ft) long spindle was built in the Czech Republic. The rim has adiameter of 122m (400ft), about 200 times the size of a bicycle wheel.80 Spokes connect the rim with the spindle.London seen from the London EyeThe Observation WheelThe observation wheel turns slow enough for people to embark while itis moving. A complete turn takes about 30 minutes. Thanks to theconstruction of the glass capsules on the outer side of the rim,Capsulethe passengers have a great 360° view over London. Many famouslandmarks are clearly visible, including the Buckingham Palace, St.Pauls Cathedral and the Houses of Parliament. On a clear day you cansee as far as 40 km (25 miles).
  • 9. Tower of LondonTower of LondonConstruction of the Tower of London was initiated in 1070 by Williamthe Conqueror, shortly after his victory at Hastings in 1066. The Towerwas built to enforce the power of the king over the newly conqueredregion.The fortress, strategically located at the Thames, was originally not morethan a temporary wooden building which was replaced later by theWhite Tower. Over time the complex was expanded into a strongholdwith about 20 towers.Today the Tower of London is best known for its Crown Jewels, but itused to be notorious for the many political opponents of the kings thatwere locked, tortured and killed in the Tower. The Tower was also aroyal residence: several kings lived here, especially during turbulenttimes when the donjon seemed a lot safer than the palace inWestminster.White TowerThe White TowerThe oldest part of the fortress is the so-called White Tower, which wascompleted in 1097. This keep was long the tallest building in London at27.4 meter. Its walls had a width of 4.6 meter.The tower was whitewashed during the reign of Henry III, which gavethe towers facade its white appearance. Ever since the tower is knownas White Tower.
  • 10. The building has four domed turrets at each corner. Three of them havea square shape, the other is round, due to its spiral staircase. The roundturret was long used as an observatory.Other TowersThe Tower of London was significantly expanded in the 13th century,during the reign of Henry III, when two defensive walls were builtaround the White Tower. The inner wall had thirteen towers and theouter wall another six. The towers were mostly used to imprisonpolitical opponents.Traitors GateSome of the most famous prisoners locked in the Tower were twoprinces, the sons of king Edward IV. After Edwards dead in 1483 thechildren were locked in the Bloody Tower by their uncle, who wouldlater ascend the throne as king Richard III. The princes were never seenagain and were probably killed by guards.The St. Thomas Tower is located close to the Bloody Tower. Here,prisoners were brought into the fortress by boat through the Traitorsgate.Important prisoners were often locked in the Beauchamp Tower,sometimes with their servants. An inscription on the wall of the tower isbelieved to refer to Lady Jane Grey, who, nine days after she wascrowned Queen, was executed on Tower Green, an open terrain in theTower of London.
  • 11. Byward TowerThomas More was imprisoned in the Bell Tower until his execution afterhe refused to accept king Henry VIII as head of the Anglican church.Even Queen Elisabeth I was confined here for some time.Yeoman WardersThe main entrance of the Tower of London is at the Byward Tower,where youll find the so-called Beefeaters or Yeoman Warders.Dressed in historic clothes, they not only guard the tower, but also giveguided tours of the fortress. One of the about 40 Yeoman Warders isknown as the Ravenmaster, responsible for the ravens that have beenliving here for centuries.Yeoman WardenLegend has it that the Tower and the kingdom will fall if the ravensleave. Hence King Charles II placed the birds under royal protection andthe wings of the ravens are clipped to prevent them from flying away.Crown JewelsThe most famous tourist attraction in the Tower of London is thecollection of Crown Jewels that has been on display here since the 17th
  • 12. century, during the reign of Charles II. Most of the jewels were createdaround the year 1660, when the monarchy was reinstalled. The majorityof the older crown jewels were destroyed by Cromwell.The jewels can be found in the Jewel House, part of the WaterlooBarracks just north of the White Tower. Some of the highlights of thecollection are the 530 carat First Star of Africa, which is set in theImperial State CrownScepter of the Cross, the Imperial State Crown with more than 2800diamonds and the famous Koh-I-Noor, a 105 carat diamond.More SightsTheres plenty more to see in the Tower of London, such as the RoyalArmories, which includes the personal armory of King Henry VIII, oneof the worlds largest.The medieval palace in the Tower of London is also open to visitors andthere are often reenactments of historic events in the fortress.St. Pauls Cathedral St. Pauls Cathedral St. Pauls Cathedral has had an eventful history. Five different churches were built at this site. The first church, dedicated to the apostle Paul, dates back to 604 AD, when King Ethelbert of Kent built a wooden
  • 13. church on the summit of one of Londons hills for Mellitus, Bishop ofthe East Saxons. At the end of the 7th century, the church was built instone by Erkenwald, Bishop of London.In 962 and 1087, the Cathedral was destroyed by fires, but each time itwas rebuilt. By that time, it was one of the largest cathedrals in Europe.Renovations and extensions in the 13th and 14th century enlarged thecathedral even more.The Great FireIn 1665 Christopher Wren designed a plan for the renovation of the St.Pauls Cathedral, which was starting to fall into decay. But disasterstruck again on the night of September 2, 1666, when the Great Fire ofLondon destroyed 4/5th of all of London,South Facadewiping 13,200 houses and 89 churches, including the St. PaulsCathedral off the map.Christopher Wrens MasterpieceIn 1669, three years after the fire Christopher Wren was appointedSurveyor of Works and was tasked with the building of a new church toreplace the destroyed gothic cathedral.His first design was deemed too modest. In his second design, known asthe Great Model, the cathedral was shaped like a Greek cross, with aportico, Corinthian columns and a striking large dome, which would be
  • 14. the worlds largest after Michelangelos dome at the St. Peters Basilicain Rome. This design was rejected as well; the Bishop considered itunsuitable for large processions. Wren suggested a third design, thistime with a larger nave and smaller dome, which was accepted in 1675.After the approval however Wren enlarged the dome and made severalother adjustments so that the built cathedral now resembles the GreatModel and not the approved design.Cathedral DomeThe cathedral was built in a relative short time span: its first stone waslaid on June 21, 1675 and the building was completed in 1711.The DomeThe dome reaches a height of 111 meter (366 ft) and weights about66,000 ton. Eight arches support the dome. On top of the dome is a largelantern with a weight of 850 ton.560 Steps lead visitors along three galleries all the way to the top of thedome. The first gallery, the Whispering Gallery, just inside the dome, isrenowned for its acoustics. The second gallery, the Stone Gallery, issituated at a height of 53 meter (174 ft) on the outside of the dome, righton top of the colonnade. On top of the dome, at a height of 85 meter(279 ft), is the narrow Golden Gallery, encircling the lanterns base. Hereyou have a magnificent view over the City.
  • 15. InteriorThe baroque interior is just as imposing as the exterior of the church.The mosaics on the ceiling were added in 1890 by William Richmondafter Queen Victoria complained that there was not enough color in thecathedral. The baldachin above the altar was built in 1958 after a sketchby Wren after the original was damaged by bombardments during WorldWar II. The only monument in the church that survived the fire of 1666is the tomb of John Donne, from 1631.Several famous people are entombed in the cathedrals crypt. Mostnotable are the tomb of the Duke of Wellington - who defeatedNapoleon at Waterloo - and the tomb of Admiral Nelson, who died atthe Battle of Trafalgar.The West FacadeThere is also a tomb of Christopher Wren himself and a number ofimportant artists are buried here as well.The West FacadeThe impressive facade at the west side of the church consists of a largeportico and pediment. A relief on the tympanum depicts the conversionof Paul and was created in 1706. The portico is flanked by two towerswhich werent part of the original plan. Wren added them at the lastminute, in 1707.Buckingham Palace
  • 16. Important EventsThe church was the site of a number of important historic events such asthe funeral of Admiral Nelson in 1806 and the funeral of WinstonChurchill in 1965. Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer married herein 1981.HistoryThe original building was constructed as a countryhouse in 1705 by theduke of Buckingham, John Sheffield. King George III bought the housein 1761 for his wife and had it altered by William Chambers.In 1826, King George IV asked famed architect John Nash to expand thehouse - then known as Buckingham House - into a palace. MeanwhileSt. Jamess Palace was still the principal palace used by the royals forceremonies and receptions.The Palace seen fromSt. Jamess ParkKing George IV as well as his younger brother and successor KingWilliam IV both died before the palace was completed. Queen Victoriawas the first to reside in the palace. In July 1837, three weeks after heraccession to the throne, she moved from Kensington Palace, where shegrew up, to the new Buckingham Palace.The palace was expanded in 1850 with a new east wing. The wing addeda large number of rooms to the palace, including an expansive 40 meter
  • 17. (131 ft) long ballroom. The monumental façade of the east wing wasbuilt in 1913 by Aston Webb. It is this facade, facing the Mall and StJamess Park, which is now known by most people.Royal FamilyQueen VictoriaMemorialA part of the palace is still used by the Royal family. A flag is hoistedeach time the Queen is in the Palace. The palace is not only home to theroyal family, there are also a number of staff members living here. Thepalace has about 600 rooms, including a throne room, a ballroom,picture gallery and even a swimming pool.Some of these rooms can be visited during a couple of months in thesummer - when the Royal Family is not in the palace - including thelavishly decorated State Rooms: the Throne Room, Green DrawingRoom, Silk Tapestry Rooms, Picture Gallery, State Dining Room, BlueDrawing Room, Music Room and White Drawing Room are all part ofthe tour around the Buckingham Palace.Another interesting part of the palace that is open to visitors is theQueens Gallery, where works of art from the royal collection are ondisplay. The palaces stables, the Royal Mews, can also be visited. Hereyoull find a number of royal horse-drawn carriages.
  • 18. Queen Victoria MemorialRight in front of the building is the Queen Victoria Memorial,Changing of the Guardsdesigned by Sir Aston Webb and built in 1911 in honor of QueenVictoria, who reigned for almost 64 years.Changing of the GuardThe changing of the guard takes place daily at 11 oclock in front ofBuckingham Palace.A colorfully dressed detachment, known as the New Guard, paradesalong the Mall towards Buckingham Palace and during a ceremonyreplaces the existing, Old Guard. The ceremony, which is accompaniedby music played by a military band, always attracts throngs ofonlookers.Houses of ParliamentHouses of Parliament
  • 19. In the middle of the 11th century, King Edward the Confessor hadmoved his court to the Palace of Westminster, situated on a central sitenear the river Thames.In 1265 a parliament was created with two houses: the Lords and theCommons. The House of Lords met at the Palace of Westminster whilethe House of Commons did not have a permanent location.After King Henry VIII moved his court to Whitehall Palace in 1530, theHouse of Lords continued to meet in Westminster. In 1547 the House ofCommons also moved here, confirming Westminster as the central seatof government, a position it still holds today.The new Palace of WestminsterIn 1834 a fire destroyed the Palace of Westminster , leaving only theJewel Tower, the crypt and cloister of St. Stephens and WestminsterHall intact. After the fire, a competition was organized to create a newbuilding for the two houses of parliament.A design by Sir Charles Barry and his assistant Augustus WelbyPuginwas chosen from 97 entries. They created a large but balanced complexin neo gothic style and incorporated the buildings that survived the fire.The whole complex was finished in 1870, more than 30 years after
  • 20. Big Benconstruction started. It includes the Clock Tower, Victoria Tower, Houseof Commons, House of Lords, Westminster Hall and the Lobbies.Big BenThe most famous part of Charles Barrys design is the elegant clocktower. Originally called St. Stephens Tower, it was soon named after thetowers largest bell, the Big Ben. A light at the top of the tower isilluminated when Parliament is sitting at night.Commons Chamber & Lords ChamberThe Commons Chamber, where the House of Commons meets, wasdestroyed during the Second World War but rebuilt in 1950 by Sir GilesGilbert Scott in the same neo gothic style. The Commons Chambersinterior (with green colored benches) is rather austere compared to thelavishly decorated Lords Chamber (with red colored benches). Over thecenturies the balance of power has moved from the elitist House ofLords to the more agitated House of Commons, where the governing
  • 21. party and the opposition are seated opposite each other with exactly twosword lengths and one foot separating the two parties.Central LobbyOne of several lobbies in the Houses of Parliament is the Central Lobbywhere people can meet the Members of Parliament and persuade them toVictoria Towerdefend their interests. Hence the verb to lobby.Victoria TowerThe tower opposite the Big Ben is the Victoria Tower, built in 1860. Thetower contains the records of both the House of Lords and the House ofCommons since 1497. During the parliamentary year the Union Flag ishoisted on top of the 98m tall tower.Westminster HallThe oldest part of the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Hall, datingback to 1097. The large hammer beam roof was built in the 14th century
  • 22. and replaced the original roof which was supported by two rows ofpillars. The hall is one of Europes largest unsupported medieval halls.Natural History MuseumHistory of the MuseumOriginally part ofNatural HistoryMuseumthe British Museum, the Museum of Natural History began with adonation to the country of the collection of Sir Hans Sloane in 1753.Sloane, who was a physician, is said to have collected ―naturalcuriosities.‖When a second collection by botanist Joseph Banks (who traveled withCaptain James Cook) was added to Sloane’s collection, museumcurators began to see a need for a separate location for these items.
  • 23. InteriorA competition was held to determine the architect for the new building.The winner was Captain Francis Fowke who, unfortunately, died beforehe was able to complete his design. The honors then went to AlfredWaterhouse, who designed a German Romanesque structure that is nowknown as the Waterhouse Building.The collections were moved to their new home in 1883, but it wasn’tuntil 1963 that these and additional collections were considered amuseum in their own right.Waterhouse BuildingConsidered one of the best examples of Romanesque architecture inBritain, the Waterhouse Building has become a London landmark. Itshigh-spired towers soar above much of the skyline and its huge grandfaçade – inspired by the basalt columns at Fingal’s Cave in westernScotland – is awe inspiring.The most modern Victorian techniques were used for its constuctionresulting in an iron and steel framework. The framework is hidden bybeautifully decorated terra cotta façades. This structure is famous for its
  • 24. many terra cotta features, and Waterhouse’s use of terra cotta as abuilding material was groundbreaking in Great Britain.Don’t forget to look up at the intricately paintedDetail of the facadeceiling panels in the Central Hall. Decorated with plants from all overthe world, these gilded tiles are breathtaking and each tells its own story.Other BuildingsThe former Geological Survey Museum (now part of the Natural HistoryMuseum) is housed in a building designed by architects Sir RichardAllinson and JH Markham. Completed in 1933 and opened in 1935, thebuilding bears close resemblance to the nearby Science Museum.
  • 25. Large MammalsThe Darwin Centre Building, which serves mainly as a storage facilityfor the collection, is a contemporary state-of-the-art environmentally-conscious building complete with an energy-saving glass solar wall.The ExhibitsThe museums enormous collection of artifacts and specimen (70million+) covering life on earth can be overwelming. The museum isdivided into different color-coded zones, each focusing on a specificaspect of life on earth.The collection of dinosaur skeletons is one of the museums biggestattractions. There are several life-sized models in the Dinosaur hall andyoull also encounter the skeleton of a Diplodocus in the central hall.Also a favorite with visitors is a hall dedicated to large mammals,including an enormous model of a blue whale and several elephants.Other halls feature exhibitions on reptiles, fish,
  • 26. birds, creepy crawlies, and ecology.Another zone of the museum focuses on geology. Here you can see theearth seen from outer space and a simulated earthquake and volcaniceruption. Theres also a large collection of minerals and stones. France Facts & Figures Map of FrancePresident: Nicolas Sarkozy(2007)Prime Minister: FrançoisFillon (2007)Land area: 210,668 sq mi(545,630 sq km); totalarea: 211,209 sq mi(547,030 sq km)Population (2010est.): 64,057,792 (growth
  • 27. rate: 0.5%); birth rate:12.4/1000; infant mortalityrate: 3.3/1000; lifeexpectancy: 81.1; densityper sq km: 100Capital and largest city(2003 est.):Paris, 9,854,000 1.(metro. area), 2,110,400(city proper) GeographyOther large France is about 80% the size of Texas. Incities: Marseille, 820,700; the Alps near the Italian and SwissLyon, 443,900; Toulouse, borders is western Europes highest411,800; Nice, 332,000; point—Mont Blanc (15,781 ft; 4,810 m).Nantes, 282,300; The forest-covered Vosges MountainsStrasbourg, 272,600; are in the northeast, and the Pyrénées areBordeaux, 217,000 along the Spanish border. Except forMonetary unit: Euro extreme northern France, the country(formerly French franc) may be described as four river basins and a plateau. Three of the streams flow west—the Seine into the English Channel, the Loire into the Atlantic, andthe Garonne into the Bay of Biscay. The Rhône flows south into theMediterranean. For about 100 mi (161 km), the Rhine is Frances easternborder. In the Mediterranean, about 115 mi (185 km) east-southeast ofNice, is the island of Corsica (3,367 sq mi; 8,721 sq km). GovernmentFifth republic. HistoryArcheological excavations indicate that France has been continuouslysettled since Paleolithic times. The Celts, who were later called Gauls by
  • 28. the Romans, migrated from the Rhine valley into what is now France. Inabout 600 B.C. , Greeks and Phoenicians established settlements alongthe Mediterranean, most notably at Marseille. Julius Caesar conqueredpart of Gaul in 57–52 B.C. , and it remained Roman until Franksinvaded in the 5th century A.D.The Treaty of Verdun (843) divided the territories correspondingroughly to France, Germany, and Italy among the three grandsons ofCharlemagne. Charles the Bald inherited FranciaOccidentalis, whichbecame an increasingly feudalized kingdom. By 987, the crown passedto Hugh Capet, a princeling who controlled only the Ile-de-France, theregion surrounding Paris. For 350 years, an unbroken Capetian lineadded to its domain and consolidated royal authority until the accessionin 1328 of Philip VI, first of the Valois line. France was then the mostpowerful nation in Europe, with a population of 15 millionReligion has always played the main role in the developing of Frenchpeople, and as usual it was not peaceful events concerning this question.If we turn to the previous days, there were religious wars betweendifferent forces: Protestants and Catholics. During this war the nationsof Europe, such as English, German, and Spanish fought for power andrecognition of their believe. Then this great war continued as the War ofthe Three Henrys, during which Henry de Guise was killed by Henry III.As Henry de Guise was the leader of Catholic league, his comradesassassinated Henry III in return. The next king, also Henry III, but ofNavarre, and well-known as the king Henry IV, singed the Edict ofNantes (1598). And maybe it was not a long period between the newbeginning of the religious conflict, that was continued by Cardinal deRichelieu, forcing to disarm the army of the Protestants in 1627.The other important problem in the life of France was the monarchy andall the questions, concerning the power. One of the most significantperiods in the history of France is the Second Empire by Napoleon.
  • 29. During this time France became one of the most powerful countries in Europe. The successful colonial expansion to Asia and Africa was provided at this time. The influence of France in some regions of those places still remained. When the time of Napoleon ended, the monarchy was restored, but very soon overthrown again. Nowadays France has remained to be one of the powerful countries in the world. Owing to its economic and military forces it continues to have influence on its previous colonies in the other parts of the world. France has the fourth-powerful economy, letting ahead such countries as the USA, Japan and Germany. The heavy industrial production is at good quality as well as the agricultural sector. Culture in FranceArchaeological evidence demonstrates the presence of early settlements ofthe ancestors of modern man in some areas of Southern France almost 2millions years ago. Many painted caves and other prehistoric sites are stillvisible today, giving the visitor a greater insight into the dawn of mankind.Most of these exceptional sites are located in the Périgord area in theSouth-West. France has remained populated through time, as demonstratedby the megaliths dated 5 centuries BCE in Brittany.France is one of the oldest unified states in Europe. The name of thecountry is believed to mean Land of the Franks, an ancient tribe whichpopulated the area at the time of the Roman conquest in the first centuryBCE. The unique geography of France with its natural seashore, river andmountain borders has helped to shape it into a unified country very early inits history.A natural focus for its neighbours, France has always been a cultural hubbetween North and South. Influenced by Celts, Ancient Rome,Renaissance Italy, it has itself been the beacon from which radiated a very
  • 30. distinct culture. The contribution of French writers, philosophers, artistsand prominent historical figures has been great both for Europe and for therest of the world. Second only to the British colonial empire, France hasinfluenced every continent. It remains prominent today through the use ofFrench in large parts of the world and through its cultural ties with manycountries. Eiffel Tower You couldnt possibly visit Paris without seeing the Eiffel Tower. Even if you do not want to visit this world famous structure, you will see its top from all over Paris. The tower rises 300 meters tall (984 ft); when it was completed at the end of the 19th century it was twice as high as the Washington Monument, at the time the tallest structure in the world. 1889 World Exhibition The Eiffel Tower was built for the World Exhibition in 1889, held in celebration of the French Revolution in 1789. The construction was only meant to last for the duration of the Exposition, but it still stands today, despite all protests from contemporary artists who feared the construction would be the advent of
  • 31. structures without individuality and despite the many people whofeared that this huge object would not fit into the architecture of Paris.Today, there is no such aversion anymore among the Parisians, and onecould not imagine Paris without the Eiffel Tower, in fact it has becomethe symbol of the City of Light.Gustave EiffelThe man behind the Eiffel Tower was Gustave Eiffel, known from hisrevolutionary bridge building techniques, as employed in the greatviaduct at Garabit in 1884. These techniques would form the basis forthe construction of the Eiffel Tower. He was also known for theconstruction of the Statue of Libertys iron framework.The structure took more than two years to complete. Each one of theabout 12,000 iron pieces were designed
  • 32. separately to give them exactly the shape needed. All pieces wereprefabricated and fit together using approx. 7 million nails.The TallestInaugurated March 31, 1889, the Eiffel Tower would be the talleststructure in the world until the completion of the Chrysler Building in1930.LouvreLouvre MuseumThe Louvre, originally a palace but now one of the largest and mostvisited museums in the world, is a must-visit for anyone with a slightinterest in art. Some of the museums most famous works of art are theMona Lisa and the Venus of Milo.Louvre MuseumOriginally a royal palace, the Louvre became a public museum at theend of the 18th century. It is located in the 1st arrondissement,
  • 33. Venus of Miloat the heart of Paris.There are about 35.000 objects on display, spread out over three wingsof the former palace. The museum has a diverse collection ranging fromthe antiquity up to the mid 19th century. A large part of the collectionconsists of European paintings and sculptures. Other rooms containRoman, Egyptian, Greek and Oriental art. There is also a section withObjects dArt, where objects such as clocks, furniture, china andtapestries are displayed.Some of the most famous works of art in the museum are the Venus ofMilo, the Nike of Samothrake, the Dying Slave by Michelangelo and ofcourse Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa.History of the LouvreThe Louvre was created in several phases.
  • 34. Louvre seen from acrossthe SeineOriginally built as a 12th century fortress, it was converted into a royalpalace in the 14th century.Its current appearance goes back to the 15th century, when the originalfortress was demolished and the wing along the Seine river was built.The palace was extended during the 16th century by architect PierreLescot, who expanded the palace into a complex with two courtyards. Adecade later Catharina de Medici added the Tuileries palace to the westof the Louvre. Construction on the Louvre was halted for some timewhen king Louis XIV decided to move to the Versailles Palace.In the 19th century, during the Second Empire, the Louvre wasexpanded again with the addition of the Richelieu wing.East WingThe Louvre now had four symmetric wings surrounding a largecourtyard. This would not last long, as the Communards burned the
  • 35. Tuileries palace in 1871, opening up the west side of the palace.The collection of the Louvre Museum was first established in the 16thcentury by King Francis I. One of the works of art he purchased was thenow famous Mona Lisa painting. The collection grew steadily thanks todonations and purchases by the kings. In 1793, during the FrenchRevolution, the private royal collection opened to the public.Glass PyramidThe most recent addition to the Louvre was theLouvre Pyramidconstruction of the glass pyramid, which functions as the museumsmain entrance. The pyramid was built in 1989 by the renownedAmerican architect I.M. Pei. The glass pyramid allows the sunlight tocome in on the underground floor.The modern addition originally received mixed reviews, as it contrastssharply with the classical design of the surrounding buildings, but todayit is generally accepted as a clever solution which has given the museuma spacious central entrance without the need to touch the historicpatrimony.Arc de Triomphe
  • 36. Napoléons Triumphal ArchThe arch was commissioned by Napoleon in 1806 to commemorate hisvictories, but he was ousted before the arch was completed. In fact, itwasnt completed until 1836 during the reign of Louis-Philippe. The Arcde Triomphe is engraved with names of generals who commandedFrench troops during Napoleons regime.DesignThe design of the arch by Jean Chalgrin is based on the Arch of Titus inRome. The Arc de Triomphe is much higher (50m versus 15m), but ithas exactly the same proportions.The triumphal arch is adornedDetail of theMarseillaise Relief
  • 37. with many reliefs, most of them commemorating the emperors battles.Among them are the battle of Aboukir, Napoleons victory over theTurkish and the Battle of Austerliz, where Napoleon defeated theAustrians.The best known relief is the Departure of the Volunteers in 1792, alsoknown as the Marseillaise. At the top of the arch are 30 shields, each ofthem bears the name of one of Napoleons successful battles.Below the arch is the Grave of the Unknown Soldiers, honoring themany who died during the first World War.Place Charles de GaulleThe arch is located at the end of the Champs-Elysées, in the middle ofthe Place Charles de Gaulle, a large circular square from which no lessthan 12 streets emanate. The streets are named after French militaryleaders.Observatory
  • 38. View from Arc de TriompheThe top of the arch features a viewing platform from where you havegreat views of La Defense, the Champs-Elysées and the Sacré-Coeur.Make sure you take one of the underpasses to the arch, it is toodangerous to try and cross the street. There is no elevator in the arch, sobe prepared to walk up 234 steps.Sacré-CoeurSacré-CoeurMontmartreAbove all, Montmartre, an area on a hill in the 18th arrondissement,north of downtown Paris, is known for its many artists who have beenomnipresent since 1880. The name Montmartre is said to be derivedfrom either Mount of Martyrs or from Mount of Mars. Until 1873, whenthe Sacré-Coeur was built on top of the hill, Montmartre was a smallvillage, inhabited by a mostly farming community.The Basilica Project
  • 39. The project to build the Sacré-Coeur Basilica (Basilica of the SacredHeart) was initiated by a group of influential people. Their reasons tobuild this monument was two-fold:they had pledged to build a church if Paris escaped unscathed from thewar with the Prussians and they saw the defeat of the French at thehands of the Prussian army in 1870 as a moral condemnation of the sinsof Paris.The project was authorized by the National Assembly in 1873, and acompetition was organized. The goal was to build an imposing basilicatrue to Christian traditions.The BuildingThe winner of the competition was Paul Abadie, who had alreadyrestored two cathedrals in France. He designed an immense basilica in aRoman-Byzantyne style. This architectural style stands in sharp contrastwith other contemporary buildings in France,
  • 40. View from theParc des Buttes-Chaumontwhich were mostly built in a Romanesque style.Construction of the Basilica started in 1876 with Abadie as the leadarchitect. When Paul Abadie died in 1884, he was succeeded by LucienMagne, who added an 83 meter (272 ft) tall clock tower. The Savoyardeclock installed here is one of the worlds largest.Due to its location on the Montmartre hill, the basilica towers over thecity; its highest point is even higher than the top of the Eiffel Tower.Thanks to this prominent location the Sacré-Coeur Basilica is one of themostnoticeable landmarks in Paris.The BuildingThe Sacré-Coeur Basilica has managed to keep its beaming white coloreven in the polluted air of a big city like Paris. This can be attributed tothe Château-Landon stones which were used for the construction of theSacré-Coeur. When it rains, the stones react to the water and secretecalcite, which acts like a bleacher.Orsay Museum.
  • 41. New Railway StationsAt the turn of the 19th century, two large railway stations were built inParis, the Gare de Lyon and the Gare dOrsay. The Gare dOrsay had themost prominent site, along the Seine opposite the Louvre. The railwaystation was planned by the CompagniedOrléans, who wanted to bringelectrified trains right into the heart of Paris.DesignThe architect first appointed was EugèneHénard. He intended to useindustrial material on the facade facing the Louvre. Facing fierceprotests from preservationists, theOne of the Stations giant clocksCompagniedOrléans decided to hold a competition supervised by aparliamentary commission. The winner of this contest was VictorLaloux, who had also designed the railway station in Tours, France.His design was acclaimed for the integration of the metal vault in the
  • 42. stone exterior. The hall measures 140 meter long, 40 meter wide and 32meter high (459 x 132 x 105 ft). The whole structure is 175 meter longand 75 meter wide (574 x 246 ft). An impressive 12 000 ton metal wasused for the construction of the gare dOrsay, which is well more thanthe amount ofThe museum at nightmetal used for the Eiffel Tower.The Railway Station...The Gare dOrsay was inaugurated on the 14th of July 1900 for the ParisWorld Exposition and was considered a masterpiece of industrialarchitecture. But soon the platforms had become too short for the nowmuch longer trains and as early as 1939, the gare dOrsay was out of useas a train station. Over time it was used as a parking lot, as a shootingstand, as a theatre location and even as a reception center for prisonersof war.Turned into a MuseumThe train station had been completely abandoned since 1961 when it wassaved from demolition by the French president Pompidou. In 1978 hissuccessor, president Giscard dEstaing, decided to use the Gare
  • 43. Inside the museumdOrsay as a museum for 19th and 20th century art.It would not only contain paintings, but it would also cover different artforms, including sculptures, engravings, photos, film, architecture andurbanism.Restoration of the Musée dOrsay, as it is now called, started in 1979 andfinally on the 29th of November 1986, the museum was inaugurated bythe French president, François Mitterrand.CollectionWhen it opened the museum contained some 2300 paintings, 1500sculptures and 1000 other objects. Most of these works of art came fromother museums such as the Musée du Luxembourg. Over time thecollection has expanded significantly mainly due to acquisitions andgifts. It covers a period from the mid 19th century up to 1914 andcontains works from Degas, Rodin, Monet, Manet, Renoir, Cezanne, vanGogh and others.Place de la ConcordeCreation
  • 44. In 1763, a large statue of king Louis XV was erected at the site tocelebrate the recovery of the king after a serious illness.Place de la ConcordeThe square surrounding the statue was created later, in 1772, by thearchitect Jacques-Ange Gabriel. It was known as the place Louis XV.GuillotineIn 1792, during the French revolution, the statue was replaced by aanother, large statue, called Liberté (freedom) and the square was calledPlace de la Révolution. A guillotine was installed at the center of thesquare and in a time span of only a couple of years, 1119 people werebeheaded here. Amongst them many famous people like King LouisXVI, Marie-Antionette, andCleopatras Needle
  • 45. revolutionary Robespierre, just to name a few. After the revolution thesquare was renamed several times until 1830, when it was given thecurrent name Place de la Concorde.ObeliskIn the 19th century the 3200 years old obelisk from the temple ofRamses II at Thebes was installed at the center of the Place de laConcorde. It is a 23 meters (75 ft) tall monolith in pinkObelisks Pedestalgranite and weighs approximately 230 tons. In 1831, it was offered bythe Viceroy of Egypt to Louis Philippe. Three obelisks were offered bythe Viceroy, but only one was transported to Paris.The obelisk - sometimes dubbed Laiguille de Cléopâtre or CleopatrasNeedle - is covered with hieroglyphs picturing the reign of pharaohsStatue of galloping horse
  • 46. Ramses II & Ramses III. Pictures on the pedestal describe thetransportation to Paris and its installation at the square in 1836.Statues & FountainsAt each corner of the octagonal square is a statue representing a Frenchcity: Bordeaux, Brest, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen andStrasbourg. They were installed in 1836 by Jacob IgnazHittorf, whoredesigned the Place de la Concorde between 1833 and 1846.Fontaine des MersThat same year a bronze fountain, called La fontaine des Mers wasadded to the square. A second one, the Elevation of the Maritimefountain, was installed in 1839. Both fountains were designed by Hittorf.Pont Neuf
  • 47. Pont NeufThe Pont Neuf is also Pariss best known bridge and together with thePont Alexandre III, one of its most beautiful.HistoryAt the middle of the 16th century, only two bridges crossed the Seineriver. Since they were in a bad state and constantly overcrowded, KingHenry III decided in 1578 to construct a new bridge.It wasnt until 1607Statue of Henry IVbefore the bridge was officially opened by King Henry IV, who namedthe bridge Pont Neuf. After the his death, an equestrian statue of theKing was erected at the center of the bridge, on the Place du Pont Neuf.The bronze statue was knocked over and melted down during the FrenchRevolution, but is was replaced by an exact replica in 1818.Progressive DesignFor its time, the 232m (761ft) long and 22m (72ft) wide Pont Neuf was amodern bridge with several innovations. The Pont Neuf was the first
  • 48. bridge in Paris without houses built on it. It was also the first bridge withpavements which made it animmediate hit with the Parisians who used the bridge as a meeting place.Especially the semicircular areas near the pavement were ideal forsocializing.Bridge SpansThe Pont Neuf actually consists of two different bridge spans, one oneach side of the Île de la Cité, where the Place du Pont Neuf connectsthe two spans. The bridge has a total of 12 arches, with one span ofseven arches joining the right bank and another span of five archesconnecting Île de la Cité with the left bank. BordeauxBordeauxs Golden Triangle Michael CarrVisit Bordeaux’s Golden Triangle, which is formed by the roads coursde l’Intendance, cours Georges Clemenceau and allées de Tourny.Within and around this triangle are endless shopping opportunities,including great spots to purchase Bordeaux wines. The rue SainteCatherine is a lovely place for shopping or a brief break at a café, and it
  • 49. is the longest pedestrianized street in all of Europe. The city’s shoppingoptions are vast, ranging from small malls to tiny locally-ownedboutiques. Major chain stores include a string of popular and upscalenames, including Christian Lacroix, Mont Blanc, Hugo Boss, Cartier andHermès.. Basilique Saint Seurin Michael CarrThe Basilique Saint Seurin is not Bordeauxs most elegant church, but itis the city’s oldest. This church, with a crypt dating back to the 4thcentury, appears a bit worn, but it has a tremendous amount of character.It features a delicately-carved throne that was graced by a pope in thepast. Its Mariovian crypt, a group that claimed to be the bloodline ofChrist, is worth a visit alone.Le Grand Théâtre Bordeaux Grand TheatreLe Grand Théâtre is a premier example of neo-classical architecture. Itsportico is punctuated by a dozen grandiose Corinthian columns. Built in1780, it is decked with numerous statues and carvings. Open year-roundwith hours varying depending on the opera schedule. Call ahead for areservation.
  • 50. Basilique Saint Michel Basilique Saint Michel features a spire stretching nearly400 feet high, the tallest ancient monument in southwest France and thesecond highest in France. Dating back to the 1400s, it is a wonderfulexample of medieval religious architecture. France: History, Geography, Government, and Culture —Infoplease.com Lo3 France Customs, Currency & Airport Tax regulationsCustoms RulesImport regulations::Free import to passengers arriving with goods purchased within the E.U.which are for personal use only (including the French OverseasDepartments of Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion):a. tobacco products, for passengers aged 17 and over : - 800 cigarettes; - 400 cigarillos; - 200 cigars; - 1kg of pipe or cigarette tobacco;b. alcoholic beverages, for passengers aged 17 years and older: - 10 litres of spirits over 22%;
  • 51. - 20 litres of alcoholic beverages less than 22%; - 90 litres of wine (though no more than 60 litres of sparkling wine); - 110 litres of beer.Free import to passengers arriving from non-E.U. countries (includingCanary Islands, Channel Islands):1. tobacco products, for passengers aged 17 years and over: - 200 cigarettes; or - 100 cigarillos (max. 3g each); or - 50 cigars; or - 250g of smoking tobacco; or - a proportional mix of these products;2. alcoholic beverages, for passengers aged 17 years and older: - 1 litre of spirits over 22%; or - 2 litres of a dessert wine not exceeding 22% and sparkling wine; and - 2 litres of table wine;3. (except if listed under "5. Customs - Prohibited"): - fish up to 2 kilograms; - caviar up to 250 grammes; - other products of animal origin: up to 1 kilogram; 4. medicines, sufficient for personal requirements; 5. other goods (for air travellers) up to a total value of EUR 430.- (peradult) or EUR 90.- (per passenger aged under 15 years).WARNING: Such amounts cannot be cumulated by several people.GOLD, JEWELLERY ETC.:Import of gold: must be declared except personal jewellery notexceeding a total weight of 500 grammes provided it is in regularsituation.Prohibited:Products of animal origin, not originating from an EU member state,Andorra, Liechtenstein, Norway, San Marino or Switzerland, are notpermitted to be imported into an EU Member state, with the exception oflimited amounts from Andorra, Croatia, the Faeroe Islands, Greenland,Iceland and small amounts of specific products from other countries.
  • 52. Baggage Clearance regulations::Baggage can be cleared at any airport in France.Exempt: baggage of passengers with a destination outside of France, intransit via Paris, international airport Charles de Gaulle or Orly.Airport Embarkation TaxNo airport tax is levied on passengers upon embarkation at the airport.Currency rulesCurrency Import regulations:Same regulations as for export apply.Currency Export regulations:Local currency (Euro - EUR) and foreign currencies: no restrictions ifarriving from or traveling to another E.U. country.If arriving directly from or traveling to a country outside the E.U.:amounts exceeding EUR 10,000.- or more or the equivalent in anothercurrency (incl. bankers draft andcheques of any kind) must be declared.Documents for FranceA valid passport is required to enter FranceVisaThe Schengen Visa has made traveling between its 25 member countries(22 European Union states and 3 non-EU members) much easier and less
  • 53. bureaucratic. Traveling on a Schengen Visa means that the visa holdercan travel to any (or all) member countries using one single visa, thusavoiding the hassle and expense of obtaining individual visas for eachcountry. This is particularly beneficial for persons who wish to visitseveral European countries on the same trip. The Schengen visa is a―visitor visa‖. It is issued to citizens of countries who are required toobtain a visa before entering Europe.The purpose of the visit must be leisure, tourism, or business. Upon theissuance of the visa, the visa holder is allowed to enter all membercountries and travel freely throughout the Schengen area. It is stronglyrecommended to plan your journey within the timeframe of theSchengen Visa as extensions can be very difficult to obtain, thus forcingyou to leave to stay in compliance with the Schengen rules andregulations. A Schengen visa allows the holder to travel freely within theSchengen countries for a maximum stay of up to 90 days in a 6 monthperiodCurrency-euroConfirmed air ticket with all onward and return sectors Health requirements Vaccination Recommendations or Requirements for Vaccine- or Disease Preventable Diseases Routine Recommended if you are not up-to-date with routine shots such as, measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) vaccine, etc.
  • 54. Hepatitis B Recommended for all unvaccinated persons who might be exposed to blood or body fluids, have sexual contact with the local population, or be exposed through medical treatment, such as for an accident, even in developed countries, and for all adults requesting protection from HBV infection. Rabies Recommended for travelers involved in activities that might bring them into contact with bats, such as cave exploration (spelunkers).To enter United KingdomCurrency-euroConfirmed air ticket with all onward and return sectorsTourist visaVaccine recommendations are based on the best available riskinformation. Please note that the level of risk for vaccine-preventablediseases can change at any time.Vaccination or Recommendations or Requirements for Vaccine-Preventable DiseaseRoutine Recommended if you are not up-to-date with routine shots, such as measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanu poliovirus vaccine, etc.
  • 55. Hepatitis B Recommended for all unvaccinated persons who might be exposed t fluids, have sexual contact with the local population, or be exposed treatment, such as for an accident, even in developed countries, and requesting protection from HBV infection.Rabies vaccination is only recommended for travelers involved in anyactivities that might bring them into direct contact with bats. Thesetravelers include wildlife professionals, researchers, veterinarians, oradventure travelers visiting areas where bats are commonly found.LO4-ITINERARYAREA 3 –INDIA-IN-HYDERABAD-HYD –RAJIV GANDHIINTERNATIONAL AIRPORTTRAVEL BY BRITISH AIRWAYS-BAAREA 2-EUROPE-FRANCE-FR-PARIS-PAR-CHARLES DEGAULLE AIRPORTTRAVEL BY BRITISH AIRWAYS-BAAREA 2-UNITED KINGDOM-U.K.LONDON –LON-HEATHROWAIRPORTTRAVEL BY BRITISH AIRWAYS-BAAREA 3 –INDIA-IN-HYDERABAD-HYD –RAJIV GANDHIINTERNATIONAL AIRPORTReasons why my itinerary is goodTourist attractions worthwhileCountries are safe to travel, good geographical conditionsAll can be travelled by air
  • 56. I made an itinerary that is very cost effective and managed it within atime frame making my client very happyTOUR FOR 10 DAYS 9 NIGHTSFirst visits to Paris can be daunting: nearly every square inch of the cityseems to be seeping with history and beauty. All of it is worth seeingand exploring, travel and reach Paris by British airwaysDay 1 The Louvre The site of the worlds largest and most diverse collection of pre-20thcentury painting, sculpture, and decorative objects, The Louvre isdefinitely one of Paris best attractions. Not forgetting the Mona Lisa andthe Venus de Milo, bask in the works of Vermeer, Caravaggio,Rembrandt, and countless others. The palace itself is testament to a richhistory spanning from the medieval period to the present. The adjacentTuileries gardens are perfect for a stroll pre-or post-visit. Notre Dame Cathedral ©One of the most singular and beautiful cathedrals of Europe, NotreDame Cathedrals dramatic towers, spire, stained glass and statuary areguaranteed to take your breath away. Witness firsthand the spot that wasonce the heartbeat of medieval Paris, and that took over 100 years ofhard labor to complete. Climbing the North tower to see Paris from thehunchback Quasimodos vantage is essential, too.
  • 57. Eiffel Tower ©More than any other landmark, the Eiffel Tower has come to representan elegant and contemporary Paris. The iron tower, which was built forthe 1889 World Exposition by Gustave Eiffel, was wildly unpopularwith Parisians when it was unveiled, and was nearly torn down. It hassince attracted over 220 million visitors, and it would be hard to imagineParis now without it. The tower crowns the Paris night sky with itsfestive light, and glitters up a storm every hour.Day 3 - Musée dOrsayWalk over the bridge from the Louvre to the Musée dOrsay-- and seethe bridge between classical and modern art. Housing the worlds mostimportant collection of impressionist and post-impressionist painting,the Musée dOrsays light, airy rooms whir you through three floors ofmodern wonders, from Degas ethereal dancers to Monets water lilies,all the way to Gaugins leafy jungles. Major works by Van Gogh,Delacroix, Manet, and others await you,
  • 58. The Sorbonne and the Latin Quarter The Sorbonne University is the historic soul of the LatinQuarter, where higher learning has flourished for centuries. Founded in1257 for a small group of theology students, the Sorbonne is one ofEuropes oldest universities. It has hosted countless great thinkers,including philosophers René Descartes, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Simone deBeauvoir. Enjoy a drink on the café terrace in front of the college beforeexploring the winding little streets of the Latin Quarter behind it.Day4- Arc de Triomphe and the Champs-Elysées .The 164-foot Arc de Triomphe commissioned by Emperor Napoléon Idoes exactly what it was made to do: evoke sheer military power andtriumph. It was built in an age when leaders erected monuments in theirown honor, and scaled to their egos. The archs beautiful sculptures andreliefs commemorate Napoléons generals and soldiers. Visit the Arc deTriomphe to begin or culminate a walk down the equally grandioseAvenue des Champs-Elysées.
  • 59. Centre Georges Pompidou and the "Beaubourg" Neighborhood ©Parisians consider the Centre Georges Pompidou to be the cultural pulseof the city. This modern art museum and cultural center, located inthe neighborhood affectionately dubbed Beaubourg by locals, opened in1977 to honor president Georges Pompidou. The Centers signatureskeletal design, which evokes bones and blood vessels, is either loved orreviled-- no in-betweens. If wacky design isnt your cup of tea, thepermanent collection at the National Museum of Modern Art is a mustand features work by Modigliani and Matisse. Rooftop views of the cityare also in order. Sacre Coeur and Montmartre © With its unmistakeable white dome, the SacreCoeur sits at the highest point of Paris on the Montmartre knoll, or butte.This basilica, which was consecrated in 1909, is best-known for itsgarish gold mosaic interiors and for its dramatic terrace, from which youcan expect sweeping views of Paris on a clear day. Take the funicular upwith a metro ticket and stop off at Sacre Coeur before exploring thewinding, village-like streets of Montmartre. And after expending allyour energy climbing Montmartres formidable hills and stairs, considera traditional Parisian cabaret at the legendary Moulin Rouge.
  • 60. Day 5 Boat Tour of the Seine RiverSeeing some of Paris most beautiful sites glide past as you drift downthe Seine River is an unforgettable and essential experience. Companiessuch as Bateaux Parisiens offer 1-hour tours of the Seine year-round forabout 10 Euros. You can hop on near Notre Dame or the Eiffel Tower.Go at night to enjoy the shimmering play of light on the water, and dresswarmly-- the wind from off the Seine can be chilly. You can also taketours of some of Paris canals and waterways, which will allow you tosee a semi-hidden side of the city of light.Day 6 Travel to Cannes and visitAntibes AttractionsThe town of Antibes - to which the resorts of Cap dAntibes and Juan-les-Pins belong - lies to the east of Cannes at the western end of the Baiedes Anges (Bay of Angels), which reaches as far as Nice. Cap dAntibes,which extends south into the Mediterranean, closes off the huge sweepof the bay. The actual area of the town occupies the Peninsula ofGaroupe.Flower-growing is of great importance to the economy; roses, carnationsetc. are grown under about 3sq.km/1.2sq.mi of glass.8km/5mi inland along the D35/103 the Sophia Antipolis Industrial andTechnological Park has been developing since 1972. At the end of 1990it covered an area of 580ha/1,450acres, on which 834 firms with 14,000employess had become established. Of those some 60 were foreign
  • 61. firms, and 700 companies and organizations were working in advancedfields of technology such as electronics and telecommunications, energyand environmental research, chemistry and biotechnology. More than ahalf of the work force are "white collar workers", and of them 40% areforeigners from 50 different countries. A further 32,00ha/8,000acres areexpected to be developed by the year 2000. There should be advantagesin the proximity of the Sophia Antipolis University, which is expected totake 25,000 students.Antibes was founded in the fifth century B.C. by Greeks from Phocaeaand named "Antipolis", meaning the town lying opposite the settlementof Nikaia Polis (Nice). The settlement became a Roman municipium,later a bastion against the barbarians. From the 14th century onwards itwas a frontier town between Savoy and France.Antibes - Château GrimaldiMusée PicassoThe former castle of the Grimaldis stands to the south of the cathedral nAntibes. When it was built in the 16th C. remains of the Roman fortwere used in its construction. However, the defensive tower dates fromthe 13th/14th C.Today the castle contains the interesting Musée Picasso, a collection ofmodern and contemporary art, with works by Pablo Picasso, de Stael,Ernst, Mirô, Léger, Hartung, Atlan, Richier, Adami, Modigliani, Saura,Cesar, Arman and Alechinsky. There is also a wall tapestry "Judith andHolofernes", by Jean Cocteau.The first floor is devoted to Picasso himself, with exhibits of pictures,
  • 62. ceramics and sculptures which he produced during a two month stay inthe castle in 1946.Day 7 travel to London by Britishairways and visitLondon EyeThe structure was designed by the architectural team of David Marksand Julia Barfield, husband and wife.They submitted their idea for a large observation wheel as part of acompetition to design a landmark for the new millennium.None of the entrants won the competition, but the couple pressed on andeventually got the backing of British Airways, who sponsored theproject.ConstructionConstruction of the observation wheel took more than a year and a halfto complete. In the process over 1700 tonnes of steel were used for thestructure and more than 3000 tonnes of concrete were used for thefoundations.The futuristic looking capsules, accommodating up to 25 passengers,
  • 63. were transported all the way from France by train through the chunnel.Each egg-shaped capsule is 8 meters long and weighs 500kg. The 25meter (82 ft) long spindle was built in the Czech Republic. The rim has adiameter of 122m (400ft), about 200 times the size of a bicycle wheel.80 Spokes connect the rim with the spindle.London seen from the London EyeThe Observation WheelThe observation wheel turns slow enough for people to embark while itis moving. A complete turn takes about 30 minutes. Thanks to theconstruction of the glass capsules on the outer side of the rim,Capsulethe passengers have a great 360° view over London. Many famouslandmarks are clearly visible, including the Buckingham Palace, St.Pauls Cathedral and the Houses of Parliament. On a clear day you cansee as far as 40 km (25 miles).
  • 64. Tower of LondonTower of LondonConstruction of the Tower of London was initiated in 1070 by Williamthe Conqueror, shortly after his victory at Hastings in 1066. The Towerwas built to enforce the power of the king over the newly conqueredregion.The fortress, strategically located at the Thames, was originally not morethan a temporary wooden building which was replaced later by theWhite Tower. Over time the complex was expanded into a strongholdwith about 20 towers.Today the Tower of London is best known for its Crown Jewels, but itused to be notorious for the many political opponents of the kings thatwere locked, tortured and killed in the Tower. The Tower was also aroyal residence: several kings lived here, especially during turbulenttimes when the donjon seemed a lot safer than the palace inWestminster.White TowerThe White TowerThe oldest part of the fortress is the so-called White Tower, which wascompleted in 1097. This keep was long the tallest building in London at27.4 meter. Its walls had a width of 4.6 meter.The tower was whitewashed during the reign of Henry III, which gavethe towers facade its white appearance. Ever since the tower is knownas White Tower.
  • 65. The building has four domed turrets at each corner. Three of them havea square shape, the other is round, due to its spiral staircase. The roundturret was long used as an observatory.Other TowersThe Tower of London was significantly expanded in the 13th century,during the reign of Henry III, when two defensive walls were builtaround the White Tower. The inner wall had thirteen towers and theouter wall another six. The towers were mostly used to imprisonpolitical opponents.Traitors GateSome of the most famous prisoners locked in the Tower were twoprinces, the sons of king Edward IV. After Edwards dead in 1483 thechildren were locked in the Bloody Tower by their uncle, who wouldlater ascend the throne as king Richard III. The princes were never seenagain and were probably killed by guards.The St. Thomas Tower is located close to the Bloody Tower. Here,prisoners were brought into the fortress by boat through the Traitorsgate.Important prisoners were often locked in the Beauchamp Tower,sometimes with their servants. An inscription on the wall of the tower isbelieved to refer to Lady Jane Grey, who, nine days after she wascrowned Queen, was executed on Tower Green, an open terrain in theTower of London. Day 8 - St. Pauls Cathedral St. Pauls Cathedral
  • 66. St. Pauls Cathedral has had an eventful history. Five different churcheswere built at this site. The first church, dedicated to the apostle Paul,dates back to 604 AD, when King Ethelbert of Kent built a woodenchurch on the summit of one of Londons hills for Mellitus, Bishop ofthe East Saxons. At the end of the 7th century, the church was built instone by Erkenwald, Bishop of London.In 962 and 1087, the Cathedral was destroyed by fires, but each time itwas rebuilt. By that time, it was one of the largest cathedrals in Europe.Renovations and extensions in the 13th and 14th century enlarged thecathedral even more.Buckingham PalaceThe church was the site of a number of important historic events such asthe funeral of Admiral Nelson in 1806 and the funeral of WinstonChurchill in 1965. Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer married herein 1981.HistoryThe original building was constructed as a countryhouse in 1705 by theduke of Buckingham, John Sheffield. King George III bought the housein 1761 for his wife and had it altered by William Chambers.In 1826, King George IV asked famed architect John Nash to expand thehouse - then known as Buckingham House - into a palace. MeanwhileSt. Jamess Palace was still the principal palace used by the royals forceremonies and receptions.
  • 67. The Palace seen fromSt. Jamess ParkKing George IV as well as his younger brother and successor KingWilliam IV both died before the palace was completed. Queen Victoriawas the first to reside in the palace. In July 1837, three weeks after heraccession to the throne, she moved from Kensington Palace, where shegrew up, to the new Buckingham Palace.The palace was expanded in 1850 with a new east wing. The wing addeda large number of rooms to the palace, including an expansive 40 meter(131 ft) long ballroom. The monumental façade of the east wing wasbuilt in 1913 by Aston Webb. It is this facade, facing the Mall and StJamess Park, which is now known by most people.Royal FamilyQueen VictoriaMemorialA part of the palace is still used by the Royal family. A flag is hoistedeach time the Queen is in the Palace. The palace is not only home to theroyal family, there are also a number of staff members living here. Thepalace has about 600 rooms, including a throne room, a ballroom,picture gallery and even a swimming pool.
  • 68. Some of these rooms can be visited during a couple of months in thesummer - when the Royal Family is not in the palace - including thelavishly decorated State Rooms: the Throne Room, Green DrawingRoom, Silk Tapestry Rooms, Picture Gallery, State Dining Room, BlueDrawing Room, Music Room and White Drawing Room are all part ofthe tour around the Buckingham Palace.Another interesting part of the palace that is open to visitors is theQueens Gallery, where works of art from the royal collection are ondisplay. The palaces stables, the Royal Mews, can also be visited. Hereyoull find a number of royal horse-drawn carriages.Queen Victoria MemorialRight in front of the building is the Queen Victoria Memorial,Changing of the Guardsdesigned by Sir Aston Webb and built in 1911 in honor of QueenVictoria, who reigned for almost 64 years.Changing of the GuardThe changing of the guard takes place daily at 11 oclock in front ofBuckingham Palace.A colorfully dressed detachment, known as the New Guard, paradesalong the Mall towards Buckingham Palace and during a ceremonyreplaces the existing, Old Guard. The ceremony, which is accompanied
  • 69. by music played by a military band, always attracts throngs ofonlookers.Day 9 Houses of ParliamentHouses of ParliamentIn the middle of the 11th century, King Edward the Confessor hadmoved his court to the Palace of Westminster, situated on a central sitenear the river Thames.In 1265 a parliament was created with two houses: the Lords and theCommons. The House of Lords met at the Palace of Westminster whilethe House of Commons did not have a permanent location.After King Henry VIII moved his court to Whitehall Palace in 1530, theHouse of Lords continued to meet in Westminster. In 1547 the House ofCommons also moved here, confirming Westminster as the central seatof government, a position it still holds today.The new Palace of WestminsterIn 1834 a fire destroyed the Palace of Westminster , leaving only theJewel Tower, the crypt and cloister of St. Stephens and WestminsterHall intact. After the fire, a competition was organized to create a newbuilding for the two houses of parliament.A design by Sir Charles Barry and his assistant Augustus WelbyPuginwas chosen from 97 entries. They created a large but balanced complex
  • 70. in neo gothic style and incorporated the buildings that survived the fire.The whole complex was finished in 1870, more than 30 years afterBig Benconstruction started. It includes the Clock Tower, Victoria Tower, Houseof Commons, House of Lords, Westminster Hall and the Lobbies.Big BenThe most famous part of Charles Barrys design is the elegant clocktower. Originally called St. Stephens Tower, it was soon named after thetowers largest bell, the Big Ben. A light at the top of the tower isilluminated when Parliament is sitting at night.Commons Chamber & Lords ChamberThe Commons Chamber, where the House of Commons meets, wasdestroyed during the Second World War but rebuilt in 1950 by Sir GilesGilbert Scott in the same neo gothic style. The Commons Chambersinterior (with green colored benches) is rather austere compared to the
  • 71. lavishly decorated Lords Chamber (with red colored benches). Over thecenturies the balance of power has moved from the elitist House ofLords to the more agitated House of Commons, where the governingparty and the opposition are seated opposite each other with exactly twosword lengths and one foot separating the two parties.Central LobbyOne of several lobbies in the Houses of Parliament is the Central Lobbywhere people can meet the Members of Parliament and persuade them toVictoria Towerdefend their interests. Hence the verb to lobby.Victoria TowerThe tower opposite the Big Ben is the Victoria Tower, built in 1860. Thetower contains the records of both the House of Lords and the House ofCommons since 1497. During the parliamentary year the Union Flag ishoisted on top of the 98m tall tower.Westminster Hall
  • 72. The oldest part of the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Hall, datingback to 1097. The large hammer beam roof was built in the 14th centuryand replaced the original roof which was supported by two rows ofpillars. The hall is one of Europes largest unsupported medieval halls.Day 10 Natural History MuseumHistory of the MuseumOriginally part ofNatural HistoryMuseumthe British Museum, the Museum of Natural History began with adonation to the country of the collection of Sir Hans Sloane in 1753.Sloane, who was a physician, is said to have collected ―naturalcuriosities.‖When a second collection by botanist Joseph Banks (who traveled withCaptain James Cook) was added to Sloane’s collection, museumcurators began to see a need for a separate location for these items.
  • 73. InteriorA competition was held to determine the architect for the new building.The winner was Captain Francis Fowke who, unfortunately, died beforehe was able to complete his design. The honors then went to AlfredWaterhouse, who designed a German Romanesque structure that is nowknown as the Waterhouse Building.The collections were moved to their new home in 1883, but it wasn’tuntil 1963 that these and additional collections were considered amuseum in their own right.Waterhouse BuildingConsidered one of the best examples of Romanesque architecture inBritain, the Waterhouse Building has become a London landmark. Itshigh-spired towers soar above much of the skyline and its huge grandfaçade – inspired by the basalt columns at Fingal’s Cave in westernScotland – is awe inspiring.The most modern Victorian techniques were used for its constuctionresulting in an iron and steel framework. The framework is hidden bybeautifully decorated terra cotta façades. This structure is famous for its
  • 74. many terra cotta features, and Waterhouse’s use of terra cotta as abuilding material was groundbreaking in Great Britain.End of 10 day and 9 nights tour of Europe .travel back to Hyderabad byBritish airways . Lo1 IATA (International Air Transport Association)Formation April 1945, Havana, CubaHeadquarters Montreal, CanadaMembership 225 airlinesKey people Giovanni Bisignani, Director General and CEOWebsite www.iata.org The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is aninternational industry trade group of airlines headquartered inMontreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation
  • 75. Organization is also headquartered. IATAs mission is to represent,lead, and serve the airline industry. IATA represents some 230 airlinescomprising 93% of scheduled international air traffic. The DirectorGeneral and Chief Executive Officer is Giovanni Bisignani. Currently,IATA is present in over 150 countries covered through 101 officesaround the globe. PATA (Pacific Asia Travel Association) The Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) is a membership association working to promote the responsible development of travel and tourism in the Asia Pacific region.The association began in 1951 when Lorrin P. Thurston, president oftwo major daily newspapers in Honolulu, and William J Mullahey ofPan American Airways set about organising the first Pacific area travelconference with the aim of promoting tourism to the largelyundiscovered region of Asia Pacific.In 1953 PATA’s headquarters were moved from Hawaii to SanFrancisco, with Sam Mercer serving as the first executive director.Considered as the sate of ―money and influence‖, San Francisco washome to an influential group of individuals who served on the PATAboard and committees during the 1950s and 1960s.Throughout the first decade, PATA membership grew steadily,attracting a wide range of members including governments, carriers,hotel members, travel agents, cruise lines and the media. Other members
  • 76. eventually included tour operators, educational institutions, vehicleoperators, restaurants and catering services, advertising agencies, publicrelations firms, publications, banks and architectural and research firms.By the end of the 1950s, PATA had 325 members, while there had alsobeen a steady rise in the annual conference attendance. In 1955, aResearch and Survey Committee was established and PATA delegatesgave their approval to spend US$8,000 on the organisation’s firstadvertising programme. In 1957 the first issue of Pacific Travel News(PTN) was published, providing PATA with a news vehicle to promoteitself and its destinationsIt was then in October 1951 that Thurston, who was in Paris attending aEuropean travel conference, issued his now-famous cable to Mullahey:"Proceed to send invitations to governments and carriers to attendPacific Area Travel conference for purpose of establishing permanentPacific Travel Association and determine most convenient date formajority during first three months 1952. UFTAA (United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations) The United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations (UFTAA)emanates from the Universal Federation of Travel Agents’ Associationscreated in Rome, Italy, on November 22nd, 1966. UFTAA wasoriginally founded as a result of a merger of two large world
  • 77. organizations, FIAV and UOTAA, recognizing the need to unify travelagencies and tour-operators into one international federation. In 1989, coming from Brussels, UFTAA set up its GeneralSecretariat in the Principality of Monaco. UFTAA started its operation as a Confederation on January 1st,2003. It is a non-profit Confederation of international scope,representing Regional Federations comprising some 80 nationalassociations. ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization The ICAO flagOrg type UN agencyAcronyms ICAO OACI
  • 78. ИКАО ‫إي كاو‬ OPSIHead Raymond BenjaminStatus activeEstablished April 1947Headquarters Montreal, CanadaWebsite www.icao.int (International Civil Aviation Organization) The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), aspecialized agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles andtechniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning anddevelopment of international air transport to ensure safe and orderlygrowth. Its headquarters are located in the QuartierInternational ofMontreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • 79. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practicesconcerning air navigation, its infrastructure, Flight inspection,prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossingprocedures for international civil aviation. In addition, the ICAO definesthe protocols for air accident investigation followed by transportsafety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention onInternational Civil Aviation, commonly known as the ChicagoConvention. The ICAO should not be confused with the International AirTransport Association (IATA), a trade organization for airlines alsoheadquartered in Montreal, or with the Civil Air Navigation ServicesOrganization (CANSO), an organization for Air Navigation ServiceProviders (ANSPs) with its headquarters atAmsterdamAirportSchiphol in the Netherlands. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS (Convention on International Civil Aviation) Chicago Convention Convention on International Civil Aviation Signed 1 December 1944 Location Chicago Effective 5 March 1947 Condition 26 ratifications
  • 80. Parties Depositary Government of the United States of America Languages English, French and Spanish The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known asthe Chicago Convention, established theInternationalCivilAviationOrganization (ICAO), a specialized agencyof the UnitedNations charged with coordinating and regulatinginternational air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace,aircraftregistration and safety, and details the rights of the signatoriesin relation to airtravel. The Convention also exempts air fuels from tax. The document was signed on December 7, 1944 in Chicago,Illinois, by 52 signatory states. It received the requisite 26th ratificationon March 5, 1947 and went into effect on April 4, 1947, the same datethat ICAO came into being. In October of the same year, ICAO becamea specialized agency of the UnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCouncil(ECOSOC). The Convention has since been revised eight times (in1959, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1980, 1997, 2000 and 2006). Links to allversions of the document can be found in the external links section.The original signed document resides in theNationalArchivesoftheUnitedStates.
  • 81. Warsaw Convention Warsaw Convention Convention for the Unification of certain rules relating to international carriage by air Signed 12 October 1929 Location Warsaw Effective 13 February 1933 Parties 152 Depositary Government of Poland Language FrenchThe Warsaw Convention is an international convention which regulatesliability for international carriage of persons, luggage or goodsperformed by aircraft for reward.Originally signed in 1929 in Warsaw (hence the name), it was amendedin 1955 at TheHague and in 1975 in Montreal. United States courtshave held that, at least for some purposes, the Warsaw Convention is adifferent instrument from the Warsaw Convention as Amended by theHague Protocol.In particular, the Warsaw Convention: mandates carriers to issue passenger tickets;
  • 82. requires carriers to issue baggage checks for checked luggage; creates a limitation period of 2 years within which a claim must be brought (Article 29); and limits a carriers liability to at most: o 250,000 Francs or 16,600 SpecialDrawingRights (SDR) for personal injury; o 17 SDR per kilogram for checked luggage and cargo, or $20USD per kilogram for non-signatories of the amended Montreal Protocols. ..... o 5,000 Francs or 332 SDR for the hand luggage of a traveler.The sums limiting liability were originally given in Francs (defined interms of a particular quantity of gold by article 22 paragraph 5 of theconvention). These sums were amended by the Montreal AdditionalProtocol No. 2 to substitute an expression given in terms of SDRs.These sums are valid in the absence of a differing agreement (on ahigher sum) with the carrier. Agreements on lower sums are null andvoid.On June 1, 2009, the exchange rate was 1.00 SDR = 1.088 EUR or 1.00SDR = 1.548 USD.A court may also award a claiming partys costs, unless the carrier madean offer within 6 months of the loss (or at least 6 months before thebeginning of any legal proceedings) which the claiming party has failedto beat.The MontrealConvention, signed in 1999, will replace the WarsawConvention system, once Montreal has been ratified by all states. Untilthen, however, there will be a patchwork of rules governing internationalcarriage by air, as different states will be parties to different agreements(or no agreement at all).
  • 83. Montreal Convention Convention for the Unification of certain rules for international carriage by air Signed May 28, 1999 Location Montreal Effective 4 November 2003 Parties 100 States and the European Union Depositary International Civil Aviation Organization Languages English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and SpanishMERITThe freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights grantinga countrys airline(s) the privilege to enter and land in anothercountrys airspace. Formulated as a result of disagreements over theextent of aviation liberalization in the Convention on International CivilAviation of 1944, (known as the Chicago Convention) the UnitedStates had called for a standardized set of separate air rights which maybe negotiated between states but most of the other countries involved
  • 84. were concerned that the size of the U.S. airlines would dominate allworld air travel if there were not strict rules.The convention was successful in drawing up a multilateral agreement inwhich the first two freedoms, known as the International Air ServicesTransit Agreement (IASTA), or "Two Freedoms Agreement" were opento all signatories. As of the summer of 2007, the treaty is accepted by129 countriesFreedoms of the air apply to commercial aviation (carrying payingpassengers, transporting cargo or mail)My client is using the 3RD and5th freedom as British airways isoriginating from UNITED KINGDOM and travelling from oneforeign country to another and a thirdAir Freedom Rights
  • 85. Traditionally, an airline needs the approval of the governments of thevarious countries involved before it can fly in or out of a country, oreven fly over another country without landing. Prior to World War II,this did not present too many difficulties since the range of commercialplanes was limited and air transport networks were in their infancy andnationally oriented. In 1944, an International Convention was held inChicago to establish the framework for all future bilateral andmultilateral agreements for the use of international air spaces. Fivefreedom rights were designed, but a multilateral agreement went only asfar as the first two freedoms (right to overfly and right to make atechnical stop). The first five freedoms are regularly exchanged betweenpairs of countries in Air Service Agreements. The remaining freedomsare becoming more important, however. Freedoms are not automaticallygranted to an airline as a right, they are privileges that have to benegotiated and can be the object of political pressures. All otherfreedoms have to be negotiated by bilateral agreements, such as the 1946agreement between the United States and the UK, which permittedlimited "fifth freedom" rights. The 1944 Convention has been extendedsince then, and there are currently nine different freedoms. First Freedom. The freedom to overfly a foreign country (A) from a home country en-route to another (B) without landing. Also called the transit freedom.Ex British airways flying from U.K over the air space of Italy to France. Second Freedom. The freedom to stop in a foreign country for a technical/refueling purpose only. A flight from a home country can land in another country (A) for purposes other than carrying passengers, such as refueling, maintenance or emergencies. The final destination is country B.ex British airways flying from U.K over the air space of Italy and landing there for emergency purpose. Third Freedom. The freedom to carry traffic from a home country to another country (A) for purpose of commercial services. Ex British airways flying from U.K to France and deplaning passengers
  • 86. Fourth Freedom. The freedom to pick up traffic from another country (A) to a home country for purpose of commercial services. Ex British airways flying from France to U.K. and deplaning passengers Third and Fourth Freedoms are the basis for direct commercialservices, providing the rights to load and unload passengers, mail andfreight in another country. They are commonly reciprocal agreements. Fifth Freedom. The freedom to carry traffic between two foreign countries on a flight that either originated in or is destined for the carriers home country. It enables airlines to carry passengers from a home country to another intermediate country (A), and then fly on to third country (B) with the right to pick passengers in the intermediate country. Also referred to as "beyond right". Ex British airways flying from India to France and deplaning passengers and there on to U.K. Sixth Freedom. The "unofficial" freedom to carry traffic between two foreign countries via the carriers home country by combining third and fourth freedoms. Not formally part of the original 1944 convention, it refers to the right to carry passengers between two countries (A and B) through an airport in the home country. Ex British airways flying from India to France and deplaning passengers and there on to U.K.Open skies is an international policy concept which calls for theliberalization of rules and regulations on international aviation industrymost especially commercial aviation - opening a free market for theairline industry. Its primary objectives are: to liberalize the rules for international aviation markets and minimizes government intervention — the provisions apply to passenger, all-cargo and combination air transportation and encompass both scheduled and charter services; or to adjust the regime under which military and other state-based flights may be permitted.
  • 87. For open skies to effect, a bilateral (and sometimes multilateral) AirTransport Agreement has to be concluded between two or more nations.Bilateral Air Transport AgreementA bilateral air transport agreement is a contract to liberalize aviationservices, usually commercial civil aviation, between two contractingstates. A bilateral air services agreement allows the airlines of bothstates to launch commercial flights that covers the transport ofpassengers and cargoes of both countries. A bilateral agreement maysometimes include the transport of military personnel of the contractingstates.In a bilateral agreement, the contracting states may allow the airlines ofthe contracting parties to bring passengers and cargoes to a third countryor pick up passengers and cargoes from the host country to the homecountry of the airline or to a third country in which the contracting stateshas existing open skies agreement.Multilateral Air Transport AgreementA multilateral air services agreement is the same as bilateral agreement,the only difference is that it involves more than two contracting states.BILATERAL AIR AGREEMENT BETWEEN INDIA AND EUROPE-Delegations of the European Commission and the Government of theRepublic of India initialled on 8 April 2008 in Brussels a HorizontalAviation Agreement which will restore legal certainty to the bilateral airservices agreements between India and 26 EU Member States. Theagreement was signed on 29 September 2008 at the EU-India Summit inMarseille.The agreement will bring several provisions in the 26 bilateral airservices agreements between EU Member States and India in line withEU law. Most importantly, it will remove nationality restrictions in thebilateral air services agreements between EU Member States and Indiaand thereby allows any EU airline to operate flights between India andany EU Member State where it is established and where a bilateralagreement with India exists and traffic rights are available.
  • 88. The agreement is an important step towards further strengthening theEU-India aviation relations and will be the start of a new phase in EU-India cooperation in civil aviation.The European Commission and India have also agreed on a Joint ActionPlan setting out the priorities and modalities for future technicalcooperation in a broad range of aviation areas including aviation safety,security, airports and air traffic management, environment and economicregulation.In recent years the Indian air traffic market has been among the fastestgrowing in the world. In 2004, air traffic in India increased by some25%. Since 1990, the number of seats available on scheduled non-stopflights between the EU and India has increased from 2.6 to 4.4 million in2004 (+70%). Capacity on EU-India routes is expected to grow evenfaster in the coming few years. With such a rapid development in airtraffic, important new challenges as well as opportunities are emergingand India is becoming a more and more strategically important marketfor European airlines, aircraft manufactures and service providers.This is why the European Commission and the Ministry of CivilAviation of India have decided to jointly organise the first EU-IndiaAviation Summit on 23-24 November 2006 in New Delhi as a high-leveland focussed event for taking important new steps in EU-India aviationrelations into the 21st century.The U.K. and India have agreed to further liberalize the bilateral airservices agreement in a phased approach that will boost the number offrequencies allowed between the two countries from 40 to 84 in 18months.U.K. carriers welcomed the move, seeing significant growth potential inone of the most restricted international air travel markets. According tothe agreement, airlines will be able to operate 56 frequencies per weekbetween London Heathrow Airport and Mumbai, as well as Delhi. Inaddition, 14 weekly flights are allowed between any U.K. airport andBangalore and 14 between a U.K. airport and Chennai.
  • 89. As a next step, airlines must apply for approval to fly the services, andall three major U.K. airlines have announced their willingness to addflights. British Airways said it welcomed the agreement and would liketo focus on making its daily flights to Mumbai and Delhi double dailyservices. Virgin Atlantic Airways said it would like to fly daily toMumbai, currently served three times per week. And BMI CEO NigelTurner said in a statement that "an increase of our four-times-weeklyservice to Mumbai to a daily service will certainly be a priority."DistinctionMy Travel agency is Gnani Tours and Travel. My agency is havingdifferent countries packages as well. The countries you have chosen foryour holidays are France –Paris and London, U.K which is known tohave the best of the worlds attraction located in them .I would like tocompare my package with city tours and travel which is offering thesame countries with same price with economy class ticket.Package of Gnani Tours and Travels is INR 75,000.Package price of city Tours and Travels is INR1, 00,000.Apart from itinerary some of the points I have noticed in comparisonwith city Tours and Travels: 1. My tours and travel offers you the best air carrier in Europe that is British airways where ascity tours and travels presents you with a higher price but the airlines which they are offering is Lufthansa. 2. City tours and travels are offering you only breakfast in a 3 star hotel. My Travels offers you complimentary breakfast and dinner
  • 90. in same 3 star hotels and all pick up and drops provided from attraction points.3. We are charging you the price on Twin sharing basis plus an un accompanied minor free of cost other tours and travels which is city , is charging extra for an un accompanied minor.4. You can gain time if you choose our package because British airways arrives early compare to Lufthansa. Where you can utilize time for shopping and extra activities according to your wish.5. By British airways you can have direct flight from Hyderabad Rajiv Gandhi International Airport to Paris International Airport where as Lufthansa airlines will have halt and change of aircraft in Frankfurt International Airport.6. We have offer, if you book your holiday with us you will get discount of 25% on your next holiday7. My travels are offering you attractions which include the 7 wonders of the world.8. The ticket of London Eye where you can see the view of London city and tower bridge of London is included in the tariff fare, where as you have to pay £75 separate for each person in city tours & travels.9. My agency is a one stop agency where your ticketing to documentation is done .also foreign exchange can be taken from my agency.
  • 91. 10. What best is that during the tour you will be provided with a free tour guide who knows the local language of places and attractions to be visited.Sources of informationen.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_Kingdomwww.discoverfrance.net/France/History/DF_history.shtmlgofrance.about.com/od/parisattractions/tp/attractions.htmwww.ukattraction.com/ - United Kingdomwww.iatatravelcentre.com/FR-France-customs-currency-airport-tax-..www.iatatravelcentre.com/GB-United-Kingdom-customs-currency-ai..http://www.iata.org/http://www.uftaa.org/www.pata.org/www.icao.int/wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Conventionen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_on_International_Civil_Aviationen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedoms_of_the_air
  • 92. Ec.europa.eu/transport/air/international_aviation/country_index/india_en.htmhttp://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_generic.jsp?channel=aviationdaily&id=news/UKIND04145.xml&headline=U.K.,%20India%20Rela

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