Pharmacology microsyllabus


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Pharmacology microsyllabus

  1. 1. Phr Sangita Shakya MMIHS Pharmacology - II Theory 1. Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System: a) Digitalis and cardiac glycosides. • Definition of cardiac glycosides • Classification • General information about CHF • Mechanism of action, ADR, drug interaction, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological action, Uses of digoxin b) Antihypertensive drugs : • Definition of hypertension • Types of hypertension • Pathophysiology • Classification of antihypertensive agents Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics,CI, Uses of each group of antihypertensive drugs including : o ACE Inhibitors: Captopril, Enalapril o Angiotensin ( AT1) Antagonist : Losartan, valsartan o Β adrenergic Blockers: propanolol, atenolol, metorpolol o Calcium channel blockers: Nifedipine, amlodipine, verapamil, diltiazem o Diuretics :  Physiology of urine formation [ site of drug action]  Thiazides: hydrochlorothiazide  High ceiling : furosemide,  Potassium sparing diuretics: amiloride, spironolactone  Central sympatholytics : clonidine, methyldopa  α-adrenergic blockers: prazocin, phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine o Vasodilators :   Arteriolar : hydralazine, Minoxidil Arterial & venous: sodium Nitroprusside c). Antianginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel beta lockers and beta adrenergic antagonists • Define angina • Pathophysiology , Types of angina • Classification of antiangina agents based on types of angina Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics, CI, Uses of each group of antianginal drugs including : 1
  2. 2. Phr Sangita Shakya MMIHS o Organic nitrates  Short acting : Glyceryl trinitrate ( GTN)  Long acting: Isosorbide dinitrate o Beta Blockers : propanolol, metoprolol, atenolol o Calcium Channel Blockers:  Phenylalkylamine: verapamil  Benzothiazepine : Diltiazem  Dihydropyridines : nifedipine, felodipine, nicardipine, amlodipine o potassium channels openers: Nicorandil d) Antiarrhythmic drugs • Define arrhythmias • Pathophysiology , Types of arrhythmias • Classification of antiarrhythmic agents Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics, CI, Uses of each group of antiarrhythmics drugs including : It can be classified as Class I, II, III & VI or o Membrane stabilizing agents : quinidine, procanamide,, lidocaine o Antiadrenergic agents: propanolol, esmolol, o Agents widening AP: amiodarone, o Calcium channels blockers: verapamil, diltiazem o For PSVT: adenosine, digitalis o For A-V blocks : Isoprenaline e) Antihyperlipedernic drugs • Definition of hyperlipedemia • Pathophysiology of hyperlipedemia : Triglycerides, cholesterol • Antihyperlipidemic Drugs Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics, CI, Uses of each group of antianginal drugs including : • Atorvastatin • Clofibrate • Colestipol • Gemfibrozil • Lovastatin • Simvastatin f) Drugs used in the therapy of shock. • Definition of shock • Types of shock • Explain about ABC therapy 2
  3. 3. Phr Sangita Shakya MMIHS • Name of Drug based on type of shock 2. Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System: a) Hermatinics : Definition, Enlist Oral Iron compound Ferrous sulphate---, its absorption, distribution ,excretion & uses , dose & adr Enlist parenteral iron preparation--- its composition, application, dose b) Hemostatic agents : Definition, Formation of clot, Difference between venous & arterial thrombosis, Mechanism of coagulation, Intrinsic & Extrinsic pathway c) Vitamin K and Coagulants: Definition of coagulants, Classification of Vitamine K, MOA, Uses, precaution d) Anticoagulants: Definition , Classification ( oral & parenteral), o Heparin : Introduction, MOA, ADR, Precaution, Monitoring parameters of aPTT, Dosage regimen, PK, Uses o Mode of action and dose of Antidotes like protamine sulfate . o Difference between Heparin & Low Molecular Weight Heparins (e.g. enoxaparin, dalteparin) o Coumarin Derivatves e.g. Warfarin: Introduction, MOA, ADR, Precaution, Monitoring parameters of INR , Dosage regimen, PK, Antidotes for warfarin overdose, Drug interaction, factors affecting activity of warfarin. e) Anti-platelet drugs: Introduction, Platelets activation, Antiplatelets classification, Write MOA, ADR, Precaution, Dosage regimen, PK, Uses of aspirin & clopidogrel f) Fibrinolytic: Introduction, Enlist the fibrinolytics Write MOA, ADR, Dosage regimen, PK, Uses of Streptokinase, tPA Antifibrinolytics : Introduction, Enlist the antifibrinolytics , Write the application, adr & dose of Tranexaemic acid 3. Drugs acting on urinary system: a) Fluid and electrolyte balance b) Diuretics • Explain about body fluid compartment • Function of electrolyte & electrolytic distribution • Regulation of water loss & Dehydration 4. Autocoids: Definition & Classification of autocoids a) Histamine : Introduction, location, synthesis, function of histamine depending on Receptor types, pharmacological action, uses, preparation. b) Antihistamine : H1Antagonist- Classification, pharmacological action, Uses & adverse effects Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics, CI, Uses of following drugs: • First generation drugs : o Potent and sedative : Diphenhydramine,Promethazine o Potent but less sedative : Chlorpheniramine, Cyclizine o Moderately sedative: Pheniramine 3
  4. 4. Phr Sangita Shakya MMIHS o Less potent and less sedative: Mepyramine o Second generation drugs: • Non –Sedating Anti allergic: Terfenadine , cetrizine, loratadine, Fexofenadine • Antivertigo : Cinnarizine, c) H2 Antagonist: Classification, pharmacological action, Uses & adverse effects Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics, CI, Uses of following drugs: • Cemitidine, Ranitidine, famotidine d) 5-HT and their antagonists : Definition, pharmacological action, function, Synthesis, classification, Uses of serotonin, cyproheptadine e) Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes Pentagastrin, Cholecystokinin, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance ; Introduction, pharmacological action , Synthesis, function or clinical uses 5. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: a) Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators. a. Definition of Asthma b. Classification of antiasthmatic drugs. c. Explain Mechanism of action, ADR, Dose, Pharmacokinetics, CI, Uses of each group of antiasthmatic drugs including i. Bronchodialtors: Salbutamol, Salmeterol, formoterol, Ipratropium bromide, theophylline, aminophylline, ii. Corticosteroids: prednisolone, beclomethasone, fluticasone iii. Mast cell stabilizers: sodium cromoglycate, Nedocromil iv. LT antagonist: Montelukast, Zileuton b) Anti-tussives and expectorants. • Definition & Etiology of cough • Classification of Expectorant & antitussives : [Mention MOA, ADR, , Pharmacokinetics, Doses, Uses & precaution of following drugs from each group] i. Mucokinetcis Direct acting: sodium and potassium citrate or acetate, potassium iodide, Guaiphenesin. ii. Reflexly acting: Ammonium chloride or Carbonate, Potassium iodide. iii. Mucolytics: Bromhexine, Acetylcysteine, Carbocisteine. • Antitussive ( Cough centre suppressants) a) Opoids: Codeine, Pholcodine, Morphine b) Non-opoids : Noscapine, Dextromethorphan c) Antihistamine: Chlorpeniramine, Diphenhydramine, Promethazine c) Respiratory stimulants. : Definition , Classification of respiratory stimulant, Explain MOA, Pharmacokinetics, ADR, Uses of doxapram. 4