Introduction The legal system defines a set of rules, conduct or/and procedures which are necessary for establishing and maintaining a disciplined society. It has been formulated by custom, agreement and national interests and is enforced through a set of institutions. The legal system is critical as it shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and acts as the best social mediator in relations between people and institutions. The Indian Legal system is one of the oldest and longest written set of laws in the world Our legal system has its roots in the legislature formulated during the British Raj era.
The Indian legal system is formulated baring in mind the diversity of the country and with due respect to the religion, customs and traditions of the people. For instance the Indian Divorce act is different for Hindus and Muslims which is aligned to their respective religious guidelines. The three main branches of government that act as the central institutions for interpreting and creating law are:
To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public, a government's bureaucracy, the military and police are vital. While all these branches are created and bound by law, an independent legal profession and a vibrant civil society inform and support their progress Today law is a practice that is dependent on specialisation. New generations of lawyers focus on specific areas of legal interest. This has resulted in the birth of specialisations such as areas of securities transactions, intellectual property law, insurance, cyber law etc.
Classification of Law: The various sections of law when broadly classified could be categorized as follows: Criminal law: Offenses against society or State such as Theft, murder, rape, extortion, arson, etc Real estate: Real estate disputes, property tax, transfer of property, Ownership of property etc. Civil law: deeds, leases, will mortgages, agreements, contracts, power of attorney etc. Tax law: Income-tax, wealth tax, gift tax, estate duty, capital gain tax etc. International law: Against breach of internationally accepted set of rules on various affairs. Labour law: Matters between employers and employees. Copyright, IPR, Patenting etc.: Protection of intellectual property and art.Miscellaneous: family law, constitutional law, corporate law, patents, excise law, customs and transportation.
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