CIVIL WAR:CONTRASTINGTHE TWO SIDESCreated by Ms. Pat Browne - 8th Grade Social StudiesMHMS - Maryland – Civil War Research Wikipage
Why did the South Secede From (orleave) the Union?The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 , who theSouth perceived to be an abolitionist, was the finalstraw, and the secession of seven Southern statesfollowed soon after.
Secession• Most white Southerners favoredsecession (leaving the Union to formthe CSA).• Some pockets of Union support existedin Tennessee and Virginia. People inthe Appalachian region opposedsecession.
Secession (cont.)• In the western part of Virginia, a movement tosecede from the state of Virginia and rejointhe Union grew.• In 1861, 48 Virginia counties organizedthemselves into a separate state called WestVirginia, which Congress admitted to theUnion as a new state in 1863.
Who were the ConfederateStates of America?• By February 1861, seven southern states(South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Florida)had left the Union to form the CSA• After the attack on Ft. Sumter, four morestates (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee,and Arkansas) joined the Confederacymaking a total of 11 Confederate states
Who were the Union States?• There were 19 states that remained in theUnion (the United States of America), plus thefour border states
Border StatesFour states that allowed slavery did notsecede Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky,and Delaware. These were calledborder states, and remained as partof the Union throughout the war.
Border States (cont.)• Lincoln didn’t want to upset people in the borderstates so he did not announce that he aimed to endslavery• Losing the four border states would damage theNorth. All of the border states had strategic locations• Maryland had vital railroad lines that passed throughit; Washington DC lay within the state, so if MDseceded, the US capital would be surrounded.
Comparing theNorth (the Union) andthe South (the Confederacy)• The Civil War lasted four years (1861 - 1865);how each side used their strengths andweakness would determine the war’soutcome.• As the war began each side had advantagesand disadvantages.
Confederate Advantages:• Strong support that the white population or “home front gaveto the war – highly motivated to fight because they had astrong sense of being wronged• Engaged in defensive warfare – less costly in terms of menand materiél• Fighting in familiar territory - defending their land, homes,and their way of life• Military leadership was superior to the North’s from thebeginning, which provided an important tactical advantage• Wealth – from the value of its exports (especially cotton)
Union Advantages:• Controlled most of the nation’s money making it easier tofinance the Northern war effort• Better banking system - more bank deposits• Larger population• More industry (value of manufacturing); factories wereavailable to produce wartime materiél• More abundant resources - weapons, uniforms, food, etc.• More farm acreage – access to more food• Controlled both the merchant marine and U.S. Navy, so hadships, plus all members of the existing navy• Controlled 70% of the nation’s railroads making it easier movetroops and support items• President Abraham Lincoln’s leadership
Confederate Disadvantages:• Agricultural economy, but produced half as much food asthe North• Smaller population of free men to draw upon in building anarmy• Few factories to manufacture weapons and other supplies• Had less than half the miles of railroad tracks and vastlyfewer trains than the North - had great difficulty deliveringfood, weapons, and other supplies to its troops• Had no organized government at first• Its belief in states’ rights hampered its efforts because the11 individual states refused to give the Confederategovernment sufficient power to wage the war effectively.
UnionDisadvantages:• Bringing the Southern states back into the Union wasgoing to be difficult - it would require the North toinvade and hold the South (a large area filled withhostile people)• The Southern people’s support for the war wasstrong - they believed they could defeat the North• Union had a much smaller pool of experiencedmilitary officers• There was limited support for the war effort as thewar continued and some groups actively resisted thedraft.
The Union’s Objectivesfor the War:Their goal was to bring the Southern statesback into the Union (Note: ending slavery wasnot a major Northern goal at first)3 Main Strategies:(1) to blockade or close Southern ports(2) gain control of the Mississippi River(3) capture Richmond, Virginia theConfederate capital
The Confederacy’sObjectives for the War :Primary goal was to win recognition as anindependent nation - to allow them to preservetheir traditional way of life, including slaveryThe South developed a defensive strategy:(1) Defend its homeland and hold onto itsterritory(2) Gain the support of Britain and France(3) Take the offensive - go on the attack andthreaten Washington, DC and other Northerncities
“Brother Against Brother”• Families throughout the North andSouth felt the divisions and often hadrelatives on both sides• Many officers on both sides had foughttogether in the U.S. Army in previouswars and never dreamed that one daythey would be fighting each other.
“Total War”Definition:Where an army targets both military, aswell as civilian economic resourcesin an attempt to destroy their opponent’sability to fight.