CSP, PV, and a Renewable Future Institute for Analysis of Solar Energy George Washington University 24 April 2009 Sam Baldwin Chief Technology Officer and Member, Board of Directors Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy
Economic — economic development and growth; energy costs
Security — foreign energy dependence, reliability, stability
Environmental — local (particulates), regional (acid rain), global (GHGs)
Scale and Time Constants
Value of CSP
The Renewable Future
Policy & Incentives
Nations that HAVE oil (% of Global Reserves) Saudi Arabia 26% Iraq 11 Kuwait 10 Iran 9 UAE 8 Venezuela 6 Russia 5 Mexico 3 Libya 3 China 3 Nigeria 2 U.S. 2% Nations that NEED Oil (% of Global Consumption) U.S. 24. % China 8.6 Japan 5.9 Russia 3.4 India 3.1 Germany 2.9 Canada 2.8 Brazil 2.6 S. Korea 2.6 Mexico 2.4 France 2.3 Italy 2.0 Global ~85 MM Bbl/day Source: EIA International Energy Annual The Oil Problem
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 354 MW Luz Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS) Nine Plants built 1984 - 1991 Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
1-MW Arizona Trough Plant Tucson, AZ Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
64 MW e Acciona Nevada Solar One Solar Parabolic Trough Plant Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
50 MW AndaSol One and Two Parabolic Trough Plant w/ 7-hr Storage, Andalucía Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Abengoa PS10 and PS 20; Seville, Spain Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
US Projects Under Development Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory 424 MW 4503 MW
International Projects Under Development Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory 658 MW 3180 MW
Value of Dispatchable Power? Meets Utility Peak Power Demands
higher value because power production can match utility needs
lower costs because storage is cheaper than incremental turbine costs
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Solar Resource Hourly Load 0 6 12 18 24 Generation w/ Thermal Storage
High-performance long-life low-cost reflectors with self-cleaning or hydrophobic coatings; Increase optical accuracy and aiming.
Receiver: Stable, high temperature, high performance selective surfaces.
CSP Thermal Storage :
Accounts for ~20-25% of capital cost
Stable, high temperature heat transfer and thermal storage materials to 600C (1200 C for advanced technology), with low vapor pressure, low freezing points, low cost ($15/kW th ) , appropriate viscosity & density, etc.
Advanced CSP Systems :
Power block accounts for ~10-15% of capital cost; 37.6% efficiency
Brayton Cycles for higher temperature, higher efficiency
High-temperature thermochemical cycles for CSP production—353 found & scored; 12 under further study; Develop falling particle receiver and heat transfer system for up to 1000 C cycles. Develop reactor/receiver designs and materials for up to 1800 C cycles
Source: Building Technology Program Core Databook, August 2003. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/frame.asp?p=tableview.asp&TableID=509&t=xls ; Annual Energy Outlook 2008. Often Forgotten Solar Buildings: Total Primary Energy 38.9 quads (2006)
How to best mobilize capital with the most leverage at the minimum public expense?
Human Resources: Solar Decathlon Carnegie Mellon; Cornell; Georgia Tech; Kansas State; Lawrence Technological University; MIT; New York Institute of Technology; Pennsylvania State; Santa Clara University; Team Montreal ( É cole de Technologie Sup é rieure, Universit é de Montr é al, McGill University); Technische Universit ä t Darmstadt; Texas A&M; Universidad Polit é cnica de Madrid; Universidad de Puerto Rico; University of Colorado – Boulder; University of Cincinnati; University of Illinois; University of Maryland; University of Missouri, Rolla; University of Texas, Austin. Architecture Engineering Market Viability Communications Comfort Appliances Hot Water Lighting Energy Balance Getting Around Source: STP
At $100K/cap, $100B/y 1 M Jobs
How can this scale be ramped up to quickly?
How can quality control best be maintained?
What outreach to state/local level will be most effective?
For more information http://www.eere.energy.gov [email_address]