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    Mock trial car accident (1) copy Mock trial car accident (1) copy Document Transcript

    • Running aMock Trial in theClassroomA guide and materials forteachers and students
    • Running a Mock Trial in the Classroom Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................................................................2 A Brief Guide to the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales..........................................................................................3 Lesson Preparation and Delivery.............................................................................................................................................................5 Procedure.........................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Student Role Sheet: Judge.......................................................................................................................................................................10 Student Role Sheet: Defendant..............................................................................................................................................................11 Student Role Sheet: Witness...................................................................................................................................................................12 Student Role Sheet: Lawyer....................................................................................................................................................................13 Student Role Sheet: Court Clerk............................................................................................................................................................15 Student Role Sheet: Usher.......................................................................................................................................................................16 Student Role Sheet: Jury...........................................................................................................................................................................17 The Case: R v Jackie Jones......................................................................................................................................................................18 Adaptations and Optional Extras...........................................................................................................................................................26 Like this? You might also like..................................................................................................................................................................26IntroductionMock trials are an excellent way to introduce students to the workings of the A detailed knowledge ofcriminal justice system in a practical and accessible way. The materials in this the law is not required to usepack will help you to set up a mock trial with a class in curriculum time. this resource. If you know a local barrister or solicitor theyHow realistic is it? may agree to help you to addIt’s very difficult for a mock trial to be exactly like a real one because the some ‘real life’ experience, butprocedure in court can be hard to follow and takes a long time. Therefore, it has this is not essential.been simplified for this resource, with notes on the Student Resource Sheetsexplaining the differences. Even with these changes, the process gives young people a good understanding ofhow courts and the justice system works.Court VisitsThis is an excellent way to reinforce the learning of a mock trial in class. You can find your local court athttp://www.justice.gov.uk/contacts/hmcts/court-finder and contact the court manager directly to set up a visit.Please note that children under the age of 14 can only attend a trial at the court’s discretion.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 2Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomA Brief Guide to the Criminal Justice System in England andWalesHow are laws made?Laws in England and Wales are made in two main ways: What is law? ‘The enforceable body of rulesActs of Parliament (statutes) that governs any society.’These are laws made after being debated and approved by both Houses (A Dictionary of Law: OUPof Parliament and signed (as a formality) by the Monarch. They usually 1997)represent what the government believes should be the law and areenforced by the courts.Some of our laws now come from decisions made by the European Union (EU). All members of the EU haveagreed to adopt or abide by these laws and they will prevail over any conflicting laws that existed before.The Scottish Parliament, National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly also have powers tomake some laws for their region of the UK.Judge-made law (case or common law)In the twelfth century the Monarch appointed a number of judges to travel around the country to settle disputesand enforce order. The decisions of the judges were recorded and became ‘case law’. If a case with similar factshas been decided in the past by equal or higher ranking judges, that decision must be followed. This is called a‘precedent’.The most senior judges can change precedent in exceptional cases. This ensures that the law evolves in moderntimes. An example of this is the marital rape exemption (ie that a man cannot be convicted of the rape of hiswife) which senior judges ruled was no longer applicable in the 1991 case R v R.The Judicial Appointments Commission is responsible for selecting judges in England and Wales. It was created in2006 following the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and took over this role from the Lord Chancellor.What types of laws are there?There are three main types of law:Criminal lawsThese are laws that protect people and say how we must (or must not) behave. If we break these laws we arecommitting a crime. We can then be prosecuted, tried and punished by the State. Examples of these are the lawsagainst murdering people or stealing property.Civil lawsThese are laws that govern private relationships between people. If these laws are broken, an individual can takelegal steps to remedy the problem, usually in the form of financial compensation. Examples of civil laws areconsumer rights (eg being able to return faulty goods) and employee rights (eg taking an employer to a tribunalafter being sacked for no good reason).Administrative lawsThese are laws which set out what public bodies (like the police, schools or local councils) can do and what theirresponsibilities are. They also set out ways in which citizens can complain or seek compensation if these bodiesact wrongly.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 3Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomCriminal casesCrimes are investigated by the police. If they think that someone should be taken to court and accused ofcommitting a crime (‘prosecuted’) they will refer this to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). If the CPS lawyersthink there is enough evidence they will prosecute the person accused, who is known as the ‘defendant’.All prosecutions start (and 95 per cent end) in a magistrates’ court. Magistrates decide whether a defendant isguilty or not based on the evidence presented to them and will sentence a defendent if they are found guilty(these are called ‘summary’ offences). For more serious cases (known as ‘indictable’ offences), the magistrateswill decide if there is a case to answer and if so, send it to be heard in a crown court with a judge and jury. Insome cases (known as ‘either way’ offences) a defendant can choose to be tried in a magistrates or crown court.A jury is made up of 12 members of the public selected at random. In the crown court it is up to the jury to listento the evidence and decide whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty. The judge will advise the jury what thelaw is. If they decide that the defendant is guilty the judge will then decide what sentence to impose.If the defendant thinks that the judge made a mistake when advising the jury about the law, they can ‘appeal’to the Court of Appeal. In very exceptional cases of public importance there may be a further appeal to the highestcourt – called the Supreme Court. The prosecution can also appeal in some cases if they think the sentenceimposed was the wrong one but they cannot appeal against someone being found not guilty.Key Questions of EvidenceThere are three key questions of evidence for the prosecution which are of vital importance in any criminal case.These are rules that were developed to ensure that the defendant gets a fair trial.What is the ‘standard of proof’?A very high standard of proof is needed before someone can be found guilty. The magistrates or jury must be‘really sure’ on the basis of the evidence they have heard in court that the defendant did what s/he is accused ofdoing. A defendant is presumed to be innocent until the prosecution proves that s/he is guilty. The defendantdoes not have to prove that s/he is innocent. So the courts say the ‘burden of proof’ is on the prosecution.How do you prove something happened?The witnesses must give evidence of what they say happened without being ‘helped’ by lawyers in court. So thelawyer questioning a witness on his or her side must not suggest the answer to the witness (eg ‘did you see thedefendant stab the victim?’) These are called ‘leading questions’. Generally questions which can be answered ‘yes’or ‘no’ will fall into this category. A good way of avoiding leading questions is to make sure questions start ‘How…’,‘Where…’, ‘Why…’, ‘What…’ etc.What about telling the court what other people said happened?This is not allowed. If the prosecution wants the court to believe that something happened they must provideevidence from someone with first hand experience of it. A witness cannot say: ‘My friend said that she saw himstabbing the victim’. This is called ‘hearsay’ evidence and cannot be used because it is unreliable.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 4Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomLesson Preparation and DeliveryThis pack is based on a trial in a crown court with a judge and jury.TimeRunning a full mock trial with preparation and follow up discussion will take at least two hours. It is bestorganised in two one hour lessons or sessions. The first session should give students time to prepare for the trial,the second should include the actual mock trial and follow up acitivities/discussion. This might be longer for amore substantial follow up activity like writing a court report. You will need to plan carefully how best to split thestudents into groups, and the roles they should play. Bear in mind that the most challenging role is that of thelawyer.SpaceThe room should be arranged to resemble a real court room. The diagram below provides a guide to the layout.Please note that courts vary in layout in real life, this is just an example. In the resources for the lawyers, students are encouraged to avoid leading questions in their examination in chief. While this is important in a real trial, it is not necessary to enforce this during a classroom mock trial. If you are doing this as a pre-cursor to one of the Citizenship Foundation’s mock trial competitions however, you might want to note which students have understood this as part of your team selection process.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 5Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomParticipantsIn a class of thirty students, the following roles are suggested: 1 x Judge 4 x Prosecution Lawyers 4 x Defence Lawyers 2 x Prosecution Witnesses 1 x Defendant 1 x Defence Witness 1 x Court Clerk 1 x Usher 15 x Jury (possibly divided into groups of five to consider the verdict)Alternatively, you may choose to reduce the size of the jury and have some students take on the role of courtreporters and/or court artists. You could also have the lawyers work in pairs to support each other, as this is themost difficult role to prepare, or make the opening and closing speeches a separate role and have five lawyers oneach side. Depending on your class, it may be more appropriate for you or another adult to take on the role ofjudge. You can also omit the speeches if you wish.MaterialsAll participants will need a copy of the procedure (pages 7 to 9), the guide for their character (pages 8 to 17) anda copy of the case (pages 18 to 25). You might choose to only give them the briefing and statement relevant totheir role. The students should be split into groups to prepare. This is outlined in the table below: Group Members What they need to prepare Prosecution Lawyer 1, Prosecution Witness 1 Examination in chief of Hillary Green (Hillary Green), Jury members x 2 Opening speech for the prosecution (optional) Prosecution Lawyer 2, Prosecution Witness 2 Examination in chief of Lesley Wogan (Lesley Wogan), Jury members x 2 Closing speech for the prosecution (optional) Defence Lawyer 1, Defendent (Jackie Jones), Examination in chief of Jackie Jones Jury members x 2 Opening speech for the defence (optional) Defence Lawyer 2, Defence Witness (Pat Examination in chief of Pat Proud Proud), Jury members x 2 Closing speech for the defence (optional) Prosecution Lawyer 3, Court Clerk, Jury Cross examination of Jackie Jones members x 2 Prosecution Lawyer 4, Judge (if using a Cross examination of Pat Proud student), Jury members x 2 Defence Lawyer 3, Usher, Jury member x 1 Cross examination of Hillary Green Defence Lawyer 4, Jury members x 2 Cross examination of Lesley Wogan© Citizenship Foundation 2011 6Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomProcedureThe times are for guidance only.The judge is addressed as ‘Your Honour’.Key: Action Reading / speaking 1 • Participants (except judge) 9 • Judge Take their places Asks defendant to sit. Asks the prosecution lawyer to make their opening speech 2 • Usher 10 • Prosecution Lawyer 1 Says ‘All rise’ and leads the judge into Makes opening speech (approx 3 mins) the court 3 • Participants 11 • Prosecution Lawyer 1 Stand as the judge enters Calls first prosecution witness by saying, ‘Your Honour, I now call…’ (name of witness) 4 • Participants 12 • Usher Everyone sits, except the defendant Leads first prosecution witness to the witness box 5 • Clerk 13 • Usher Asks the defendant for their name and if Swears in the witness asking him/her to they understand the charge. repeat, ‘I promise to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth’ 6 • Defendant 14 • Prosecution Lawyer 1 Answers the clerk’s questions Examination in Chief of first prosecution witness (approx 4 mins) 7 • Clerk 15 • Defence Lawyer 3 Says to the defendant: ‘Do you plead Cross-examination of first prosecution guilty or not guilty?’ witness (approx 4 mins) 8 • Defendant 16 • Judge Says ‘Not guilty’ Can ask the witness one question if they want to© Citizenship Foundation 2011 7Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the Classroom 17 • Usher 27 • Prosecution Lawyer 1 Leads the witness back to his/ Says, ‘That is the case for the her seat prosecution.’ 18 • Prosecution Lawyer 2 28 • Judge Calls second prosecution witness by Thanks the prosecution and asks the saying, ‘Your Honour, I now call…’ defence lawyer to make their opening (name of witness) speech. 19 • Usher 29 • Defence Lawyer 1 Leads second prosecution witness to the Makes an opening speech (approx 3 witness box mins) 20 • Usher 30 • Defence Lawyer 1 Swears in the witness asking him/her to Calls defendant by saying, ‘Your Honour, repeat, ‘I promise to tell the truth, the I now call…’ (name of defendant) whole truth and nothing but the truth’ 21 • Prosecution Lawyer 2 31 • Usher Examination in Chief of second Leads defendant to the witness box prosecution witness (approx 4 mins) 22 • Defence Lawyer 4 32 • Usher Cross-examination of second Swears in the defendant asking him/her prosecution witness (approx 4 mins) to repeat, ‘I promise to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth’ 23 • Judge 33 • Defence Lawyer 1 Can ask the witness one question if Examination in Chief of defendant they want to (approx 4 mins) 24 • Usher 34 • Prosecution Lawyer 3 Leads the witness back to his/ Cross-examination of defendant (approx her seat 4 mins) 25 • Judge 35 • Judge Asks clerk to read statement of Can ask the defendant one question if prosecution witness 3 they want to 26 • Clerk 36 • Usher Read statement of prosecution witness Leads the defendant back to his/ 3 her seat© Citizenship Foundation 2011 8Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the Classroom 37 • Defence Lawyer 2 47 • Defence lawyer 2 Calls defence witness by saying, ‘Your Makes closing speech (approx 3 mins) Honour, I now call…’ (name of witness) 38 • Usher 48 • Judge Leads defence witness to the witness Sums up (4 mins max) and instructs box jury to ‘retire and consider their verdict’ 39 • Usher 49 • Jury Swears in the witness asking him/her to Moves to a separate room or area to repeat, ‘I promise to tell the truth, the consider its verdict. One member to be whole truth and nothing but the truth’ named as spokesperson (5 mins max) 40 • Defence Lawyer 2 50 • Usher Examination in Chief of defence witness Leads the jury, when ready, back to their (approx 4 mins) seats in the courtroom 41 • Prosecution Lawyer 4 51 • Clerk Cross-examination of defence witness Says to jury: ‘Have you considered your (approx 4 mins) verdict?’ 42 • Judge 52 • Jury Spokesperson Can ask the witness one question if Says ‘Yes’ they want to 43 • Usher 53 • Clerk Leads the witness back to his/ Says to jury: ‘Do you find the defendant her seat guilty or not guilty?’ 44 • Defence Lawyer 1 54 • Jury Spokesperson Says, ‘That is the case for the Says ‘Guilty’ or ‘Not guilty’, depending defence.’ on the verdict 45 • Judge 55 • Judge Asks lawyers to make their closing If not guilty, says: ‘[Name of defendant], speeches you are free to go’; if guilty says: ‘The Court will now consider the sentence that is appropriate’. 46 • Prosecution lawyer 2 Makes closing speech (approx 3 mins)© Citizenship Foundation 2011 9Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Sheet: Judge I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to help write an examination in chief/cross examination of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I do/don’t need to help write an opening/closing speech for the prosecution/defenceYou are in charge of the trial. You must make sure the trial is fair, like the referee of a football match.Before the Trial Read through all the information in the case Note down questions you would like to ask the defendant or the witnesses, if the lawyers do not ask them Help the lawyer in your group with their questions and speech (if they are doing one).During the Trial You don’t have to ask the Make sure things happen in the right order, using the procedure witnesses any questions if you Make sure everyone can hear what the lawyers and witnesses are saying; don’t want to. If you do, you can you can ask them to speak up (or quieten down!) if you need to. only ask one question per witness.Summing up at the end of the evidenceThe judge should briefly state the law and sum up the evidence the court has heard. The case contains anexample of this. In the summing up: You can only refer to evidence you have actually heard from the witnesses You must refer to all witnesses equally to be fair to all You mustn’t give your own opinion You should say what the law is. A summary of the law is contained in the case You should tell the jury to consider whether they are really sure that, on the basis of the evidence, the defendant is guilty. Only if they are sure can the jury decide that the defendant is guilty. Otherwise they must find the defendant not guilty Ask the jury to retire to consider their verdict.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 10Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Sheet: Defendant I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to help write an examination in chief of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________You are accused of committing a crime. You have denied this and said you are not guilty. You will be givingevidence on your own behalf. The case contains your statement.Before the Trial Read the outline of the case and your statement In a real trial... Work with your group to write the lawyer’s examination in chief of you. A defendant doesn’t have to give evidence. But if they say they are ‘not guilty’During the Trial and refuse to say why or offer any evidence Try to act like the character you are playing to show that they didn’t commit the crime Follow any instructions you are given by the judge, clerk or usher the jury or judge are ‘allowed to draw their When asked by the clerk if you are guilty or not guilty, say ‘not own conclusions’. guilty’ Stick to the facts in your statement Defendants often do say new things in You can take you statement with you to the witness box (this court but if they weren’t covered in their wouldn’t happen in a real trial). statement they may be regarded as ‘unreliable’ and let themselves down.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 11Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Sheet: Witness I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ The role I am playing is... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to help write an examination in chief/cross examination of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I do/don’t need to help write an opening/closing speech for the prosecution/defenceThere are two witnesses for the prosecution and two witnesses forthe defence (one of whom is the defendant). The case contains In a real trial...the statement of each witness. Witnesses often do say new things inBefore the Trial court, but if these weren’t covered in their Read the outline of the case and your statement statement the witness may be regarded as Work with your group to write the lawyer’s examination in chief ‘unreliable’. of you. Witnesses (except the defendant)During the Trial usually have to wait outside until they have Try to act like the character you are playing given their own evidence, so they are not Follow any instructions you are given by the judge, clerk or usher influenced by what others have said in Stick to the facts in your statement court. You can take you statement with you to the witness box (this wouldn’t happen in a real trial) If you are asked to describe what the defendant looks like you should base your description on the person playing that role You may sit in the room throughout the trial Keep your answers short and use your own words – don’t just recite what’s in your statement.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 12Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Guide: Lawyer I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ The role I am playing is... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to write an examination in chief/cross examination of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I do/don’t need to write an opening/closing speech for the prosecution/defenceThe Prosecution represents the Crown and present the case on In a real trial...their behalf. It is their job to ensure that the correct verdict isreached, not just a guilty one. The Defence represents the There is only likely to be one lawyerdefendant and must stick to their version of events. Their job is to on each side unless the case is veryundermine the prosecution’s case and create reasonable doubt in serious or complicated. It is very rare forthe minds of the jury as to the defendant’s guilt. there to be an opening speech by the defence but we are including it in this mockLawyers need to: trial to help everyone understand legal Make an opening or closing speech (This is optional and not all processes. lawyers have to make one. Your teacher will tell you if you are) Complete an examination in chief (question) of one of his/her own side’s witnesses or cross examine (question) one of the other side’s witnesses.Before the Trial Read the outline of the case and the statement of the witness you are questioning Work with your group to write your examination in chief or cross examination Work with your group to write your speech (if you need one).During the trial You can have copies of the witnesses statements with you and any notes you have made – but try not to just read out what you’ve written down Don’t give your own opinions.Examination in Chief and Cross Examination Examination in chief of your witnesses should follow their witness statement. You should take the witness through their statement, starting with their name and address, so that the court hears all the relevant evidence. Cross-examination of the other side’s witnesses should try and highlight any weaknesses or inconsistencies in their statement to show that they are unreliable or untrustworthy.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 13Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the Classroom Keep your questions short so they are easily understood You must not put words into the mouths of your own witnesses by asking questions which just require a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer. This is called asking a ‘leading question’ You mustn’t ask your witness to say what they heard someone else tell them. This is called ‘hearsay’ evidence Try and be natural and conversational Be prepared to change your prepared questions depending on the answers you get If a witness says something inconsistent with their statement be ready to read the relevant part of their statement to them and ask them to explain why they want to change their account Allow witnesses time to answer and don’t interrupt Try not to be aggressive or sarcastic. No Leading Questions in Examination in Chief No Hearsay Evidence A leading question is one that just requres a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ Evidence told to the witness by someone else is answer. If you ask a leading question and the judge spots it called ‘hearsay’ evidence. This cannot be s/he may ask you to rephrase the question. To avoid this it relied on as it may be invented or incomplete. It helps if your questions start with: How-What-Where-Why- could be challenged as it doesn’t come from the When. original source. Leading questions can only be asked during cross-examination.Opening SpeechesOpening speech by the prosecution: Summarise the case against the defendant Briefly summarise what you will demonstrate to the court through the evidence of your witnesses Describe the standard of proof that the prosecution has to meet. The standard of proof is that the jury must be ‘really sure’ that the defendant is guilty.Opening speech by the defence: Briefly confirm that the defendant claims s/he is not guilty and explain what the prosecution will have to prove and why this may be difficult for them Explain that you don’t have to prove that the defendant is innocent; it is for the prosecution to prove that s/he is guilty.Closing SpeechesClosing speech by the prosecution: Bring together the evidence given by the two prosecution witnesses Comment on any weaknesses exposed by the defence during cross examination of their witnesses Briefly summarise what the law says about the offence Explain why you say the jury can be sure that the defendant is guilty.Closing speech by the defence: Explain and emphasise the weaknesses in the prosecution case If there are good points accept them but explain why they are not enough on their own Show the jury why it is right to find the defendant not guilty as they can’t be reallysure that s/he committed the offence.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 14Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Guide: Court Clerk I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to help write an examination in chief/cross examination of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I do/don’t need to help write an opening/closing speech for the prosecution/defenceThe Court Clerk is a court official and performs an essential role in seeing that everything runs smoothly.Before the Trial Read the procedure and case to make sure you know what you need to do and when. This includes reading thestatement of prosecution witness 3, which you will have to read out Help the lawyer in your group with their questions and speech (if they are doing one)During the Trial Start the trial by announcing the case and asking the defendant to stand. Ask the defendant to state their name and address Read out the charge and ask the defendant whether they plead guilty or not guilty Read out the statement of prosecution witness 3 when the lawyer asks you to. This is a section 9 statement, which means that everyone agrees with what the witness has said, but the court needs to hear the information Ask the jury to tell the court their verdict.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 15Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Guide: Usher I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to help write an examination in chief/cross examination of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I do/don’t need to help write an opening/closing speech for the prosecution/defenceThe usher is a court official and performs an essential role in seeing that everything runs smoothly.Before the Trial Read the procedure and case to make sure you know what you need to do and when Help the lawyer in your group with their questions and speech (if they are doing one)During the Trial Tell the judge when everyone is ready to start the trial. Ask everyone to stand when the judge enters and sits down. If the judge can enter from outside the classroom this will help establish This mock trial does not use the formality of the trial the Bible or other Books of Faith for Lead each witness from and to the witness box when their turn comes the purposes of ’swearing in’ the and swear them in using the affirmation in the procedure witness. The oath used is based on Make sure that there are no disturbances during the trial (eg mobile the secular oath which can be cho- phones or digital watches going off or people eating and drinking - the sen in a real court by witnesses of rules are very similar to normal rules in classroom!) no faith.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 16Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomStudent Role Guide: Jury I am working with... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I need to help write an examination in chief/cross examination of... ____________________________________________________________________________________________ I do/don’t need to help write an opening/closing speech for the prosecution/defenceThe role of the jury is to decide whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty based on the evidence your hear incourt.Before the trial Help the lawyer in your group with their questions and speech (if they are doing one)During the trial In a real trial... Listen carefully to everything that’s said and observe how the witnesses behave when giving evidence The jury has 12 members. The Take notes if you want to, you need to be ready to discuss what proceedings are entirely secret. The judge you have heard. will say at first that s/he wants a unanimous verdict. If a jury really cannotMaking your decision agree the judge may accept a majority Appoint one member to be the spokesperson verdict, but it must be 10–2 or 11–1. If the Briefly discuss the evidence you have heard, then vote on the jury still cannot reach a decision, the verdict defendant is discharged and may face a If you all agree that is your decision re-trial before a new jury. If you don’t all agree you must discuss the evidence until a majority of you agree. Then that is your decision If after five minutes you are divided equally then a majority has not been convinced and you must find the defendant not guilty When the jury has reached its decision it should tell the usher who will take you back into court.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 17Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesBriefingSummary of the FactsThe defendant is charged with dangerous driving following a road traffic collision when the defendant’s car hit acyclist causing serious leg injuries. The defendant had been driving on the wrong side of a central refuge at thetime of the collision. The prosecution’s case is that he/she was driving dangerously; the defendant’s case is thathe/she was overtaking a queue of stationery cars when the cyclist moved across the road without warning andwithout looking. The accident happened in daylight, in good weather and with dry roads.The LawSection 2A of the Road Traffic Act 1988 provides that a person is to be regarded as driving dangerously if:(a) the way he/she drives falls far below what would be expected of a competent and careful driver, and(b) it would be obvious to a competent and careful driver that driving in that way would be dangerous.‘Dangerous’ refers to danger either of injury to any person or of serious damage to property; in determining whatwould be expected of, or obvious to, a competent and careful driver in a particular case, regard shall be had notonly to the circumstances of which he/she could be expected to be aware but also to any circumstances shown tohave been within the knowledge of the accused.IndictmentIn the Crown Court of HillsideThe Queenv.Jackie JonesJACKIE JONES is charged as follows:Statement of OffenceDangerous driving, contrary to Section 2 of the Road Traffic Act 1988.Particulars of OffenceJackie Jones on the 27th day of June drove a mechanically propelled vehicle dangerously on a road, namelyHillside Road, Hillside.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 18Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesStatement of Prosecution Witness 1 Name: Hillary Green Age: 15 Date of birth: 27th June Occupation: Student Address: The Old Dairy, Hillside Farm, Hillside Date: 27th JuneI am 15 years old today and a student at Hillside School. Today I got out of school late because I had a doubledetention.1I was in a hurry to get home because my mother was taking me to collect a new computer for my birthday. Icycled along the Hillside pavement in the direction of Brookside. I had to cross Hillside Road and decided to do itat the central refuge just past Able Close.I stopped at the kerb, looked both ways along Hillside Road and saw a line of stopped traffic going towards HillsideTown Centre on the far side of the road. There was no traffic coming from Hillside or Able Close so I decided tocross using the central refuge.I was about half way to the central refuge when I was hit by a sports car coming from my left.2 I do not rememberanything more of the incident. I had both my legs broken but I have been told that I will make a full recovery._________________________________________________________________________________________1 If questioned the double detention was given because the student failed to attend a road safety lecture.2 If asked, the witness did not hear any squeal of tyres before the accident.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 19Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesStatement of Prosecution Witness 2 Name: Lesley Wogan Age: 32 Date of birth: 19th March Occupation: Teacher at Hillside School Address: The School House, Montifierro Road, Hillside Date: 27th JuneI am a teacher at Hillside School and Hillary Green is one of my students. In the early evening today I was drivingon Hillside Road from Brookside towards Hillside Town Centre and I was stuck in the usual traffic jam. I wasreturning to school having forgotten my house keys. I saw Hillary Green riding his/her cycle along the footpathcoming from the direction of Hillside, he/she had just crossed Able Close. I thought that he/she was a bit latecoming home from school but then I remembered I had given him/her a double detention.3When Hillary Green was about level with the central refuge and about 75 feet in front of me I saw him/her stop atthe kerb, look both ways and was clearly about to cross the road. He/she started out and at that moment a whiteMazda sports car pulled out of the line of traffic directly in front of me squealing his/her tyres as he/she did so.The driver started to drive on the wrong side of the road. He/she went on the wrong side of the central refuge,Hillary Green was about half way from the refuge and looking to his/her right, he/she could not see the whitesports car. I knew there would be an accident, and there was. The car hit Hillary Green, the bike flew in the air andHillary Green was knocked to the ground. I got out and went to see if Hillary was alright but another man/womanwas looking after him/her. I spoke to the driver of the white sports car and he/she said ‘I am sorry, it was my fault,I was late, I just did not see the bike’.4It is my opinion that the driver of the white sports car drove dangerously and caused the accident._________________________________________________________________________________________3 The witness has a feeling of guilt about the accident because if he/she had not given the double detention - onthe student’s birthday - the student would not have been riding home so late or in such a hurry.4 This may be given in evidence. The witness should remember these words or something tothe same effect.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 20Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesStatement of Prosecution Witness 3 Name: PC Parsons Age: 43 Date of birth: 26th June Occupation: Police Constable, Hillside Police Department, Hillside Address: The Ironmongers Cottage, Station Walk, Hillside Date: 27th June(This statement will be read to the jury, there being nothing challenged in the statement and thedefence have no questions to ask of the witness).I was on duty today and driving along Hillside Road towards Brookside when I came across the scene of a roadtraffic accident just past Able Close, involving a white Mazda sports car and a bicycle, both of which had beenmoved by the time I arrived. I spoke to the driver of the white Mazda, who gave his/her name as Jackie Jones, of32 Able Close, Hillside. He/she said that he/she had been about to turn into Able Close when the cyclist suddenlyturned into the road with no warning, leaving no way to avoid the accident.The cyclist, named Hillary Green, had been moved off the road on to the pavement and was being tended to byanother motorist. I saw that he/she had injuries to both legs, and I called an ambulance.I later prepared a sketch plan of the road layout at the scene of the accident, which I now produce.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 21Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomSketch showing road layout of Hillside Road/Able Close© Citizenship Foundation 2011 22Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesStatement of the Defendant Name: Jackie Jones Age: 35 Date of birth: 26th June Occupation: Management Consultant, Unichip, Hillside Address: 32 Able Close, Hillside Date: 27th JuneI took delivery of my new Mazda sports car, today from the garage, Brookside Mazda, and I was driving homealongside Hillside Road. I live at 32 Able Close and I got stuck in the usual traffic jam. I am very familiar with theroad, as I drive it every day. If I get stuck in traffic when I get close to my turning I have a habit of pulling out to theother side of the road and driving up the right side of the road up to the right hand turn of Able Close. When I dothis I am very careful to look for oncoming traffic; I usually do it at the point where there is a central refuge so thatI would get some warning of any pedestrians crossing between the stopped cars on my left. This dodge saves meseveral minutes and I have done it lots of times without any incident.Today I did my usual dodge. I looked first and checked that there was no traffic coming from Hillside Town centre;the only traffic coming towards me was a youth on his/her cycle but he/she was on the pavement, riding veryhard and fast. As the way was clear, I pulled out onto the other side of the road5 and started to drive, carefully,towards my turning (Able Close). When I was almost level with the cyclist he/she turned from the pavement intothe road right in front of me without looking. There was no warning, and nothing I could do. I hit the youth andknocked him/her off his/her cycle. I got out, I could see he/she was hurt but another motorist was helpinghim/her. I spoke to another motorist, who seemed a little shocked but he/she did say he/she knew who thecyclist was.6 I remember a policeman attending the scene afterwards; I think I may have spoken to him/her, but Ido not remember any details of the conversation.The youth on the cycle was at fault; he/she caused this accident because he/she did not stop or look beforeleaving the pavement and crossing into the road._________________________________________________________________________________________5 The witness will deny squealing his/her tyres or making any sudden manoeuvre.6 If asked, Jones will deny making any admission of fault; his/her version of what he/she said is ‘the boy/girl wasin a hurry and didn’t see me’.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 23Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesStatement of the Defence Witness Name: Pat Proud Age: 39 Date of birth: 14th April Occupation: Investment Banker with Goldham Sachs, London Address: 3 Hillside Road, Hillside Date: 27th JuneI live on Hillside Road near to, and on the same side as Able Close. Today I was cleaning the inside of my upstairswindows when I saw Hillary Green coming home from school. He/she was riding on the pavement which issomething I am always telling him/her off about.I thought of opening my window to tell him/her off again, but he/she was going too fast and would not haveheard me.7 He/she was about level with my house when he/she looked over his/her right shoulder for oncomingtraffic and turned into the road to cross. I did not see him/her look left as he/she did so. In the past I have toldhim/her off about that as well but he/she always says that traffic can only come from the right at that spot. Todayhe/she was wrong and a white sports car had no chance and there was a crash.The white sports car was driving fairly slowly and carefully.8 It was signalling as if to turn into Able Close. I haveseen other cars drive on the wrong side of the road at this point in order to jump the line of traffic and turn intoAble Close; I have never seen this particular car do this manoeuvre before.There has never been an accident at this spot in the 10 years I have lived here._________________________________________________________________________________________7 The witness is the founder and chair-person of HiCCuP, the Hillside Campaign for Cycle-free Pavements, and con-siders Hillary Green to be a continual nuisance to pedestrians.8 If asked, the witness heard no squeal of tyres.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 24Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomThe Case: R v Jackie JonesExample Judge’s Summing UpMembers of the Jury, my job is to explain the law to you and to sum up the evidence you have heard. It is yourjob to weigh up all the evidence you have heard and decide whether you believe the defendant Jackie Jones isguilty or not guilty. You should try and reach a decision that you all agree on. If this is not possible in the timeavailable I will accept a majority decision. If you are evenly divided you must find the defendant not guilty.You must remember that it is the job of the prosecution to prove, so that you are really sure, that Jackie Jones isguilty. It is not for Jackie Jones to prove that s/he is not guilty. Jackie Jones is accused of dangerous driving whichcaused an accident that injured Hillary Green.You have heard that Hillary Green was cycling across Hillside Road trying to reach the central reservation. HillaryGreen said s/he looked both ways before crossing. S/he did not see anything. Half way across a car coming fromthe left on the wrong side of the road hit him/her and s/he suffered two broken legs. Hillary Green’s teacher,Lesley Wogan told you the s/he saw Hillary Green crossing the road. S/he says s/he saw Hillary look both waysbefore crossing. Pat Proud said s/he saw Hillary only look one way. You must decide whose evidence you believe.Lesley Wogan also told you that s/he saw a white Mazda pull out of a line of traffic and drive up on the wrong sideof the road. S/he saw the Mazda hit Hillary Green. S/he says spoke to the driver who said s/he was sorry andadmitted that it was his/her fault.Jackie Jones told you that s/he was used to driving this route and was aware that s/he had to drive carefully whenpreparing to turn right into Able Close. S/he admitted to you that s/he drove on the wrong side of the road buttold you that s/he was very conscious of looking out for pedestrians crossing. S/he told you that on 27th Junes/he was driving a new car. When s/he was nearly at her turning a cyclist rode off the pavement and into her path.S/he did not remember saying that s/he admitted that it was his/her fault.Pat Proud told you that s/he saw Hillary Green riding on the pavement and turn into the road to cross it but onlylooked right. S/he told you s/he had warned Hillary about this in the past. Pat Proud also told you that the Mazdawas driving on the wrong side of the road but that it was being driven fairly slowly and carefully and had signalledits intention to turn.You must consider whether, on the evidence you have heard, Hillary Green looked both ways before crossing theroad or not. You must also decide whether Jackie Jones who, as s/he admitted, was driving on the wrong side ofthe road, was driving below the standard of a competent and careful driver and that it must have been obvious tohim/her that driving in that way would be dangerous.If you believe Hillary acted entirely safely and responsibly you should find the defendant guilty. If you think Hillarycould have been more careful you must decide whether Jackie Jones was driving safely. In this case, if you believethe accident still would have happened even if Hillary had been careful because Jackie was not driving safely, youmust find him/her guilty. If you think Jackie was driving carefully, and the accident only happened because HillaryGreen did not look both ways before crossing the road, you must find him/her not guilty.I would now ask you to retire and consider your verdict.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 25Charity Reg No. 801360
    • Running a Mock Trial in the ClassroomAdaptations & Optional ExtrasAdaptations If you have students with literacy difficulties, you could reduce the statements to 4-5 key bullet points You could fully script the mock trial, and turn it into a drama activity Instead of running a full trial, students could complete a ‘We the Jury’ activity, where they are given scenarios and asked to decide if they would find the defendant ‘guilty’ or ‘not guilty’. You can find example cases in most GCSE and A Level Law text booksOptional Extras As a follow up activity, students could decide on a sentence for Jackie Jones if s/he was found guilty. You can find sentencing guidelines at http://sentencingcouncil.judiciary.gov.uk/index.htm Students could be asked to write a court report about their mock trial, or an evaluation of how it wentLiked this? You might also like...The Citizenship Foundation offers a range of other resources and projects that support legal education which areoutlined below. Please visit www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk for more information about them.Magistrates’ Court Mock Trial CompetitionIn this national competition, schools compete in live mock trials at real magistrates’ courts. For students aged 12-14in non-fee-paying schools in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Bar National Mock Trial CompetitionSchools compete in live mock trials at real crown courts across the UK in this national competition. For studentsaged 15-18 in non-fee-paying schools.Young Citizen’s PassportThis book explains, as simply as possible, those parts of the law that have most relevance to the everyday life ofyoung people in England and Wales.Running your own crown court mock trial competitionThis pack contains everything you need to set up your own crown court mock trial competition within your schoolor against other schools in your local area. The materials in this pack are based on our highly successful BarNational Mock Trial CompetitionRunning your own magistrates’ court mock trial competitionThis pack contains everything you need to set up your own magistrates’ court mock trial competition within yourschool or against other schools in your local area. The materials in this pack are based on our highly successfulMagistrates’ Court Mock Trial CompetitionTrouble for DannyDesigned to support the teaching about the law to pupils with special educational needs. It can be used in bothspecial and mainstream schools, and is aimed at students with moderate learning difficulties, especially problemswith literacy.Your Rights and ResponsibilitiesA two-part series looking at young peoples rights & responsibilities and the role of law in society.© Citizenship Foundation 2011 26Charity Reg No. 801360