1. Energy, Utilities & Chemicals the way we see itThe Smart Grid–Where to StartThe Five Foundational Elements of the Smart Gridin collaboration with Insert partner logo
2. Introduction Deploying a Smart Grid is not a To help your company overcome project. It’s not even a program. these potential roadblocks, Capgemini Though it might be launched as such, will describe the five critical “behind it quickly evolves into something far the scenes” issues that utilities will greater. It is, in fact, a transformation. inevitably face in deploying a Smart Grid: GIS Data and Processes, As utility companies across the Existing WAN/LAN Networks, world are increasingly discovering, Energy Delivery Network Topology, the deployment of a Smart Grid Integration Architecture, and fundamentally changes the way they Legacy IT Systems. Based on our generate data, present information, experience in collaborating with make decisions, execute work and leading utilities on successful Smart relate with their customers. For this Grid deployments around the world, reason, it is important to ensure that the this document provides our insights foundation of your Smart Grid is solid. and recommendations for building a strong Smart Grid foundation. Many, if not all, of the foundational elements are already in place at most utilities. However, getting them to meet the new requirements that Smart Grid creates will present significant challenges to those responsible for deploying and operating them.2
3. Energy, Utilities & Chemicals the way we see itElement 1: GIS Data and ProcessesWhy is the GIS so Important to Landbase Accuracythe Smart Grid? When passed to the OMS or a MobileRemember that new Geographic Workforce Management SystemInformation System (GIS) you put (MWM), the GIS landbase needs tointo place a decade ago? You should be accurate and consistent. This isconsider your company lucky if the typically a challenge for companiesGIS was deployed with the needs of involved in a recent merger orpassing a robust data set to an Outage acquisition, requiring them to integrateManagement System (OMS) in mind. GIS data from multiple legacy GISEven luckier, that GIS data has been systems with varying coordinaterigorously maintained and updated systems and then coordinateover the years. And luckiest of all, projections. Operationally, vehiclethat GIS adheres to an industry routing decisions are based on thisintegration standard. information. From a planning and engineering standpoint, land useWith the Smart Grid’s promises and the placement of devices, lot linesof a more reliable, robust electric and other facilities rely on an accuratedelivery system comes the virtual GIS landbase.representation of that system usedto make operational decisions. The Spatial Positioning Accuracysource of the base data for this virtual Wasted time and frustration of fieldrepresentation is the GIS. If the GIS personnel can be avoided if thedata is not accurate and timely, or device they are sent to repair is (orif the information cannot be easily in some cases was) physically at thetransferred to the other systems that coordinates the virtual system tellsrequire it, the decisions made based on them – or at least within sight of thethe virtual representation are flawed location. This is a significant issuefrom the start. That’s why it with rear-lot construction and duringis essential that the GIS has the major restoration events.following characteristics: Ability to Provide As-DesignedPhasing Accuracy Energy Delivery Network ModelThe phases represented in the GIS The GIS must be able to efficiently anddata need to correspond accurately effectively export the required data towith the phases in the actual delivery the systems that need it, preferably in anetwork. This is vital for any decisions format that is easily imported by thosepertaining to single phase loads. receiving systems. This is as much a procedural challenge as a technicalConnectivity Accuracy one, requiring a quality assurance andThe line segment connectivity needs quality control process to ensure theto be contiguous and consistent. The exported GIS data will render withoutconnectivity hierarchy of premise, excessive exceptions into the newmeter, transformer, primary phase(s) as-operated network model.needs to be accurate for proper OMSoperation and reporting, demand-sidemanagement, and any near-real-timecircuit analysis, just to name a few.The Smart Grid–Where to Start 3
4. Element 2: Existing WAN/LAN NetworksExisting WAN/LAN Networks Quality of Service (QoS) on the adequate between these critical pointsIt is critical—at the early design existing WAN, your Smart Grid of the WAN.stages of the Smart Grid—to perform budget just got bigger.a thorough analysis of your existing Time Synchronization andWAN/LAN infrastructure configuration Robustness Propagationin relation to the physical locations of Simply put, a robust network is Time and the synchronization ofthe Smart Grid systems hardware and difficult to break. This is the result it across the Smart Grid and thebackhaul connectivity locations. It may of many factors including hardware, connected systems, applications andbe necessary to rebuild or replace a software, infrastructure management, devices areportion of this infrastructure, which is transport medium, and the physical critical. This synchronization takesneither quick nor inexpensive. Some of path that medium takes. Redundancy place via the data network. Yourthe key areas to analyze are as follows. and geographic separation are both WAN/LAN/ Field network must key. The use of SONET or other support the propagation of a commonSecurity fast-failover fiber technologies is time reference, typically from a GPSData network security for the Smart typical. You cannot hang any part synchronized source, down to theGrid is paramount. In the early of the Smart Grid core on a long millisecond for some field devices suchdesign stages of the Smart Grid the radial branch and if you don’t use as fault indicators. Do not be surprisedissue is not necessarily what security High Availability/Disaster Recovery if your legacy systems (mainframe)capability is needed, but what architecture for Smart Grid systems cannot make use of this signal.capability can be supported by the and applications, you are placing your And Daylight Savings Time (DST)existing network infrastructure that operation at significant risk. will become a thorn in your side.needs to be known. Once it is known, Operating all Smart Grid systems anda valid gap can be determined and Resiliency applications on Coordinated Universalthe economic impact of closing that Even the most robust network can Time (UTC) is the easiest method togap calculated. Having half of the fail, and every second of recovery time avoid DST issues.equation accurately determined and exacts a heavy toll on productivity.documented can save time and money That’s why it is critical to ensure thethrough the reconfiguration of existing resiliency of your network by selectinginfrastructure. The capability of your and configuring technologies andexisting network to support Virtual hardware from the back-officeLANs (VLANs) is a critical component systems, through the WAN core to theto implementing a secure Smart Grid. end-point devices in the field (meters, capacitor controls, etc.). It does youBandwidth little good to have a field RF MeshDo you know how much bandwidth network that can rebuild itself aroundremains on your existing network? A a failure in seconds or minutes if theSmart Grid implementation will WAN takes eight hours to rebuild,regularly require massive, multiple- or visa versa. Resiliency is a holisticterabyte data transfers between strategic measure and needs to be determinedpoints of the WAN. If you don’t want and designed that way.these transfers to slow the performanceof your network to a crawl, you Required Connectivityneed to consider a few things: How Do you need to replace the entiremuch bandwidth do you really have WAN to deploy a Smart Grid? Theavailable for the data packet types classic answer is: maybe. If your WANyou will be moving around and can is configured in a ring topography,your existing network manage or and your Smart Grid systems andprioritize the movement of those data feed-in/out points are distributedpackets? If you have only a few Mbps around that ring, you need to ensureremaining and cannot implement the robustness and resiliency are4
5. Energy, Utilities & Chemicals the way we see itElement 3: Energy DeliveryNetwork TopologyBecause the Energy Delivery Network cannot restore power to customers Construction Standards(EDN) is at the core of utility beyond the cause of the outage via an The Smart Grid brings with it newdistribution operations, it is the most alternate path. field hardware from RF Meshpervasive – and the most exposed repeaters to three-phase, peer-to-– system that utilities own. The Substation Capacity peer communicating, automatic loadability to effectively reconfigure the Having a grid topology does you little break switches. How are these devicesEDN to reduce the time customers good if the substation transformers installed in the field? Where do theexperience power outages depends on are at maximum capacity. Adding communications devices attach tothe topology of that network. How additional customers to a feeder the pole? How are they grounded?close is your grid to an actual grid powered by a transformer already Are the bypasses fused or solid? Theof intersecting or crossing circuits operating at or over-capacity puts the list goes on and on – and needs toof diverse sources? If you are in the highest cost device (the substation be completed to provide adequateU.S. and not in an urban center, the transformer) at greater risk of construction standards for designersodds are pretty slim the EDN around degradation and failure. Do you and construction crews.you is anywhere close to a grid in its know the real-time loading of yourtopology. Much of the EDN in the substation transformers? Including the LogisticsU.S. has a radial star topology and VAR loading? Could the addition of The addition of communicationscircuits from different substation utility owned storage or distributed configuration and controlsources rarely cross paths. To realize a generation provide the needed programming, both specific to devices’major consumer benefit of the Smart capacity without changing the physical and electrical locations,Grid, fewer or shorter outages, this transformer? These factors need to be adds new installation steps to theneeds to change. carefully understood before feeders deployment of previously “dumb” and substations begin relying on each devices. Who will perform these newDesign Practices other to mitigate outages and to tasks? When will they be done? HowDo you design your circuits to achieve provide load relief. will the configuration informationa predetermined Customer Average be recorded, documented, andInterruption Duration Index (CAIDI)? Circuit Capacity maintained? To ensure the rightDo you consider the proliferation of The move to a true grid topology device is readily available wheneverresidential distributed energy resources EDN requires the removal of circuit and wherever it’s needed in the(DERs) such as photovoltaic (PV) or capacity and voltage level constraints network, you must closely coordinateplug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to normalize power flow paths and purchasing management, materialsin your designs? Do you consider provide the required operational management and device preparation.nearly 100-percent reverse power flow flexibility. Standardizing on as fewa normal occurrence on distribution voltages and conductor sizes ascircuits? Do you require feeders to possible is necessary to achieve this.tie with other feeders from differentsubstations? These are only a few of the Physical Field Asset Capacitydesign challenges your engineers need Poles, cross arms, brackets, insulators,to overcome to deploy and extend the and down guys all have physicalSmart Grid EDN. constraints. Do not underestimate the impact that the new Smart GridAlternate Paths EDN will have on these. New, largerReducing CAIDI boils down to conductor sizes may require thetwo critical variables: the number wholesale replacement of cross arms,of customers out of service and the insulators, brackets, and down guysminutes they are out. The reduction – possibly even poles – due to theof either relies on the isolation of the additional weight of the conductor. Andfewest customers and the restoration if you need to increase voltage levels,of power to the remainder. Without the same may be required to ensurea diverse source grid topology, you adequate conductor height and spacing.The Smart Grid–Where to Start 5
6. Element 4: Integration ArchitectureIf your integration architecture is built Security ESB. However, an ESB makes a SOAupon point-to-point interfaces, the Security must be intrinsic to your more robust and flexible. Think plugdeployment of your Smart Grid and integration architecture, as well as and play at the system level.the systems that operate it will, at the your network infrastructure andvery least, be an interesting endeavor. applications. Integration security deals Common Information ModelThis is not to say point-to-point with the separation and isolation of (CIM)interfaces are not needed. In certain data elements in systems, data tables, IEC 61868 and IEC 61870—collectivelycircumstances, they are preferred. message schemas, and ESB transport referred to as “the CIM,” enableHowever, the broad spectrum of layers. It also encompasses the control interoperability between systems atdata to be collected, transformed, and of the meta-data repository associated the data level. So what does that domanaged, and the value of sharing this with the Common Information Model for you? It minimizes the need fornew information across the enterprise, (CIM) and access to that control. The data transformation between systems—makes the use of point-to point- ability to trace and log individual i.e. the minimum data definition andintegration well, nearly pointless. data elements as they traverse the attributes are the same in all CIM integration layers of your Smart Grid can compliant systems for the same data provide invaluable information in the element called “CUSTOMER.” When unfortunate event of a security incident. combined with an ESB, it becomes the standard data set for your enterprise. Service Oriented Architecture Powerful. You need this to realize (SOA) the full benefits of your Smart Grid The best mature solution to implementation. supplant point-to-point integration methodologies, especially with the Business Process Monitoring number of systems in a Smart Grid or Management (BPM) solution, is a Service Oriented How well do you know your existing Architecture (SOA). This allows processes? Are they adequately systems to provide data to other documented? Better yet, do you systems that need it essentially know how your business processes “on-demand,” enabling a one-to-many will change during and after the integration with a high level implementation of a Smart Grid? of standardization. The Smart Grid will transform how employees interact with each other, Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) customers, information and the The large number of systems, new Energy Delivery Network (EDN) and legacy, involved in deploying a itself. All of this interaction enables Smart Grid solution makes the most better decisions and more effective efficient method for integration the actions. And the ESB mentioned earlier implementation of a services-based can make use of these processes to message bus. Commonly called an get the right information to the right Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) or just personnel and systems at the right “The Bus,” it provides flow-related time. The ESB can also provide the concepts such as transformation data to monitor business processes and and routing to a SOA... An ESB also throughput to immediately identify provides an abstraction for endpoints. process constraints and failures. This promotes flexibility in the transport layer and enables loose coupling and easy connection between services. So what does all of that mean? The systems of a Smart Grid can be integrated via SOA without an6
7. Energy, Utilities & Chemicals the way we see itElement 5: Legacy IT SystemsFew Smart Grid deployments replace spectrum may require significant workall involved information systems in to mitigate constraints that will bea wholesale manner. So, the odds around for many years to come.are there will be at least one legacyIT system integrated into your Smart Ability To IntegrateGrid solution. The prime suspect is Legacy systems typically rely on olderthe Customer Information System integration methods (or none at all)(CIS). These legacy systems typically to share data and may not be capablehave significant constraints around the of providing data in modern formatsfollowing issues. such as XML. This does not inhibit integration; it only reduces flexibility,Security and increases complexity and cost. YouHow secure are your legacy IT need to understand the constraints ofsystems? How many personnel have each legacy system in your Smart Gridthe knowledge of the systems to detect solution and design accordingly.malicious code? How strict are thelevels of user access, audit logging, and Data Structuredata validation/ integrity checking? Constraints in field formats, fieldHow are legacy systems exposed to lengths, table structures, null values,the newer integration technologies? Be leading zeros, etc. are importantaware, as legacy systems are integrated details that can make legacy systeminto the near-real time Smart Grid integration a challenge. Newerworld, their security constraints need integration layer technology makesto be addressed. accommodating the constraints of the legacy system possible, but no lessPlace in Lifecycle tedious. As always, the devil is in theUnderstand where the legacy systems details. And typically, changing theseinvolved in your Smart Grid solution constraints in the legacy system is notare in their useful lifecycle. It may be an economic option.worth the wait for an older systemto be replaced before spending thetime and money to integrate it. Also,systems at the newer end of the legacy Why is Capgemini’s Smart Energy Services Unique? Capgemini’s Smart Energy Services are real, in the market now, and already making a difference for utilities around the world. Our expertise and resources are unmatched in the industry. In fact, only Smart Energy Services: n Has extensive utilities industry experience with an unequaled track record for successful innovation and delivery n Leads the industry in the delivery of smart energy solutions in mass deployment and production n Offers a unique, turn-key solution called Managed Business Services, which has a usage-based pricing model For more information about Smart Energy Services, please visit 015_EUC_SGWSBRO_42310 www.capgemini.com/smartenergyThe Smart Grid–Where to Start 7
8. www.capgemini.com/smartenergy About Capgemini and the Collaborative Business Experience ® Capgemini, one of the global revenues of EUR 8.4 billion and world’s foremost providers employs 90,000 people worldwide. of consulting, technology and outsourcing services, enables its clients to transform With 1.13 billion euros revenue in 2009 and perform through technologies. and 12,000 dedicated consultants engaged Capgemini provides its clients with in Energy, Utilities and Chemicals projects insights and capabilities that boost their across Europe, North America and Asia freedom to achieve superior results Pacific, Capgemini’s Energy, Utilities & through a unique way of working, the Chemicals Global Sector serves the Collaborative Business ExperienceTM. The business consulting and information Group relies on its global delivery model technology needs of many of the world’s called Rightshore®, which aims to get the largest players of this industry. right balance of the best talent from multiple locations, working as one team More information about our services, to create and deliver the optimum offices and research is available at solution for clients. Present in more than www.capgemini.com/smartenergy 30 countries, Capgemini reported 2009Gord ReynoldsPractice LeaderSmart Energy Servicesgord.firstname.lastname@example.org+1 416.732.2200Copyright © 2010 Capgemini. All rights reserved.