Energy, Utilities and Chemicals         the way we see itConducting a GIS DataRefresh—The Foundationof Your Smart Grid Pro...
of the electric network data contained in   tracing it to the end of each branch.           are visible, reasonably easy t...
Energy, Utilities and Chemicals       the way we see itelectrical construction, the number of         change, which is dep... you to construct a forecast           Summary                                           ...
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Smart Grid Operational Services GIS POV


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Smart Grid Operational Services GIS POV

  1. 1. Energy, Utilities and Chemicals the way we see itConducting a GIS DataRefresh—The Foundationof Your Smart Grid ProgramGIS refresh strategies, processes and considerationsIntroduction management, engineering design andAfter worldwide spending on Smart construction and to support advancedGrid initiatives in 2008 exceeded applications such as outage management,$12 billion—a total expected to GIS has been around most electricsurpass $33 billion within the next utilities for many years.five years—utilities are intenselyfocused on maximizing their Smart As they begin to implement Smart GridGrid investments. To that end, initiatives, utilities are increasinglycompanies are reviewing the state of realizing that the accuracy of the datatheir existing infrastructure systems. stored in their GIS is essential to theirTo successfully meet the future business projects’ success. As a result, companiesexpectations of Smart Grid, the are concentrating on two GIS issues thatavailability of complete and accurate significantly impact Smart Gridgrid data is essential. Therefore, the implementations: how the initial GISGeographic Information System (GIS) was implemented (how data wasis a critical component. modeled) and the qualityInstalled for a number of reasonsincluding paper mappingdisplacement, asset
  2. 2. of the electric network data contained in tracing it to the end of each branch. are visible, reasonably easy to access andthe GIS. Utilities that implemented GIS During the walk-down, the operator fairly easy to understand. Operators needas an asset model frequently discover validates all current GIS data and only to start at the substation then followthat the electric network data may not be collects any missing data. In addition the wires, noting any electrical device orelectrically connected creating complete to correcting the current GIS data change. They do not need special skills elements, if Smart Grid initiatives or experience that cannot be providedelectric feeders as required by Smart require data that is not currently through simple training. They can beGrid. The other issue of data quality is maintained in the GIS, the operator outside contractors or unassignedobvious -- with incorrect network feeder must update the GIS data model and internal staff. Crew size can be one-mandata, the Smart Grid is unable to collect the additional data during the or two-person depending on local utilitycorrectly analyze and operate the walk-down. This is usually done by requirements and desires. If the feederelectric network. printing paper feeder maps from the can be driven, sometimes the increased GIS and marking up the maps with cost of two-man crews can be offset bySolving both of these issues requires discrepancies as the operator walks the increased productivity. An allocationrefreshing and correcting both the the feeder. should be provided to cover overheadmodel and the data contained in the and transportation costs.GIS. However, as companies quickly The data to be captured or updatedlearn, conducting a GIS data refresh is depends upon the utility’s data Factors that affect productivitymore complex than performing an requirements. However, it typically include the type of electrical construction, the number of feeders per right-of-way, feeder accessibility (backyard, alley, etc.), number of devices per feeder, number of customers per feeder, the amount of new data to be collected and most importantly, the number of GIS data errors detected that must be documented. An overhead walk-down usually has minimum safety concerns since the walk-down staff is not required to make contact with electrical equipment. Underground A walk-down of underground construction is much more complex and expensive. Unlike overhead,initial GIS data loading. For most includes electrical connectivity, circuit underground construction requiresutilities, the initial data loading was phasing, electrical asset information, sizes, inspection teams to open enclosures,easier to estimate because all data had ratings, and conductor configurations. man-holes and vaults. This increasesto be validated and input into the the complexity, safety concerns andsystem. With a GIS data refresh, all the Two major factors impact walk-down crew skill requirements. These issuesdata must be reviewed and validated costs: the labor rates of the walk-down usually result in the need for(typically called a “walk-down”) but field operators and their productivity. supplementary crews and equipmentonly new data and errors must be While the labor rates can usually be support to meet safely requirements.updated ("data posting"). Because many easily determined, field crew productivity The result is increased costs andfactors can affect the costs of a refresh can be impacted by a number of factors reduced productivity. An allocationeffort, the purpose of this paper is to which vary between overhead and should be provided to cover overheadreview and discuss GIS refresh underground construction. We will look and transportation costs.strategies, processes and considerations. at each type of walk-down separately because they vary significantly. Factors that affect productivity areFeeder Walk-Down basically the same as for overhead withThe feeder walk-down is the process of Overhead the added complexity of exposing thean operator physically walking each The easiest and least costly walk-down is underground network for inspection.feeder starting at the substation and of overhead construction. These feeders Again, these factors include the type of 2
  3. 3. Energy, Utilities and Chemicals the way we see itelectrical construction, the number of change, which is dependent upon the ■ Neighborhood characteristicsfeeders per right-of-way, feeder GIS system tools available and the - Urban or ruralaccessibility (vault, man-hole, etc.), business process of the utility, you can - Front lot or back lot constructionnumber of devices per feeder, number of determine the cost per update and per (can you drive or must you walk?)customers per feeder, the amount of new feeder. You must also provide for thedata to be collected and most importantly, QA/QC processes, which will add - Ease of access to facilitiesthe number of GIS data errors detected additional time and costs per feeder. (high, medium or low)that must be documented. - Tree coverage First Steps – Forecasting Model After an initial analysis of the feeder dataData Posting The first steps in any GIS refresh are to and characteristics has been performed,Following the walk-down and the estimate the cost of the data refresh, a sample set of representative feedersdocumentation of the GIS data to be forecast the expected benefits and should be selected for a pilot walk-down.updated, the next major step in a GIS develop the business case. To estimate The goals of the pilot are to capturerefresh is the posting of the documented the effort and cost of a GIS refresh, it is metrics data on crew performance andupdate data to the GIS. This process is necessary to build a cost forecast model. the time required to walk-down thetime-consuming but relatively This is accomplished by first performing feeder, as well as to capture a samplestraightforward. Many companies an analysis of the GIS data for the feeders of update metrics.outsource the data-posting process, to be refreshed. Any new datausually to an off-shore firm to benefitfrom the reduced labor costs.The first step is to transfer the dataupdates to the off-shore vendor. If thedata updates were captured on papermaps, there are two options totransferring the data: the maps can becopied and mailed or they can bescanned and electronically transferred.The data-posting vendor’s job and costis determined by three factors: thenumber of updates to be posted, theproductivity of the GIS software toolsand the business processes imposed bythe utility. It is assumed that the vendor’sstaff is skilled and trained on theappropriate GIS system. requirements must be accounted for and Walk-down Forecast included in the GIS model. Following the pilot walk-down, theThe vendor normally uses the following team should conduct a statisticalfactors to estimate the total cost for The initial analysis should capture as correlation analysis to determinedata posting: the number of feeders, much data as possible about the which feeder characteristic variablesthe number of conductor segments feeders including: are significant and contribute most to(not conductor miles), the number of ■ Facility counts (all major facility types) estimating the cost and effort requiredpieces of electrical equipment, the to walk-down all the feeders selected ■ Distance measurementsnumber of customers per feeder, the for refresh. A separate analysis will (miles of conductor)number of breaks or jumpers, and the need to be conducted for overhead ■ Conductor segment countsestimate of the percentage of errors that and underground feeders since thewill require posting. ■ Construction characteristics characteristics and crew requirements - Overhead vs. underground are so different. The correlation analysisBy totaling the number of facilities on a can be conducted using one of many - Three-phase or single phasefeeder and assuming that 30 percent of different tools available on the marketfeeder data requires updating, you can - Multi-circuit right of way sharing including Microsoft Excel. The resultscalculate the number of updates. If you - Vertical vs. horizontal on overhead of the statistical correlation analysis willassume three to five minutes perConducting a GIS Data Refresh—The Foundation of Your Smart Grid Program 3
  4. 4. you to construct a forecast Summary Remember, one reason for the GISmodel using the significant feeder For most utilities, the key source of both data refresh is poor data quality.characteristics to forecast the time and grid asset and feeder connectivity is their Assuming you invested in good datacost to walk-down all the feeders with GIS. Analysis of systems across North when the GIS system was initiallysimilar characteristics. Since the pilot America and throughout the world has installed and the data quality has beensample size is limited, the forecast shown that while most utilities have deteriorating, you will need to protectmodel can be improved as more feeder invested significant effort and cost in your refresh investment withmetrics are captured. creating their GIS, their data quality has improved business processes. The been in steady decline due to lack of bottom line? The walk-down is onlyPosting Forecast business emphasis and ineffective as good as the business processes thatThe approach for developing a supporting business processes. In keep the data maintained.forecasting model for data posting is addition to data deterioration, the Smartsimilar to the walk-down model but the Grid may require additional data notvariables are different. The two factors currently modeled in the GIS. This newthat most impact the posting are the data capture could be significant if thenumber of data updates required and the current GIS data model is inadequate.productivity of the operator doing theposting. The number of updates required In fact, depending upon the state of datadepends on the number of errors in the corruption and the number of new dataexisting GIS feeder data and the amount elements, the GIS data refresh projectof new data that must be posted. The can be a significant undertaking. That’spilot walk-down should give you some why the utility should assemble anidea of the error rates as a percentage of experienced project team, withfacilities on a feeder. The amount of new experience in GIS and GIS data can be determined from the datarequirements and from the pilot walk-down metrics. This data then can bestatistically analyzed to develop aforecasting model. The operatorproductivity is based on several factors.The most significant are the GIS system About Capgemini and thebeing used and the software tools Collaborative Business Experience ® ®provided with the system. In addition,the business process imposed by the Capgemini, one of the aims to get the right balance of the bestutility can have significant impact. The worlds foremost providers talent from multiple locations, working asbusiness process can range from simple of consulting, technology and outsourcing one team to create and deliver theediting (fastest) to a complex asset- services, enables its clients to transform optimum solution for clients. Present inmanagement work order process (much and perform through technologies. more than 30 countries, Capgemini Capgemini provides its clients with insights reported 2008 global revenues ofslower). And finally, the individual skill and capabilities that boost their freedom to approximately $12.74 billion and employsand talent of the operator comes into achieve superior results through a unique over 90,000 people as well. However, with this factor way of working, the Collaborative Businessthe operator tends to increase in skill as Experience. The Group relies on its global More information is available atthe job progresses. As always, the delivery model called Rightshore®, which process must be addedinto the overall posting process.The pilot sample will allow you or thevendor to capture metrics on posting EUC_SGGISDTPOV_051209_025productivity and cost. This data can then Gord Reynoldsbe used to develop a forecasting model. Practice LeaderIf the utility used an off-shore data Smart Energy Servicesconversion vendor, the vendor will have gord.reynolds@capgemini.coma great deal of experience in forecasting +1 416.732.2200the effort and cost. Copyright © 2009 Capgemini. All rights reserved.