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  • 1. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Meg Flemming Austin Community College C H A P T E R The Skeletal System 6
  • 2. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Learning Outcomes • 6-1 • Describe the primary functions of the skeletal system. • 6-2 • Classify bones according to shape, and compare the structures and functions of compact and spongy bone. • 6-3 • Compare the mechanisms of intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. • 6-4 • Describe the remodeling and homeostatic mechanisms of the skeletal system. • 6-5 • Summarize the effects of the aging process on the skeletal system.
  • 3. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Learning Outcomes • 6-6 • Name the components and functions of the axial and appendicular skeletons. • 6-7 • Identify the bones of the skull, discuss the differences in structure and function of the various vertebrae, and describe the roles of the thoracic cage. • 6-8 • Identify the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the upper and lower limbs, and describe their various functions. • 6-9 • Contrast the major categories of joints, and link their structural features to joint functions.
  • 4. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Learning Outcomes • 6-10 • Describe how the structural and functional properties of synovial joints permit the dynamic movements of the skeleton. • 6-11 • Explain the relationship between joint structure and mobility of representative axial and appendicular articulations. • 6-12 • Explain the functional relationships between the skeletal system and other body systems.
  • 5. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Functions of the Skeletal System (6-1) 1. Support • Provided for the entire body by the entire skeletal system • Bones provide attachments for soft tissues and organs 2. Storage • Provided by the bones for calcium salts for body fluids • Lipids are stored in yellow marrow for energy reserves
  • 6. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Functions of the Skeletal System (6-1) 3. Blood cell production • Occurs in the red marrow and results in increases in red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets 4. Protection • Provided to soft tissues and organs by surrounding them with the skeleton • Examples: • The skull enclosing the brain • The ribs protecting the heart and lungs
  • 7. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Functions of the Skeletal System (6-1) 5. Movement • In part a function of the skeletal system because the bones function as levers • When the skeletal muscles pull on the bones, movement occurs
  • 8. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-1) 1. Name the five primary functions of the skeletal system.
  • 9. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Tissue Characteristics (6-2) • Bones or osseous tissue • Are a supporting connective tissue; cells are called osteocytes • Matrix made of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance • Calcium phosphate • Ca3(PO4)2 • A salt deposited into the matrix • Giving 2/3 of the weight of the 206 bones in the body
  • 10. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Four General Shapes of Bones (6-2) 1. Long bones • Longer than they are wide • For example, the humerus 2. Short bones • About as wide as they are long • For example, the carpal bones 3. Flat bones • Are broad • Like the scapula 4. Irregular bones • Complex in shape • Like a vertebra
  • 11. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-1 Shapes of Bones. Long Bones Short Bones Humerus Carpal bones Flat Bones Parietal bone Irregular Bones Vertebra
  • 12. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Long Bone (6-2) • The diaphysis, or central shaft • Has a marrow cavity in the center filled with bone marrow • The epiphyses are the wider portions at each end • Covered with articular cartilage
  • 13. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Long Bone (6-2) • Compact bone • Is densely packed; forms the diaphysis • Spongy bone, also called cancellous bone • Has projections of bone separated by space • Periosteum • Is the outer covering of bone • Endosteum • Lines the marrow cavity and spongy bone
  • 14. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-2 The Structure of a Long Bone. Articular cartilage Spongy bone Blood vessels Epiphyseal line Marrow cavity Endosteum Compact bone Periosteum Proximal epiphysis Diaphysis Distal epiphysis
  • 15. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Histology of Bone (6-2) • Periosteum has two layers • A fibrous outer layer and a cellular inner layer • Bone cells are called osteocytes • Located in pockets called lacunae • Found between sheets of matrix called lamellae • Canaliculi are small channels • That run through the matrix • And connect the lacunae and blood vessels
  • 16. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Histology of Compact Bone (6-2) • Has a repeating functional unit called the osteon, or Haversian system • Osteon is made of concentric circles of lamella • Surrounding a central canal that has blood vessels in it • Perforating canals allow for blood vessels in the central canals: • To be linked to other vessels
  • 17. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Characteristics of Compact Bone (6-2) • Covers all bone surfaces except for the articular surfaces • Can tolerate a lot of stress applied to either end of a long bone • Cannot tolerate moderate stress applied to the side of the shaft
  • 18. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Histology of Spongy Bone (6-2) • Has no osteons • The lamellae form rods called trabeculae • Found in the epiphyses • Where the stress is handled by the joints • Much lighter than compact bone • Reducing the work of muscles to move bones
  • 19. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-3 The Microscopic Structure of a Typical Bone. Cellular layer of periosteum Fibrous layer of periosteum Spongy bone Marrow cavity Compact bone Small vein Capillary Lamellae Lamellae Canaliculi Osteons Endosteum Central canal Osteon Lacunae Osteon LM x 343 In this thin section through compact bone, the intact matrix making up the lamellae appears white, and the central canal, luacunae, and canaliculi appear black due to the presence of bone dust. Trabeculae of spongy bone Perforating canal Central canal Vein Artery This diagrammatic view depicts the parallel osteons of compact bone and the trabecular network of spongy bone.
  • 20. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-3a The Microscopic Structure of a Typical Bone. Cellular layer of periosteum Fibrous layer of periosteum Spongy bone Marrow cavity Compact bone Small vein Capillary Lamellae Osteons Endosteum Trabeculae of spongy bone Perforating canal Central canal Vein Artery This diagrammatic view depicts the parallel osteons of compact bone and the trabecular network of spongy bone.
  • 21. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-3b The Microscopic Structure of a Typical Bone. Lamellae Canaliculi Central canal Osteon Lacunae Osteon LM x 343 In this thin section through compact bone, the intact matrix making up the lamellae appears white, and the central canal, luacunae, and canaliculi appear black due to the presence of bone dust.
  • 22. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Bone Cells (6-2) • Osteocytes • Mature cells that maintain bone structure by recycling calcium salts • Osteoclasts • Large cells that secrete acid and enzymes that break down the matrix • Releasing minerals through osteolysis • Osteoblasts • Produce new bone through a process called ossification
  • 23. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-2) 2. Identify the four general shapes of bones. 3. How would the strength of a bone be affected if the ratio of collagen to calcium increased? 4. A sample of a long bone shows concentric layers surrounding a central canal. Is it from the shaft or the end of the bone? 5. Mature bone cells are known as ________, bone-building cells are called ________, and ________ are bone- resorbing cells. 6. If the activity of osteoclasts exceeds that of osteoblasts in a bone, how will the mass of the bone be affected?
  • 24. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Formation (6-3) • Embryonic development of bone • Begins at week 6 as a cartilaginous formation • Replaced with bone, a process called ossification • Two types 1. Intramembranous ossification 2. Endochondral ossification • Calcification occurs during ossification • Can also occur in other tissues besides bone
  • 25. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intramembranous Ossification (6-3) • Occurs during fetal development • Developing sheets of connective tissue • Osteoblasts differentiate and develop calcified matrix • Ossification begins around an ossification center • New bone branches outward, develops blood supply • Spongy bone structures remodel into compact flat bones • Such as the skull bones
  • 26. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-4 Bone Formation in a 16-Week-Old Fetus. Endochondral bones Intramembranous bones
  • 27. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Steps of Endochondral Ossification (6-3) • Embryonic cartilaginous skeletal structures are replaced by true bone in a series of five steps 1. Chondrocytes enlarge and matrix begins to calcify • Closing off the chondrocytes from nutrients • Causing them to die 2. Bone formation starts at the shaft surface • Blood vessels invade the perichondrium • New osteoblasts produce bone matrix
  • 28. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Steps of Endochondral Ossification (6-3) 3. Blood vessels invade inner region of cartilage • New osteoblasts form spongy bone at primary ossification center • Bone develops toward each end • Filling shaft with spongy bone 4. Osteoclasts begin to break down spongy bone in center • To form marrow cavity • Epiphyseal cartilages, or plates, on the ends of the bone continue to enlarge
  • 29. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Steps of Endochondral Ossification (6-3) 5. Centers of the epiphyses begin to calcify • Secondary ossification centers form • Epiphyses fill with spongy bone • Bone grows in length from the epiphyseal cartilages • Joint surfaces are covered with articular cartilage
  • 30. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Endochondral Ossification (6-3) • At puberty, bone growth accelerates • Due to sex hormone production • Osteoblasts produce bone faster than the epiphyseal cartilage can expand • Epiphyseal artilages eventually disappear or "close" • Adult bones show evidence of the epiphyseal line • Where the cartilage once was
  • 31. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-5 Endochondral Ossification. Enlarging chondrocytes within calcifying matrix Hyaline cartilage model Epiphysis Diaphysis Bone formation Blood vessel Marrow cavity Primary ossification center Superficial bone Spongy bone Marrow cavity Epiphyseal cartilage Secondary center of ossification Epiphyseal cartilage Epiphysis Articular cartilage
  • 32. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Appositional Growth (6-3) • Enlargement in the diameter of bones occurs as it is growing in length • Periosteum cells develop into osteoblasts • Produce more matrix on the outer surface of the bone • Osteoclasts erode the inner surface • Enlarging the marrow cavity
  • 33. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-6 Appositional Bone Growth. Bone resorbed by osteoclasts Bone deposited by osteoblastsInfant Child Young adult Adult
  • 34. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Closing of Epiphyseal Plates (6-3) • Vary from bone to bone • Digits close early • Arm, leg, and pelvis bones close later • Vary from person to person • And between males and females • Mostly due to differences in sex hormones
  • 35. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Requirements for Bone Growth (6-3) • Mineral supply • Especially calcium salts • Vitamin D3 • Involved in calcium metabolism • Rickets is due to vitamin D3 deficiency • Vitamin A and vitamin C • Provide support for osteoblasts • Growth hormone, sex hormones, thyroid hormone, and the calcium-balancing hormones
  • 36. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-3) 7. During intramembranous ossification, which type of tissue is replaced by bone? 8. How could x-rays of the femur be used to determine whether a person had reached full height? 9. A child who enters puberty several years later than the average is generally taller than average as an adult. Why? 10.Why are pregnant women given calcium supplements and encouraged to drink milk even though their skeletons are fully formed?
  • 37. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Remodeling (6-4) • In adults: • Osteocytes in lacunae continuously remove and replace surrounding calcium salts • Osteoblasts and osteoclasts remain active • Remodeling bone, especially spongy bone • In young adults: • Remodeling is so rapid that about one-fifth of the skeletal mass is replaced each year
  • 38. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Remodeling (6-4) • Appropriate stress • Causes thickening and strengthening of bone • Little stress on bones causes them to be weak and thin • Exercise • Is key to maintaining normal bone structure and strength
  • 39. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Calcium Reserve (6-4) • Calcium balance in the body fluids • Is essential for many physiological mechanisms • Especially in nerves and muscles • Calcium balance is regulated by: • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitriol to raise calcium levels • Calcitonin to lower calcium levels in body fluids
  • 40. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Fractures (6-4) • Named by external appearance • Closed (simple) fractures • Completely internal • Open (compound) fractures • Project through the skin
  • 41. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Fractures (6-4) • Named by location • Example: Pott's fracture • Occurs at the ankle and affects bones of the leg • Example: Colles fracture • Break in the distal portion of the radius
  • 42. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Fractures (6-4) • Named by the nature of the break • Example: transverse fractures • Break a shaft of bone across its long axis • Example: spiral fractures • Produced by twisting stresses along the length of a bone • Example: comminuted fractures • Shatter the area into many smaller fragments
  • 43. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Four Steps to Repair Fractures (6-4) 1. Fractures result in broken blood vessels that cause a blood clot, called a fracture hematoma, to form • This closes off the blood supply • Killing osteocytes • Resulting in dead bone on either side of the fracture
  • 44. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Four Steps to Repair Fractures (6-4) 2. Cells of periosteum and endosteum collect at the fracture • And develop into an external callus (develops hyaline cartilage) and internal callus, respectively 3. Osteoblasts replace cartilage with spongy bone 4. Spongy bone is replaced by compact bone • Leaving a slightly thicker spot at the fracture site
  • 45. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-7 Steps in the Repair of a Fracture. Dead bone Bone fragments Spongy bone of internal callus Periosteum Internal callus External callus External callus Cartilage of external callus
  • 46. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-4) 11. Describe bone remodeling. 12. Why would you expect the arm bones of a weight lifter to be thicker and heavier than those of a jogger? 13. What general effects do the hormones PTH, calcitriol, and calcitonin have on blood calcium levels? 14. What is the difference between a closed fracture and an open fracture?
  • 47. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Osteopenia and Aging (6-5) • Osteopenia • Inadequate ossification that naturally occurs as part of the aging process • Starting between the ages of 30 and 40: • Osteoblastic activity slows and osteoclastic activity increases • Osteoporosis • Loss of bone mass that impairs normal function and can lead to more fractures • More common in women and accelerates after menopause • Due to a decline in circulating estrogens
  • 48. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-5) 15. Define osteopenia. 16. Why is osteoporosis more common in older women than in older men?
  • 49. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Surface Bone Markings (6-6) • Are landmark features on the surfaces of bones • Include projections • Where tendons and ligaments attach • Where bones articulate • Include depressions, grooves, and openings • Where blood vessels and nerves pass through the bone
  • 50. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6-1 An Introduction to Bone Markings (1 of 2)
  • 51. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6-1 An Introduction to Bone Markings (2 of 2)
  • 52. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Divisions (6-6) • Axial skeleton includes: • The skull and associated bones • The thoracic cage with the ribs and sternum • The vertebral column • Appendicular skeleton includes: • The pectoral girdle and the upper limbs • The pelvic girdle and the lower limbs
  • 53. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-8 The Skeleton. Skull Clavicle Scapula Humerus Ribs Vertebrae Radius Ulna SacrumHip bone Carpal bones Coccyx Metacarpal bones Phalanges Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges Anterior view Posterior view
  • 54. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-9 The Axial and Appendicular Divisions of the Skeleton. AXIAL SKELETON Skull Skull and associated bones Thoracic cage Vertebral column Associated bones Vertebrae Sacrum 80 Cranium Face Auditory ossicles Hyoid Sternum Ribs Coccyx APPENDICULAR SKELETON Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges (proximal, middle, distal) Hip bone (coxal bone) Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges Lower limbs Pelvic girdle Upper limbs Pectoral girdle29 25 8 14 6 1 1 24 24 26 1 1 126 2 2 4 2 2 2 16 10 60 28 2 2 2 2 2 2 14 10 28 60 Hyoid 1
  • 55. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-6) 17. Define bone markings (surface features).
  • 56. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Axial Skeleton (6-7) • Framework for support and protection of the brain, spinal cord, and organs in the ventral body cavity • Provides surface area for attachment of muscles that: 1. Move the head, neck, and trunk 2. Perform respiration 3. Stabilize elements of the appendicular skeleton
  • 57. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skull (6-7) • Houses brain and sense organs for sight, smell, taste, and balance • Total of 22 bones • 8 form the cranium • Forming cranial cavity, which houses brain • 14 are facial bones • Also includes associated bones, 6 auditory ossicles, and one hyoid bone
  • 58. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Frontal Bone (6-7) • Forms the forehead and the roof of the orbits, or eye sockets • Supra-orbital foramen • Forms a passageway above each orbit for blood vessels and nerves • Frontal sinuses • Are air-filled cavities above the orbit • Lined with mucus membrane • Connect with the nasal cavity
  • 59. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Parietal Bones (6-7) • Are posterior to frontal bones and form the roof of the cranium • Coronal suture • Where the parietal and frontal bones interlock • Sagittal suture • Where the parietal bones interlock at the midline of the cranium
  • 60. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Occipital Bone (6-7) • Forms the posterior, inferior part of the cranium • Lambdoid suture • Where the occipital and parietal bones interlock • Foramen magnum • Surrounds the connection between the brain and the spinal cord • Occipital condyles • The articular surfaces that sit on the first vertebra
  • 61. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Temporal Bones (6-7) • On either side of the cranium and zygomatic arches, housing the ossicles in middle ear • Squamous sutures • Where the temporal and parietal bones interlock • Key bone markings • External auditory meatus • Mandibular fossa • Mastoid process • Styloid process
  • 62. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Sphenoid Bone (6-7) • Forms part of the floor of the cranium • The bridge between the cranial bones and the facial bones • Contains a pair of sinuses, the sphenoidal sinuses • "Wings" of the bone extend laterally from a central depression, the sella turcica • Which houses and protects the pituitary gland
  • 63. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ethmoid Bone (6-7) • Anterior to the sphenoid, forms part of the cranial floor • Forms the medial surfaces of the orbits and is the roof and sides of the nasal cavity • Crista galli projects upward toward the brain and the inferior cribriform plate • Has holes in it allowing for olfactory nerves to pass into the nasal cavity
  • 64. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ethmoid Bone (6-7) • Contains ethmoidal sinuses • Projections into the nasal cavity toward the nasal septum • Called the superior and middle nasal conchae • Perpendicular plate extends down from the crista galli between the conchae • To form part of the nasal septum
  • 65. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-10 The Adult Skull, Part I. Coronal suture PARIETAL BONE FRONTAL BONE SPHENOID Supra-orbital foramen NASAL BONE LACRIMAL BONE ETHMOID Infra-orbital foramen MAXILLA ZYGOMATIC BONE Squamous suture Lambdoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process TEMPORAL BONE MANDIBLE Zygomatic arch Styloid process Zygomatic process of temporal bone Temporal process of zygomatic bone Coronoid process OCCIPITAL BONE
  • 66. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Maxillae (6-7) • Also called the maxillary bones • Articulate with all other facial bones except for the mandible • Forms the floor and medial sides of the rim of the orbits, the walls of the nasal cavity, and the anterior roof of the mouth (bony palate) • Maxillary sinuses • Drain into nasal cavity • Lighten the weight of the bones
  • 67. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Palatine and Vomer Bones (6-7) • Palatine bones form the posterior surface of the bony palate, or roof of the mouth • Superior surfaces form the floor of the nasal cavity • Superior tips form part of orbital floor • Vomer articulates with paired palatine bones and forms part of the nasal septum
  • 68. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Zygomatic Bones (6-7) • Articulate with the frontal bone and the maxillae, forming the lateral wall of the orbit • Temporal process of the zygomatic • Curves laterally and posteriorly to articulate with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone • Forming the zygomatic arch
  • 69. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nasal and Lacrimal Bones (6-7) • Nasal bones form the bridge of the nose between the orbits • Articulating with the frontal and maxillary bones • Lacrimal bones are found within the orbit on the medial surfaces • Articulating with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
  • 70. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Inferior Nasal Conchae and Nasal Complex (6-7) • Inferior nasal conchae project from lateral walls of nasal cavity • Changing airflow to improve sense of smell • The nasal complex is made of all the bones that form the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses that drain into it • Nasal septum divides the cavity into right and left
  • 71. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-13 The Paranasal Sinuses. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal sinuses Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus
  • 72. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Mandible (6-7) • The lower jaw • Vertical process on either side • The ramus extends up toward the temporal bone • Posterior process of the ramus, the condylar process • Articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone • Anterior coronoid process is the attachment point: • For the temporalis muscle that closes the jaw
  • 73. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-11a The Adult Skull, Part II. PARIETAL BONE SPHENOID TEMPORAL BONE ETHMOID PALATINE BONE LACRIMAL BONE ZYGOMATIC BONE NASAL BONE MAXILLA INFERIOR NASAL CONCHA MANDIBLE Coronal suture Supra-orbital foramen Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process of temporal bone Infra-orbital foramen Middle nasal concha (part of ethmoid) Perpendicular plate of ethmoid VOMER Nasal septum (bony portion) Anterior view FRONTAL BONE Sagittal suture
  • 74. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-11b The Adult Skull, Part II. FRONTAL BONE ZYGOMATIC BONE VOMER SPHENOID Styloid process Mandibular fossa External acoustic meatus Lambdoid suture OCCIPITAL BONE External occipital protuberance MAXILLA PALATINE BONE Zygomatic arch TEMPORAL BONE Mastoid process Occipital condyle Foramen magnum Inferior view
  • 75. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-12a Sectional Anatomy of the Skull. Crista galli Cribriform plate Sella turcica FRONTAL BONE ETHMOID SPHENOID TEMPORAL BONE PARIETAL BONE OCCIPITAL BONE Superior view of a horizontal section through the skull, showing the floor of the cranial cavity
  • 76. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-12b Sectional Anatomy of the Skull. FRONTAL BONE SPHENOID Sphenoidal sinus (right) Frontal sinus Crista galli NASAL BONE ETHMOID PALATINE BONE MAXILLA MANDIBLE PARIETAL BONE Sella turcica TEMPORAL BONE Lambdoid suture OCCIPITAL BONE Styloid process
  • 77. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-12c Sectional Anatomy of the Skull. FRONTAL BONE Frontal sinuses ETHMOID Sphenoidal sinuses SPHENOID NASAL BONE PALATINE BONE (bony palate) MAXILLA (bony palate) Superior Middle Nasal conchae of ethmoidINFERIOR NASAL CONCHA A sagittal section through the skull, with the nasal septum removed to show major features of the wall of the right nasal cavity
  • 78. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hyoid Bone (6-7) • Small and U-shaped • The only bone in the body not directly articulated with another bone • Is suspended from the styloid processes of the temporal bones • Serves as attachment for muscles of the larynx, the tongue, and the pharynx
  • 79. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Greater horn Lesser horn Body Figure 6-14 The Hyoid Bone.
  • 80. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skulls of Infants and Children (6-7) • Fetal development of skull bones occurs around the developing brain • At birth: • The cranial bones are connected with connective tissue called fontanelles • Flexible soft spots that allow for easier delivery of the head • By age 4: • The fontanelles disappear and skull growth is finished
  • 81. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-15 The Skull of a Newborn. Coronal suture FRONTAL BONE PARIETAL BONE Sphenoidal fontanelle Squamous suture Lambdoid suture OCCIPITAL BONE NASAL BONE MAXILLA SPHENOID MANDIBLE TEMPORAL BONE Mastoid fontanelle Lateral view FRONTAL BONE PARIETAL BONE Coronal suture Frontal suture Anterior fontanelle Sagittal suture PARIETAL BONE Lambdoid suture OCCIPITAL BONE Occipital fontanelle FRONTAL BONE Superior view
  • 82. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Vertebral Column (6-7) • Also called the spine • Has 24 vertebrae • A fused sacrum • A fused coccyx • Provides weight-bearing column of support and protection of spinal cord
  • 83. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Vertebral Column (6-7) • Cervical region (neck) has 7 cervical vertebrae • Thoracic region has 12 thoracic vertebrae • Lumbar region has 5 lumbar vertebrae • Sacral region has 5 fused vertebrae in the sacrum • Coccygeal region also made of 3–5 fused vertebrae in the coccyx
  • 84. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Spinal Curvature (6-7) • Primary curves • Project posteriorly and include the thoracic and sacral curves • Are present at birth • Secondary curves • Project anteriorly and include the cervical and lumbar curves • Develop several months after birth
  • 85. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Spinal Curvatures (6-7) • Abnormal curves • Kyphosis (exaggerated thoracic curve) • Lordosis (exaggerated lumbar curve) • Scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve)
  • 86. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-16 The Vertebral Column. VERTEBRAL REGIONSSPINAL CURVES Cervical Cervical ThoracicThoracic Lumbar Lumbar Sacral Sacral Coccygeal C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5
  • 87. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. General Vertebral Anatomy (6-7) • Vertebral bodies • Bear weight and are separated from each other by intervertebral discs • Vertebral arches • Form posterior margin of vertebral foramina, which form the vertebral canal • Have walls called pedicles and roofs called laminae
  • 88. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. General Vertebral Anatomy (6-7) • Transverse processes project laterally or dorsolaterally from the pedicles • Spinous process projects posteriorly from the laminae • The inferior and superior articular processes arise at junction of pedicles and laminae on both sides of the vertebrae • Contact one another at the articular facets • Forming the intervertebral foramina
  • 89. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cervical Vertebrae (6-7) • C1–C7 • Body relatively small, and is oval and concave in shape • Vertebral foramina gradually decrease in diameter, but are relatively large • Spinous process is stumpy, with notched tip • Transverse processes have transverse foramina • That protect blood vessels to and from the brain
  • 90. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cervical Vertebrae (6-7) • C1 is the atlas • Holds up the head • Articulates with the occipital condyles • Allows for a specific "nodding yes" movement • C2 is the axis • Has a projection up toward the atlas, called the dens, or odontoid process • Allows for rotational "shaking the head no" movement
  • 91. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-18 The Atlas and Axis. Dens (odontoid process) Transverse ligament The atlas/axis complex Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) Articulates withoccipital condyles Articulates with atlas
  • 92. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Thoracic Vertebrae (6-7) • T1–T12 • Has heart-shaped body • Has a long, slender spinous process that points inferiorly • Has costal facets that articulate with the ribs
  • 93. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lumbar Vertebrae (7-6) • L1–L5 • Vertebral body is significantly larger, thicker, and more oval • Has a massive, stumpy spinous process • Has a bladelike transverse process
  • 94. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17 Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Spinous process Lamina Superior articular process Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Vertebral foramen Vertebral arch Pedicle Transverse process Vertebral body Cervical vertebra, superior view Spinous process Transverse process Transverse costal facet for inferior rib Lamina Superior articular facet Vertebral foramen Pedicle Vertebral body Superior costal facet for superior rib Thoracic vertebra, superior view Spinous process Superior articular facet Lamina Superior articular process Transverse process Transverse process Pedicle Vertebral foramen Vertebral body Lumbar vertebra, superior view
  • 95. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17a Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Spinous process Lamina Superior articular process Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Vertebral foramen Vertebral arch Pedicle Transverse process Vertebral body Cervical vertebra, superior view
  • 96. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17b Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Spinous process Transverse process Transverse costal facet for inferior rib Lamina Superior articular facet Vertebral foramen Pedicle Vertebral body Superior costal facet for superior rib Thoracic vertebra, superior view
  • 97. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17c Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Spinous process Superior articular facet Lamina Superior articular processTransverse process Transverse process Pedicle Vertebral foramen Vertebral body Lumbar vertebra, superior view
  • 98. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Sacrum (6-7) • Has five fused vertebrae • Protects organs in pelvic cavity • Has lateral articulations with pelvic girdle • Narrow caudal area is the apex; superior surface is the base • Which has the sacral promontory • Sacral canal runs down posterior surface • Sacral foramina on either side of median sacral crest
  • 99. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Coccyx (6-7) • Three to five fused vertebrae • Provides attachment for muscles of the anal opening
  • 100. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-19 The Sacrum and Coccyx. Entrance to sacral canal Articular process Sacral promontory Median sacral crest Sacral foramina Base Sacral hiatus Coccyx Posterior view Anterior view Apex
  • 101. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Thoracic Cage (6-7) • Made of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum • Forming the walls of the thoracic cavity • Seven pairs of true ribs, called vertebrosternal ribs • Connect to sternum with costal cartilages • Five pairs of false ribs, pairs 8–10, are vertebrochondral ribs • Last two pairs are floating ribs, or vertebral ribs
  • 102. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Parts of the Sternum (6-7) • Also called the breastbone 1. The superior broad part is the manubrium; articulates with the clavicle of the appendicular skeleton 2. The long body 3. The inferior tip, the xiphoid process
  • 103. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-20 The Thoracic Cage. Jugular notch Clavicular articulation Manubrium Body Xiphoid process Costal cartilages Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 8–10) Floating ribs (ribs 11–12) Anterior view, showing the ribs, costal cartilages, and the sternum False ribs (ribs 8–12) True ribs (ribs 1–7) T Sternum Sternum Jugular notch Manubrium Body Xiphoid process Costal cartilages Floating ribs False ribs (8–12) True ribs (1–7) Anterior view of the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilages, shown diagrammatically T11 T12 12 11 10 6 7 8 9 5 4 3 2 1 1
  • 104. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-7) 18. The mastoid and styloid processes are found on which skull bone? 19. What bone contains the depression called the sella turcica? What is located in the depression? 20. Which bone of the cranium articulates directly with the vertebral column? 21. During baseball practice, a ball hits Casey in the eye, fracturing bones directly above and below the orbit. Which bones were broken? 22. What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses? 23. Why would a fracture of the coronoid process of the mandible make it difficult to close the mouth?
  • 105. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-7) 24. What signs would you expect to see in a person suffering from a fractured hyoid bone? 25. Joe suffered a hairline fracture at the base of the dens. Which bone is fractured, and where would you find it? 26. In adults, five large vertebrae fuse to form what single structure? 27. Why are the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae so large? 28. What are the differences between true ribs and false ribs? 29. Improper administration of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) could result in a fracture of which bone(s)?
  • 106. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Pectoral Girdle (6-8) • Connects the upper limbs to the trunk • Includes the clavicle and the scapula • Clavicle • S-shaped bone articulates with manubrium at sternal end and with the acromion process of the scapula
  • 107. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Scapula (6-8) • A broad triangular bone with superior, medial, and lateral borders • The three tips are the superior, inferior, and lateral angles • Lateral angle, or head of the scapula, has the glenoid cavity • Which articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
  • 108. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Scapula (6-8) • Subscapular fossa • A depression in the anterior surface where the subscapularis muscle is attached • Coracoid process • The smaller process • Posterior and larger is the acromion process • Which articulates with the distal end of the clavicle • Scapular spine • Divides the scapula into the supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa
  • 109. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-21 The Clavicle. LATERAL Acromial end Facet for articulation with acromion Sternal end MEDIAL
  • 110. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-22 The Scapula. Acromion Coracoid process Superior border Subscapular fossa Lateral border Body Scapular spine Medial border Lateral border Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Coracoid process Acromion Supraspinous fossa Superior border Coracoid process Acromion Neck Scapular spine Infraspinous fossa Lateral border Posterior viewLateral viewAnterior view Body
  • 111. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Upper Limb (6-8) • Contains the bones of the arm • The humerus • Proximal area of the limb from the scapula to the elbow • Contains the bones of the forearm • The radius and ulna • Contains the bones of the wrist and hand • The carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
  • 112. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Humerus (6-8) • Proximally, the round head articulates with the scapula • Greater tubercle is a rounded projection on lateral surface of head • Lesser tubercle lies anteriorly • Is separated from the greater tubercle by the intertubercular groove
  • 113. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Humerus (6-8) • The proximal shaft is rounded with deltoid tuberosity along lateral border • Distally, the medial and lateral epicondyles project to either side • Smooth condyle articulates with radius and ulna • Medial trochlea extends from coronoid fossa to olecranon fossa
  • 114. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Humerus (6-8) • The capitulum forms the lateral region of the condyle • The shallow radial fossa is proximal to the capitulum
  • 115. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-23 The Right Humerus. Greater tubercle Intertubercular groove Lesser tubercle Greater tubercle Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Groove for radial nerve Shaft Lateral epicondyle Olecranon fossa Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Radial fossa TrochleaCapitulum Trochlea Condyle Anterior surface Posterior surface
  • 116. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ulna and Radius (6-8) • Olecranon process of the ulna is the point of the elbow • The trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus • The coronoid process forms the inferior lip of the notch
  • 117. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ulna and Radius (6-8) • The ulnar shaft ends distally in the short styloid process • Which sits on the distal end of the radius • The neck of the radius is between the head and the radial tuberosity • Radial head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna • Styloid process of radius articulates with wrist
  • 118. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-24 The Right Radius and Ulna. Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Ulnar tuberosity Head of radius Neck of radius Radial tuberosity RADIUS ULNA Interosseous membrane ULNA Lateral view of ulna, showing trochlear notch Distal radio-ulnar joint Ulnar head Styloid process of ulna Styloid process of radius Anterior view
  • 119. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Bones of the Wrists and Hands (6-8) • Carpal bones • The proximal row includes: • The scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones • The distal row includes: • The trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones • Five metacarpal bones • Form the palm of the hand and articulate with the phalanges • The pollex is the thumb
  • 120. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-25 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand. ULNA Styloid process of ulna Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Metacarpal bones RADIUS Styloid process of radius Scaphoid Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Proximal Middle Distal Phalanges I IIIIIIVV
  • 121. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Pelvic Girdle (6-8) • Articulates with the thigh bones • More massive than the pectoral girdle • Firmly attached to the axial skeleton • Consists of two large hip bones or coxal bones • Each a fusion of three bones • The ilium, the ischium, and the pubis • Hips articulate with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joints, with the femur at the acetabulum
  • 122. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hip Bone (6-8) • The ilium is superior and the largest component • Superior margin forms the iliac crest • The ischium has a rough projection • Called the ischial tuberosity or seat bone • The ischium branches over to the pubis • Creating the circle of the obturator foramen • Pubic bones articulate at the pubic symphysis
  • 123. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Pelvis (6-8) • Consists of the hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx • Stabilized by a network of ligaments • Differences in the characteristics of the male versus female pelvis • In females, the pelvis is better suited for pregnancy and delivery • Females have a broader lower pelvis, a larger pelvic outlet, and a broader pubic angle
  • 124. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-26 The Pelvis. L Sacrum Ilium Hip bone Ischium Pubis Coccyx Sacroiliac joint 5 Iliac crest Pelvis, anterior view Acetabulum Pubic tubercle Obturator foramen SACRUM ILIUM PUBIS Pubic symphysis ISCHIUM Adult male pelvis, anterior view Ilium Hip bone Pubis Ischium Ischial tuberosity Right hip bone of the pelvis, lateral view
  • 125. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-27 Differences in the Anatomy of the Pelvis in Males and Females. Pelvic outlet, relatively narrow or less Male or more Pelvic outlet, relatively broad Female 90˚ 100˚
  • 126. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lower Limb (6-8) • Contains the bones of the thigh • The femur is the longest bone in the body • Contains the patella or kneecap • Contains the bones of the leg • The tibia and fibula • Contains the bones of the ankle and foot
  • 127. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur and Patella (6-8) • Greater and lesser trochanters • Extend laterally from neck and shaft • Linea aspera • Attachment for adductor muscles • Large epicondyles on distal end • Inferior surfaces form lateral and medial condyles • The patella is the kneecap, sliding over the anterior surface of the knee joint
  • 128. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-28 The Right Femur. Articular surface of head Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Neck Lesser trochanter Linea aspera Patellar surface Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Lateral condyle Medial condyle Lateral condyle Anterior surface Posterior surface Shaft of femur
  • 129. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Tibia (6-8) • Larger, medial shin bone with own lateral and medial condyles • That articulate with condyles of femur • Anterior margin • Extends down the anterior tibial surface • Medial malleolus • A large distal process that articulates with the ankle
  • 130. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Fibula (6-8) • Runs parallel and lateral to tibia • Articulates with tibia inferior to the lateral tibial condyle • Does not articulate with the ankle • Lateral malleolus is distal end of fibula • Interosseus membrane connects tibia and fibula
  • 131. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-29 The Right Tibia and Fibula. Lateral tibial condyle Head of fibula Medial tibial condyle Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior margin TIBIA FIBULA Lateral malleolus (fibula) Medial malleolus (tibia) Inferior articular surface
  • 132. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Bones of the Ankle and Foot (6-8) • Seven ankle or tarsal bones include: • The talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms • Only the talus articulates with the tibia and fibula • The largest is the calcaneus, or heel bone • The metatarsals and phalanges are in the same pattern as in the hand • Big toe is hallux
  • 133. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-30a The Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Calcaneus Trochlea of talus Cuboid Talus Navicular Cuneiform bones Lateral Intermediate Medial Metatarsal bones Hallux Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Phalanges Proximal Middle Distal Superior view, right foot IV V III II I
  • 134. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-30b The Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Medial cuneiform bone Navicular Talus Metatarsal bonesPhalanges Medial view, right foot Calcaneus
  • 135. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-8) 30. In what way would a broken clavicle affect the mobility of the scapula? 31. The rounded projections on either side of the elbow are parts of which bone? 32. Which of the two bones of the forearm is lateral in the anatomical position? 33. Which three bones make up a hip bone? 34. The fibula neither participates in the knee joint nor bears weight. When it is fractured, however, walking becomes difficult. Why? 35. While jumping off the back steps of his house, 10-year- old Cesar lands on his right heel and breaks his foot. Which bone is most likely broken?
  • 136. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Categories of Joints (6-9) • Classified by structure • Based on anatomy of joints • Includes fibrous, cartilaginous (both with limited movement), and synovial (freely movable) • Classified by function • Based on range of motion • Includes synarthrosis (immovable), amphiarthrosis (slightly movable), and diarthrosis (freely movable)
  • 137. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6-2 A Functional and Structural Classifi cation of Articulations
  • 138. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Immovable Joints or Synarthroses (6-9) • Can be fibrous or cartilaginous • Sutures of the skull connected with dense connective tissue • Gomphosis • A ligament binding each tooth in the socket • Synchondrosis • A rigid cartilaginous connection • For example, between the first pair of ribs and the sternum
  • 139. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Freely Movable Joints or Diarthroses (6-9) • Synovial joints with a wide range of motion • Usually found at the ends of long bones • Ends of bones covered with articular cartilages • Surrounded with a fibrous joint capsule • Inner surfaces are lined with the synovial membrane • Synovial fluid in the joint reduces friction
  • 140. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Freely Movable Joints or Diarthroses (6-9) • Some synovial joints have additional padding • In the form of menisci • For example, in the knee • Fat pads can also act as cushions • Ligaments join bone to bone • May be found inside and/or outside the joint capsule • Bursae are packets of connective tissue containing synovial fluid • They reduce friction and absorb shock
  • 141. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-31 The Structure of Synovial Joints. Marrow cavity Spongy bone Periosteum Fibrous joint capsule Synovial membrane Articular cartilages Joint cavity (containing synovial fluid) Compact bone Bursa Joint capsule Synovial membrane Meniscus Intracapsular ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Articular cartilage Fat pad Patellar ligament Joint cavity Meniscus Femur Tibi a Synovial joint, sagittal section Knee joint, sagittal section
  • 142. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-9) 36. Name and describe the three types of joints as classified by the amount of movement possible. 37. In a newborn, the large bones of the skull are joined by fibrous connective tissue. Which type of joint are these? These skull bones later grow, interlock, and form immovable joints. Which type of joint are these?
  • 143. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joint Movement (6-10) • Gliding • When two opposing surfaces slide past each other • For example, the carpal bones • Angular movement includes: • Flexion which decreases the angle of two long bones • Extension increases the angle • Hip and shoulder flex by moving anteriorly • Extend by moving posteriorly • Hyperextension is extension beyond anatomical position
  • 144. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movement (6-10) • Abduction • Moves a limb away from the midline • For example, separating the fingers • Adduction • Moves a limb toward the midline • For example, bringing the fingers together • Circumduction • Moves the limbs in a loop
  • 145. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32 Angular Movements. Extension Flexion Hyperextension Flexion Extension Flexion Hyperextension Extension Hyper- extension Flexion Abduction Adduction Abduction Adduction Abduction Extension Abduction Adduction Adduction Adduction Abduction Flexion/extension Abduction/adduction Adduction/abduction Circumduction
  • 146. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32a Angular Movements. Extension Flexion Hyperextension Flexion Extension Flexion Hyperextension Extension Hyper- extension Flexion Extension Flexion/extension
  • 147. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32b Angular Movements. Abduction Adduction Abduction Adduction Abduction Abduction Adduction Adduction Abduction/adduction
  • 148. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32c Angular Movements. Adduction Abduction Adduction/abduction
  • 149. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32d Angular Movements. Circumduction
  • 150. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotational Joint Movements (6-10) • Involves turning around the longitudinal axis of the body or limb • For example, turning the head • Rotation of the distal end of the radius across the ulna is a form of rotation • Pronation • The palm is facing the front and is then rotated to the back • Supination • Is the opposite, turning the palm forward
  • 151. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-33 Rotational Movements. Pronation Supination Pronation Supination Medial (internal) rotation Lateral (external) rotation Right rotation Left rotation Head rotation
  • 152. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Joint Movements (6-10) • Inversion twists the sole of the foot inward • Eversion twists it outward • Dorsiflexion elevates the sole at the ankle, putting the heel down • Plantar flexion is to point the toes • Opposition is moving the thumb toward the palm to grasp • Reposition returns it from opposition
  • 153. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Joint Movements (6-10) • Elevation and depression • Occurs when a structure moves superiorly and inferiorly • For example, closing and opening your mandible • Lateral flexion • Is a bending of the vertebral column to the side
  • 154. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-34 Special Movements. Eversion Inversion Opposition Retraction Protraction Depression Elevation Lateral flexion Dorsiflexion (flexion at ankle) Plantar flexion (extension at ankle)
  • 155. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joints (6-10) • Gliding joints • Have flat or slightly curved faces • Movement is slight • Hinge joints • Permit angular movement in one plane • Like opening and closing a door • Pivot joints • Permit rotation only • Like turning the head or supinating and pronating the palm
  • 156. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joints (6-10) • Condylar joints • Occur where an oval surface nests with a depression on the other bone • Allowing for angular motion in two planes, along or across the length of the oval • Saddle joints • Have two bones that each have a concave face on one axis and convex on the other • Allowing for circumduction, but not rotation
  • 157. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joints (6-10) • Ball-and-socket joints • Occur where the end of one bone is a round head that nests within the cup-shaped depression in the other bone • Allow for a wide range of motion • For example, the hip and shoulder joints
  • 158. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-35 Synovial Joints Movement: multidirectional in a single plane Movement: angular in a single plane Movement: rotational in a single plane Movement: angular in two planes Movement: angular in two planes, and circumduction Movement: angular, rotational, and circumduction Gliding joint Hinge joint Pivot joint Condylar joint Saddle joint Ball-and-socket joint Manubrium Clavicle Humerus Ulna Atlas Axis Scaphoid bone UlnaRadius Metacarpal bone of thumb Scapula Humerus SPOTLIGHT FIGURE 6-35 Synovial Joints Trapezium
  • 159. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-10) 38. Give the proper term for each of the following types of motion: (a) moving the humerus away from the longitudinal axis of the body, (b) turning the palms so that they face forward, and (c) bending the elbow. 39. Which movements are associated with hinge joints?
  • 160. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intervertebral Articulations (6-11) • From the axis to the sacrum • Include gliding joints between the superior and inferior articular processes • And symphyseal joints between the vertebral bodies • Separated and padded by intervertebral discs • Made of a tough outer fibrocartilage surrounding a gelatinous core
  • 161. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-36 Intervertebral Articulations. Intervertebral foramen Superior articular facet Posterior ligaments Superior articular process Inferior articular process Intervertebral Disc Inner gelantinous layer Outer fibrocartilage layer Spinal cord Spinal nerve Anterior longitudinal ligament
  • 162. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Shoulder Joint (6-11) • Most range of motion of any joint • Therefore, more likely to dislocate • Ball-and-socket structure with many bursae • Muscles that surround and move the shoulder joint form the rotator cuff PLAYPLAY ANIMATION Humerus Circumduction
  • 163. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-37 The Shoulder Joint. Ligaments interconnecting clavicle and scapula Tendon of supraspinatus muscle Acromion Joint capsule Subdeltoid bursa Synovial membrane Humerus Joint capsule Joint cavity Articular cartilages Coracoid process Scapula Clavicle
  • 164. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Elbow Joint (6-11) • Hinge joint is found between the humerus and ulna • A weak joint is between the humerus and radius • Very stable due to interlocking of humerus and ulna • Very thick joint capsule and very strong ligaments PLAYPLAY ANIMATION Elbow Flexion/Extension
  • 165. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-38 The Elbow Joint. Coronoid fossa Joint capsule Coronoid process Synovial membrane Tendon of biceps brachii Ulna Radius Articular cartilage Bursa Olecranon Trochlea Triceps tendon Joint capsule Olecranon fossa Humerus
  • 166. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hip Joint (6-11) • Ball-and-socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the coxal bone • Is very dense and strong • Due to extensive joint capsule, supporting ligaments, and strong surrounding muscles
  • 167. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-39 The Hip Joint. Greater trochanter Reinforcing ligaments Joint capsule The hip joint is extremely strong and stable, in part because of the massive joint capsule and surrounding ligaments. Acetabulum Articular cartilage Synovial membrane Joint capsule Fat pad Ligament of the femoral head Joint capsuleFemur This sectional view of the right hip shows the structure of the joint and the position of the ligament of the fermoral head.
  • 168. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Knee Joint (6-11) • Complex joint between distal femoral and proximal tibial condyles • And between the patella and femur • Has multiple joint capsules • And condyles are cushioned by the medial and lateral menisci • Multiple ligaments from different angles support the knee • Patella is within quadriceps tendon • Patellar ligament links to tibial anterior surface
  • 169. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-40 The Knee Joint. Quadriceps tendon Patella Fibular collateral ligament Patellar ligament Tibia Joint capsule Tibial collateral ligament Anterior view of the right knee joint, superficial layer Patellar surface Posterior cruciate ligamentFibular collateral ligament Lateral meniscus Cut tendon Fibula Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Medial meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Lateral condyle Tibia Deep anterior view of the right knee when flexed
  • 170. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-11) 40. Would a tennis player or a jogger be more likely to develop inflammation of the subdeltoid bursa? Why? 41. Daphne falls on her hands with her elbows slightly flexed. After the fall, she can't move her left arm at the elbow. If a fracture exists, which bone is most likely broken? 42. Why is a complete dislocation of the knee joint an infrequent event? 43. What signs would you expect to see in an individual who has damaged the menisci of the knee joint?
  • 171. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Support of Other Body Systems (6-12) • Balance between bone formation and recycling creates dynamic interactions with other systems • For example, bones: • Provide attachments for muscles • Interact with cardiovascular and lymphatic systems • Are under the control of the endocrine system • Digestive and urinary systems play a role in calcium and phosphate balance
  • 172. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-41 The skeletal system provides structural support and protection for the body. The skeleton also stores calcium, phosphate, and other minerals necessary for many functions in other organ systems. In addition, the lipids in the yellow marrow serve as an energy reserve and blood cell production occurs in the red marrow. Synthesizes vitamin D3, essential for calcium and phosphorus absorption (bone maintenance and growth) Provides structural support Body SystemSkeletal System SYSTEM INTEGRATOR Skeletal SystemBody System Integum- entary The SKELETAL System Integumentary (Page138) Muscular (Page241) Nervous (Page302) Endocrine (Page376) Cardiovascular (Page467) Lymphatic (Page500) Respiratory (Page532) Digestive (Page572) Urinary (Page637) Reproductive (Page671)
  • 173. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-12) 44. Describe the functional relationship between the skeletal system and the integumentary system.