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  • 1. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Meg Flemming Austin Community College C H A P T E R 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
  • 2. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Learning Outcomes • 4-1 • Identify the body's four basic types of tissues and describe their roles. • 4-2 • Describe the characteristics and functions of epithelial cells. • 4-3 • Describe the relationship between form and function for each type of epithelium. • 4-4 • Compare the structures and functions of the various types of connective tissues.
  • 3. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Learning Outcomes • 4-5 • Explain how epithelial and connective tissues combine to form four types of tissue membranes, and specify the functions of each. • 4-6 • Describe the three types of muscle tissue and the special structural features of each. • 4-7 • Discuss the basic structure and role of neural tissue. • 4-8 • Explain how injuries affect the tissues of the body. • 4-9 • Describe how aging affects the tissues of the body.
  • 4. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Tissues (4-1) • Collections of cells and cell products that perform specific, limited functions • Histology • The study of tissues • Four types of tissues 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Neural
  • 5. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. CELLS That secrete and regulate EXTRACELLULAR MATERIAL AND FLUIDS EPITHELIAL TISSUE • Covers exposed surfaces • Lines internal passageways and chambers • Produces glandular secretions CONNECTIVE TISSUE • Fills internal spaces • Provides structural support • Stores energy MUSCLE TISSUE • Contracts to produce active movement NEURAL TISSUE • Conducts electrical Impulses • Carries information Combine to form TISSUES with special functions Combine to form ORGANS with multiple functions Interact in ORGAN SYSTEMS Chapters 5–20 Figure 4-1 An Orientation to the Tissues of the Body.
  • 6. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-1) 1. Define histology. 2. List the four basic types of tissues in the body.
  • 7. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Epithelial Tissue (4-2) • Covers body surfaces • Lines cavities • Lines tubular structures • Serves essential functions
  • 8. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue (4-2) • Cellularity (cell junctions) • Polarity (apical and basal surfaces) • Attachment • Avascularity • Regeneration
  • 9. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Epithelia (4-2) • Provide physical protection • Control permeability • Provide sensation • Produce specialized secretions (glandular epithelium) • Exocrine glands • Endocrine glands
  • 10. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intercellular Connections (4-2) • Support and communication • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) • Transmembrane proteins • Intercellular cement • Proteoglycans
  • 11. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Common Cell Junctions (4-2) 1. Tight junctions 2. Gap junctions 3. Desmosomes • Form bonds with other cells or extracellular material
  • 12. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-2a Cell Junctions. Tight junction Adhesion belt Spot desmosome Gap junctions This is a Diagrammatic view of an epithelial cell, showing the major types of Intercellular connections. Hemidesmosome
  • 13. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-2b Cell Junctions. Interlocking junctional proteins Tight junction Adhesion belt Spot desmosome Gap junctions Hemidesmosome A tight junction is formed by the fusion of the outer layers of two plasma membranes. Tight junctions prevent the diffusion of fluids and solutes between the cells. A continuous adhesion belt deep to the tight junction is tied to the microfilaments of the cytoskeleton. Adhesion belt Tight junction
  • 14. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-2c Cell Junctions. Tight junction Adhesion belt Spot desmosome Gap junctions Hemidesmosome Embedded proteins (connexons) Gap junctions permit the free diffusion of ions and small mol- ecules between two cells.
  • 15. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Tight junction Adhesion belt Spot desmosome Gap junctions Hemidesmosome Intermediate filaments Dense area Proteoglycans A spot desmosome ties adjacent cells together. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) Hemidesmosomes attach a cell to extracellular structures, such as the protein fibers in the basement membrane. Tight junction Adhesion belt Spot desmosome Gap junctions Hemidesmosome Basement membrane Figure 4-2d-e Cell Junctions.
  • 16. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Epithelial Surface (4-2) • Apical surface is exposed • Basal surface is connected to deeper connective tissue with basement membrane
  • 17. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-3 The Surfaces of Epithelial Cells. Cilia Microvilli Apical surface Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondria Basement membrane
  • 18. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Epithelial Renewal and Repair (4-2) • Epithelia are replaced by mitosis • Cell division of stem cells (germinative cells) • Occurs near basement membrane
  • 19. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-2) 3. List five important characteristics of epithelial tissue. 4. Identify four essential functions of epithelial tissue. 5. Identify the three main types of epithelial cell junctions. 6. What physiological functions are enhanced by the presence of microvilli or cilia on epithelial cells?
  • 20. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Epithelia (4-3) • Combines a cell shape with the number of layers of cells • Example: • Simple (one layer) cuboidal (square shape)
  • 21. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cell Layers and Cell Shapes (4-3) • Classification is based on layers • Simple epithelium: single layer of cells • Stratified epithelium: several layers of cells • Classification is based on shape • Squamous epithelia: thin and flat • Cuboidal epithelia: square shaped • Columnar epithelia: tall, slender rectangles
  • 22. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 4-1 Classifying Epithelia
  • 23. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-4a Simple Epithelia. Cytoplasm Nucleus Connective tissue Lining of peritoneal cavity LM x 238 Simple Squamous Epithelium LOCATIONS: Epithelia lining ventral body cavities; lining heart and blood vessels; portions of kidney tubules (thin sections of nephron loops); inner lining of cornea; alveoli (air sacs) of lungs FUNCTIONS: Reduces friction; controls vessel permeability; performs absorption and secretion
  • 24. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-4b Simple Epithelia. Connective tissue Nucleus Cuboidal cells Kidney tubule LM x 650 Basement membrane LOCATIONS: Glands; ducts; portions of kidney tubules; thyroid gland FUNCTIONS: Limited protection, secretion, absorption Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
  • 25. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-4c Simple Epithelia. LM x 350 Microvilli Cytoplasm Nucleus Basement membrane Connective tissue Intestinal lining LOCATIONS: Lining of stomach, intestine, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of kidneys FUNCTIONS: Protection, secretion, absorption Simple Columnar Epithelium
  • 26. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-5a Stratified Epithelia. Stratified Squamous Epithelium Squamous superficial cells Stem cells Basement membrane Connective tissue LM x 310Surface of tongue LOCATIONS: Surface of skin; lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, and vagina FUNCTIONS: Provides physical protection against abrasion, pathogens, and chemical attack
  • 27. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-5b Stratified Epithelia. Cytoplasm Cilia Nuclei Basement membrane Connective tissue LM x 350 Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Trachea LOCATIONS: Lining of nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; portions of male reproductive tract FUNCTIONS: Protection, secretion, move mucus with cilia
  • 28. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-5c Stratified Epithelia. Transitional Epithelium Epithelium (relaxed) Basement membrane Connective tissue and smooth muscle layers LM x 400 Epithelium (stretched) Basement membrane Connective tissue and smooth muscle layersFull bladder Empty bladder Urinary bladder LM x 400 LOCATIONS: Urinary bladder; renal pelvis; ureters FUNCTIONS: Permits expansion and recoil after stretching
  • 29. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Glandular Epithelia (4-3) • Endocrine glands • Release hormones: • Into interstitial fluid and plasma • No ducts • Exocrine glands • Produce secretions: • Onto epithelial surfaces • Through ducts
  • 30. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Glandular Secretion (4-3) • Merocrine secretion • Produced in Golgi apparatus • Released by vesicles (exocytosis) • Example: sweat glands • Apocrine secretion • Produced in Golgi apparatus • Released by shedding cytoplasm • Example: mammary glands
  • 31. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Glandular Secretion (4-3) • Holocrine secretion • Released by cells bursting, killing gland cells • Gland cells replaced by stem cells • Example: sebaceous glands
  • 32. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Secretory vesicle Golgi apparatus Nucleus Merocrine. In merocrine secretion, the contents of secretory vesicles are discharged at the apical surface of the gland cell by exocytosis. Breaks down Golgi apparatus Salivary gland Mammary gland Secretion Regrowth Apocrine. Apocrine secretion involves the loss of apical cytoplasm. Inclusions, secretory vesicles, and other cytoplasmic components are shed in the process. The gland cell then undergoes growth and repair before it releases additional secretions. Cells burst, releasing cytoplasmic contents Cells produce secretion, increasing in size Cell division replaces lost cells Holocrine. Holocrine secretion occurs as superficial gland cells burst. Continued secretion involves the replacement of these cells through the mitotic division of underlying stem cells. Sebaceous gland Hair Hair follicle TEM x 3039 Stem cell Figure 4-6 Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion.
  • 33. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-6a Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion. Secretory vesicle Golgi apparatus Nucleus Merocrine. In merocrine secretion, the contents of secretory vesicles are discharged at the apical surface of the gland cell by exocytosis. Salivary gland Mammary gland Sebaceous gland Hair Hair follicle TEM x 3039
  • 34. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-6b Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion. Breaks down Golgi apparatus Salivary gland Mammary gland Secretion Regrowth Apocrine. Apocrine secretion involves the loss of apical cytoplasm. Inclusions, secretory vesicles, and other cytoplasmic components are shed in the process. The gland cell then undergoes growth and repair before it releases additional secretions. Sebaceous gland Hair Hair follicle
  • 35. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Salivary gland Mammary gland Cells burst, releasing cytoplasmic contents Cells produce secretion, increasing in size Cell division replaces lost cells Holocrine. Holocrine secretion occurs as superficial gland cells burst. Continued secretion involves the replacement of these cells through the mitotic division of underlying stem cells. Sebaceous gland Hair Hair follicle Stem cell Figure 4-6c Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion.
  • 36. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Secretion (4-3) • Serous glands • Watery secretions • Mucous glands • Secrete mucins • Mixed exocrine glands • Both serous and mucous
  • 37. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 4-2 A Classification of Exocrine Glands
  • 38. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-3) 7. Identify the three cell shapes characteristic of epithelial cells. 8. Using a light microscope, you examine a tissue and see a simple squamous epithelium on the outer surface. Can this be a sample of skin surface? 9. Name the two primary types of glandular epithelia.
  • 39. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-3) 10.The secretory cells of sebaceous glands fill with secretions and then rupture, releasing their contents. Which mechanism of secretion occurs in sebaceous glands? 11.Which type of gland releases its secretions directly into the extracellular fluid?
  • 40. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Connective Tissue (4-4) • Provides a protective structural framework for other tissue types • Three basic components 1. Specialized cells 2. Solid extracellular protein fibers 3. Fluid extracellular ground substance
  • 41. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Characteristics of Connective Tissue (4-4) • The extracellular components of connective tissues (fibers and ground substance) make up the matrix • Majority of tissue volume • Determines specialized function
  • 42. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Connective Tissue (4-4) • Support and protection • Transportation of materials • Storage of energy reserves • Defense of the body
  • 43. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-7 Major Types of Connective Tissue. CONNECTIVE TISSUES CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUES SUPPORTING CONNECTIVE TISSUES LOOSE DENSE BLOOD LYMPH CARTILAGE BONE Solid, crystalline matrix Solid, rubbery matrix Flows within lymphatic system Flows within cardiovascular system Fibers densely packed Fibers create loose, open framework
  • 44. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Major Types of Connective Tissue (4-4) 1. Connective tissue proper 2. Fluid connective tissues 3. Supporting connective tissues
  • 45. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cells of Connective Tissue Proper (4-4) • Fibroblasts • Most abundant cells in connective tissue proper • Produce connective tissue fibers and ground substance • Macrophages • Scattered throughout the matrix • Phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens that enter the tissue • Release chemicals that mobilize the immune system
  • 46. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cells of Connective Tissue Proper (4-4) • Fat cells (adipocytes) • Permanent residents • Number of fat cells vary • Mast cells • Small, mobile cells often found near blood vessels • Cytoplasm is packed with vesicles • Filled with chemicals that are released to begin body's defensive activities after an injury or infection
  • 47. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Basic Types of Connective Tissue Fibers (4-4) 1. Collagen fibers • Long, straight, unbranched • Strong, but flexible • Most common 2. Elastic fibers • Branched and wavy • After stretching, they will return to their original length • Contain the protein elastin
  • 48. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Basic Types of Connective Tissue Fibers (4-4) 3. Reticular fibers • Made of same protein subunits as collagen fibers, but arranged differently • Thinner than collagen fibers • Form branching, interwoven framework in various organs • Least common
  • 49. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Ground Substance (4-4) • Clear, colorless, and viscous • Fills spaces between cells and slows pathogen movement
  • 50. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Connective Tissue Proper (4-4) • Loose connective tissue • "Packing materials" of the body • More ground substance, fewer fibers • Example: fat (adipose tissue) • Dense connective tissue • Tough, strong, and durable • More fibers, less ground substance • Example: tendons
  • 51. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-8 Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper. Reticular fibers Fixed macrophage Antibody producing cell Blood in vessel Adipocytes (fat cells) Ground substance Mast cell Elastic fibers Free macrophage Collagen fibers Fibroblast Stem cell White blood cell
  • 52. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-9a Loose Connective Tissues. Mast cell Collagen fibers Fat cell Fibroblasts Elastic fibers Macrophage LM x 400Areolar tissue Areolar Tissue LOCATIONS: Beneath dermis of skin, digestive tract, respiratory and urinary tracts; between muscles; around blood vessels, nerves, and around joints FUNCTIONS: Cushions organs; provides support but permits independent movement; phagocytic cells provide defense against pathogens
  • 53. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-9b Loose Connective Tissues. Adipocytes LM x 300 Adipose tissue LOCATIONS: Deep to the skin, especially at sides, buttocks, breasts; padding around eyes and kidneys FUNCTIONS: Provides padding and cushions shocks; insulates (reduces heat loss); stores energy Adipose Tissue
  • 54. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-9c Loose Connective Tissues. LOCATIONS: Liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow FUNCTIONS: Provides supporting framework Reticular Tissue Reticular fibers LM x 375 Reticular tissue from liver Reticular tissue
  • 55. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-10a Dense Connective Tissues. LOCATIONS: Between skeletal muscles and skeleton (tendons and aponeuroses); between bones or stabilizing positions of internal organs (ligaments); covering skeletal muscles; deep fasciae FUNCTIONS: Provides firm attachment; conducts pull of muscles; reduces friction between muscles; stabilizes relative positions of bones Collagen fibers Fibroblast nuclei Tendon LM x 440 Dense Regular Connective Tissue
  • 56. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-10b Dense Connective Tissues. Deep dermis Collagen fiber bundles Dense Irregular Connective Tissue LM x 111 LOCATIONS: Capsules of visceral organs; periostea and perichondria; nerve and muscle sheaths; deep dermis of the skin FUNCTIONS: Provides strength to resist forces applied from many directions; helps prevent overexpansion of organs such as the urinary bladder
  • 57. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluid Connective Tissues (4-4) • Blood and lymph • Watery matrix of dissolved proteins • Carry specific cell types (formed elements) • Formed elements of blood • Red blood cells • White blood cells • Platelets
  • 58. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Supporting Connective Tissues (4-4) • Cartilage • Gel-type ground substance • For shock absorption and protection • Bone • Calcified (made rigid by calcium salts, minerals) • For weight support
  • 59. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilage (4-4) • Cartilage matrix • Proteoglycans derived from chondroitin sulfates • Ground substance proteins • Chondrocytes (cartilage cells) • Surrounded by lacunae (chambers)
  • 60. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilage Structure (4-4) • Avascular • Chondrocytes found in pockets called lacunae • Perichondrium • Outer, fibrous layer (for strength) • Inner, cellular layer (for growth and maintenance)
  • 61. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Major Types of Cartilage (4-4) 1. Hyaline cartilage • Stiff, flexible support • Reduces friction between bones • Found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea 2. Elastic cartilage • Supportive but bends easily • Found in external ear and epiglottis 3. Fibrocartilage • Limits movement • Prevents bone-to-bone contact • Pads knee joints • Found between pubic bones and intervertebral discs
  • 62. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-11a Types of Cartilage. LOCATIONS: Between tips of ribs and bones of sternum; covering bone surfaces at synovial joints; supporting larynx (voice box), trachea, and bronchi; forming part of nasal septum FUNCTIONS: Provides stiff but somewhat flexible support; reduces friction between bony surfaces Chondrocytes in lacunae Matrix Hyaline cartilage LM x 500 Hyaline Cartilage
  • 63. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Elastic Cartilage Chondrocyte In lacuna Elastic fibers in matrix LM x 358 Elastic cartilage LOCATIONS: Auricle of external ear; epiglottis; auditory canal; cuneiform cartilages of larynx FUNCTIONS: Provides support, but tolerates distortion without damage and returns to original shape Figure 4-11b Types of Cartilage.
  • 64. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-11c Types of Cartilage. Fibrocartilage Chondrocytes in lacunae Fibrous matrix LM x 400 Fibrocartilage LOCATIONS: Pads within knee joint; between pubic bones of pelvis; intervertebral discs FUNCTIONS: Resists compression; prevents bone-to-bone contact; limits movement
  • 65. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone (4-4) • Or osseous tissue • Strong (hard calcium compounds) • Resists shattering (flexible collagen fibers) • Bone cells or osteocytes • Arranged around central canals within matrix • Small channels through matrix (canaliculi) access blood supply
  • 66. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Periosteum (4-4) • Covers bone surfaces • Fibrous layer • Cellular layer
  • 67. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-12 Bone. Osteon Canaliculi Lacunae (contain osteocytes) Matrix Central canal Blood vessels Fibrous layer Cellular layer Periosteum Osteon LM x 375
  • 68. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 4-3 A Comparison of Cartilage and Bone
  • 69. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-4) 12.Identify several functions of connective tissues. 13.List the three types of connective tissues. 14.Which type of connective tissue contains primarily triglycerides? 15.Lack of vitamin C in the diet interferes with the ability of fibroblasts to produce collagen. What effect might this interference have on connective tissue? 16.Which two types of connective tissue have a fluid matrix?
  • 70. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-4) 17. Identify the two types of supporting connective tissue. 18. Why does cartilage heal slower than bone?
  • 71. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Tissue Membranes (4-5) • Membranes • Are physical barriers • Line or cover portions of the body • Consist of: • An epithelium • Supported by connective tissues
  • 72. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Four Types of Tissue Membranes (4-5) 1. Mucous membranes 2. Serous membranes 3. Cutaneous membrane 4. Synovial membranes
  • 73. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-13 Tissue Membranes. Mucous membranes are coated with the secretions of mucous glands. These membranes line the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Serous membranes line the ventral body cavities (the perito- neal, pleural, and pericardial cavities). The cutaneous membrane, or skin, covers the outer surface of the body. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and produce the fluid within the joint. Mucous secretion Epithelium Lamina propria (areolar tissue) Serous fluid Epithelium Areolar tissue Epithelium Areolar tissue Dense irregular connective tissue Articular (hyaline) cartilage Synovial fluid Capsule Capillary Adipocytes Areolar tissue Epithelium Synovial membrane Bone
  • 74. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Mucous Membranes (4-5) • Also known as mucosae • Line passageways that have external connections • In digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts • Epithelial surfaces must be moist • To reduce friction • To facilitate absorption and excretion • Lamina propria • Made of areolar tissue
  • 75. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Mucous membranes are coated with the secretions of mucous glands. These membranes line the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Mucous secretion Epithelium Lamina propria (areolar tissue) Figure 4-13a Tissue Membranes.
  • 76. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Serous Membranes (4-5) • Line cavities not open to the outside • Are thin but strong • Have fluid transudate to reduce friction • Have a parietal portion covering the cavity • Have a visceral portion (serosa) covering the organs
  • 77. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Serous Membranes (4-5) 1. Pleura • Lines pleural cavities • Covers lungs 2. Peritoneum • Lines peritoneal cavity • Covers abdominal organs 3. Pericardium • Lines pericardial cavity • Covers heart
  • 78. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Serous membranes line the ventral body cavities (the perito- neal, pleural, and pericardial cavities). Serous fluid Epithelium Areolar tissue Figure 4-13b Tissue Membranes.
  • 79. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cutaneous Membrane (4-5) • Is skin • Covers the surface of the body • Thick, waterproof, and dry
  • 80. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The cutaneous membrane, or skin, covers the outer surface of the body. Epithelium Areolar tissue Dense irregular connective tissue Figure 4-13c Tissue Membranes.
  • 81. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Membranes (4-5) • Line moving, articulating joint cavities • Produce synovial fluid (lubricant) • Protect the ends of bones • Lack a true epithelium
  • 82. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and produce the fluid within the joint. Articular (hyaline) cartilage Synovial fluid Capsule Capillary Adipocytes Areolar tissue Epithelium Synovial membrane Bone Figure 4-13d Tissue Membranes.
  • 83. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-5) 19. Identify the four types of tissue membranes found in the body. 20. How does a plasma (cell) membrane differ from a tissue membrane? 21. What is the function of fluids produced by serous membranes? 22. The lining of the nasal cavity is normally moist, contains numerous mucous cells, and rests on a layer of areolar tissue. Which type of membrane is this?
  • 84. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Types of Muscle Tissue (4-6) 1. Skeletal muscle tissue • Large body muscles responsible for movement 2. Cardiac muscle tissue • Found only in the heart 3. Smooth muscle tissue • Found in walls of blood vessels • Found around hollow organs such as the urinary bladder • Around the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts
  • 85. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Muscle Tissue (4-6) • Specialized for contraction • Produces all body movement
  • 86. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cells are long, cylindrical, striated, and multinucleate. LOCATIONS: Combined with connective tissues and neural tissue in skeletal muscles FUNCTIONS: Moves or stabilizes the position of the skeleton; guards entrances and exits to the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts; generates heat; protects internal organs Nuclei Muscle fiber Striations Skeletal Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle LM x 180 Figure 4-14a Muscle Tissue.
  • 87. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-14b Muscle Tissue. Cells are short, branched, and striated, usually with a single nucleus; cells are interconnected by intercalated discs. LOCATION: Heart FUNCTIONS: Circulates blood; maintains blood (hydrostatic) pressure Cardiac Muscle Tissue Cardiac muscle Nucleus Cardiac muscle cells Intercalated discs Striations LM x 450
  • 88. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4-14c Muscle Tissue. Cells are short, spindle-shaped, and nonstriated, with a single, central nucleus. LOCATIONS: Found in the walls of blood vessels and in digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive organs FUNCTIONS: Moves food, urine, and reproductive tract secretions; controls diameter of respiratory passageways; regulates diameter of blood vessels Smooth Muscle Tissue Nucleus Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle LM x 235
  • 89. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-6) 23. Identify the three types of muscle tissue in the body. 24. Voluntary control is restricted to which type of muscle tissue? 25. Which type of muscle tissue has small, tapering cells with single nuclei and no obvious striations?
  • 90. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Neural Tissue (4-7) • Also called nervous or nerve tissue • Specialized for conducting electrical impulses • Rapidly senses internal or external environment • Processes information and controls responses
  • 91. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Neural Tissue (4-7) • Concentrated in the central nervous system • Brain • Spinal cord
  • 92. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Two Kinds of Neural Cells (4-7) 1. Neurons • Nerve cells • Perform electrical communication 2. Neuroglia • Supporting cells • Repair and supply nutrients to neurons
  • 93. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cell Parts of a Neuron (4-7) • Cell body • Contains the nucleus and nucleolus • Dendrites • Short branches extending from the cell body • Receive incoming signals • Axon (nerve fiber) • Long, thin extension of the cell body • Carries outgoing electrical signals to their destination
  • 94. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Axon terminals Brain Spinal cord Cell body Axon Neuron Nuclei of neuroglia Nucleus of neuron Axon Dendrites Cell body LM x 600 Photomicrograph of neuron cell body Figure 4-15 Neural Tissue.
  • 95. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-7) 26. A tissue contains irregularly shaped cells with many projections, including some several centimeters long. These are probably which type of cell? 27. Why are both skeletal muscle cells and axons also called fibers?
  • 96. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Tissue Injuries and Repair (4-8) • Tissues respond to injuries to maintain homeostasis • Cells restore homeostasis with two processes 1. Inflammation 2. Regeneration
  • 97. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Inflammation (4-8) • Inflammatory response • The tissue's first response to injury • Signs and symptoms include: • Swelling • Heat • Redness • Pain
  • 98. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Inflammatory Response (4-8) • Can be triggered by: • Trauma (physical injury) • Infection (the presence of harmful pathogens)
  • 99. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-8) 28. Identify the two phases in the response to tissue injury. 29. What signs and symptoms are associated with inflammation? 30. What is fibrosis?
  • 100. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Aging Tissue (4-9) • With age: • Rate of tissue repair declines • Cancer rates increase
  • 101. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Aging and Tissue Structure (4-9) • Speed and efficiency of tissue repair decrease with age due to: • Slower rate of energy consumption (metabolism) • Hormonal alterations • Reduced physical activity
  • 102. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Aging and Cancer Incidence (4-9) • Cancer rates increase with age • 1 in 4 people in the United States develops cancer • Cancer is the #2 cause of death in the United States • Environmental chemicals and cigarette smoke cause cancer
  • 103. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (4-9) 31.Identify some age-related factors that affect tissue repair and structure.

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