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  • 1. Water-Food-Energy Nexus in a changing world: Implication on investment in the water sector Hongpeng Liu Chief, Energy Security and Water Resources Section Environment and Development Division EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 2. Outline of presentations Linkages between Water-Food-Energy Some data about Water, Food & Energy Challenges Address the challenges: Investment implications in water sector Monitoring of Investments and Results Moving forward EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 3. Linkages between Water-Food-Energy EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 4. Some data – Water, Food & Energy  80% fresh water in Asia used for agriculture  50% of cost of delivering urban water for energy  Huge amount of water consumed for power generation and cooling  Water for bio-fuels competes with water for agriculture  Crops for biofuels competes with food from agriculture  Energy production accounts for about 30% water withdrawals in Europe & 40% in US  Energy demand is projected to rise by 40 to 50% for Asia by 2030, big implications on water EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 5. Water for energy: primary fuels Raw Materials Transformation Del. to Customer Oil Traditional Oil 3-7 l/GJ Oil Refining Enhanced Oil Recovery 25-65 l/GJ 50-9000 l/GJ Oil Sands 70-1800 l/GJ Delivery of Biofuels Ethanol Natural Gas and Corn 9000-100.000 l/GJ 47-50 l/GJ Liquid Fuels to Biodiesel Soy 14 l/GJ Customer 50000-270000 l/GJ involves only Sugar N/A small amounts of water Coal Coal to liquids 5-70 l/GJ 140-220 l/GJ Gas Traditional Gas Natural Gas Very small amount Processing Shale Gas 7l/GJ 36-54 l/GJ EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 6. Water for energy: electricity generation Raw Materials Transformation Del. to Customer Thermoel. Fuels Coal Thermoelectric 20-270 l/MWh Oil & Natural Gas Generation Wide variance (closed loop) Uranium 720-2700 l/MWh 170-570 l/MWh Delivery to Evaporation Loss Customer through Hydroelectric Average: 17.000 l/MWh electric grid involves very little Geothermal 5300 l/MWh water Concentrating Solar: consumption 2800-3500 l/MWh Solar Photovoltaic: Minimal Wind Wind EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 7. Energy for water: supply & services Raw Materials Transformation Del. to Customer Survace Water 0-2400 kWh/million l Treatment to Drinking Water Standards High Quality Groundw. 26 kWh/million l Brakish Groundw. ~290kWh/million l Desalination Groundwater 300-1400 kWh/million l 37 meters Seawater Desalination 140 kWh/million l 3600-4500 kWh/million l 122 meters 530 kWh/million l Municipal Wastewater Treatment Wastewater ~ 650 kWh/million l EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 8. Water for food a kilogram of tomatoes requires 160 liters of water (Water Footprint Network) Meat – 30,000 – 70,000 liters per kg Sugarcane – 250 tons per ton of cane Chocolate - 24,000 liters per kg (Ghana) EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 9. Challenges Multiple Challenges in water sector  Increasing water scarcity threat, High water utilization, Deteriorating water quality, natural disaster, ecosystem changes, cost recovery and performance management remain major challenges to improving sanitation etc Climate change – exacerbate these challenges Populations & economic growth Agricultural sector & crop production decline Multiple competition of freshwater in developing countries Growing interdependency of water, food & energy Water – new factor for food & energy security; central element in international relations (bilateral & multilateral) EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 10. Address the challenges: Investment implications in water sector Areas  Water Supply and Wastewater Service  Environmental Services and System Integrators  Component Manufacturers and Solution Providers  Sanitation Traditional investment  Gov budget, aid, loans, equity, PPPs etc. New trends  Specialized infrastructure and water funds  More tailored local currency lending strategies  Securitization and second market trading EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 11. Monitoring of Investments andResults (MIR) in Water Sector MIR, the 4th of 5 Key Result Areas of APWF  APWF an outcome of the 3WWF in Tokyo, March 2003, launched at the 4WWF in Mexico, March 2006  1st MIR was reported to the 1st APWS, Beppu, Japan, Dec 2007 To provide an indication of the improvement made in the water sector in ensuring socio- economic development EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 12. Monitoring of Investments and Results (MIR) in Water Sector Very complex  Cross-sector  Involving public/private sectors and civil societies  Within the public sectors  The various ministries and departments  Federal, provincial/states and local levels  in a continuing worsening and challenged environment of pollution/urbanization, multiple global crisis and climate change impacts Different levels of development will influence the different investments expanded for the various utilities and infrastructures as indicated EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 13. Differences on Infrastructure and Utility Allocation,circa 2000 between Japan and Malaysia Shares of Development Allocation for Infrastructure and Utilities 60 50 48.54 40 38.4 30 % 27.01 20.8 Malaysia 20 17.6 Japan 8.8 9.6 10 7.65 7.87 2.96 3.2 3.05 2.89 1.6 0 Sources: Japan expenditure for 2000 and 2001 Budget Allocation for Malaysia, 8th 5year plan (1996-2000) EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 14. Moving Forward Recognize MIR as an effective tool Develop a framework for MIR Information exchange Follow up activities towards the 2nd APWS EGM on MIR in the Water Sector, UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011
  • 15. THANK YOU EGM on MIR in the Water Sector,UNCC Bangkok, ESCAP, 22-23 September 2011