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Watt presentation 28 june 2010 singapore
 

Watt presentation 28 june 2010 singapore

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Mekong River Basin Governance presented by HE Watt Botkosal on 28 June

Mekong River Basin Governance presented by HE Watt Botkosal on 28 June
2010 in River Basin and Delta Management Workshop in Singapore.

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  • First of all, I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Organizer who invited and gave me a good opportunity to share my experiences and knowledge on Mekong River Basin and the Basin Development plan for the Lover Mekong River Basin, I am today, I will not speak on behalf Cambodia, but on behalf the MRC member countries, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. I work for Cambodia Government as Deputy Secretary General of Cambodia National Mekong Committee, I am also the National Coordinator for Basin Development Plan program of MRC. I bring some issues regarding to the Mekong Basin Development perspective and its challenges. I will talk about what is Mekong River Basin, then Lower Mekong Basin, its development, Mekong River Commission, its Basin Development Plan program, basin planning process, achievements so far, and next forward the basin development plan.
  •   The Mekong flows through six countries namely Southern China, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. From its source at the Tibetan plateau, the river maintains a southerly course for some 4,500 km to the South China Sea, draining a catchment area of 795,000 km2. For generations it has been a source of secured livelihoods for riparian people, a communication route linking many cultures, religions, traders, and communities. Its bounty water and natural resources have been a source of dream of many travellers and investors and planners. Harnessing the Mekong water resources for energy production is full in the agenda of the Mekong countries, while at the same time the growing concerns the sustainable use of water and related resources in a sustainable way for the benefit of over 70 million people ,most whom are living in rural areas as subsistence farmers and fishers, forest products gatherers.
  • The sustainable development of the Mekong River’s bounty water and related resources is the main goal of the Mekong cooperation under the 1995 Agreement framework of the four countries aiming at achieving socio-economic development while preserving the environment sustaining the unique and most productive ecosystem of the world. Despite its rather long history, the MRC did not achieve much of its development objectives in the recent past due mainly to the region conflict which has cause great disparity among member countries.
  • ‘ IWRM Strategic Directions’ in 2005, to promote the IWRM for MRC as a concept which is widely accepted by water professionals in the Mekong Basin. A meaningful integration within the context of the Mekong Basin requires a good understanding of the diversity of functions of the natural resources systems and the effects that planned interventions in one part of the basin. The ‘IWRM Strategic Directions’ focuses eight priority IWRM key result areas or priorities IWRM issues that are seen as most relevant to the MRC’s goals of sustainable, optimal and equitable development:   Economic development and poverty alleviation Environmental protection Social development and equity Dealing with climate variability Information based planning and management Regional cooperation Governance Integration through basin planning
  • The four countries (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam) in the Lower Mekong Basin have long recognized the needs for joint cooperation while recognizing differences in national interest, respective sovereignty when planning and designing new water utilization projects within a single transboundary river basin, this spirit of collaboration being embodied in the 1995 Mekong Agreement, the legal framework for Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin. The implementation of the Agreement is guided by series of the basin development strategy, currently at its 4 th Strategic Plan (2011-1015), building upon IWRM-Based Strategy. This marks the key turning point of the Mekong Agreement from a donor driven organization towards a self sustained organization in the medium term through a comprehensive riparianization process.
  • to cooperate in the formulation of the basin development plan that would be used to identify, categorize and prioritize the projects and programs to seek assistance for and to implement the plan at the basin level. This definition provides the scope of MRC as further defined in the first three articles of the Agreement which outline areas of cooperation related to coordinated and/or joint planning for balanced and socially just development in the Mekong River Basin, and which oblige the countries to protect the environment and ecological balance of the Mekong River Basin. The areas of cooperation are in all fields of sustainable development, utilization, management and conservation of the water and related resources of the Mekong River Basin, such as navigation, flood mitigation, fisheries, agricultures, hydropower and environment protection.
  • tangible results focusing on poverty reduction through sustainable development has been achieved. For example, more sustainable and productive fisheries, more efficient and productive water use in irrigated agriculture, sustainable watershed management, appropriate exploitation of the hydropower potential development, free and increased navigation, improved protection against floods, healthy river systems in terms of vital functions and water quality and adaptation strategy on climate change. This effort came from the roles of MRC for overall basin development process for next 20 year development planning and long-term development that makes links with on-going regional and national interests.
  • The IWRM approach will help to integrate all aspects of development to one development space. At this primary stage the member states understand the development space as sustainable development aspect that provide agreement on how water will be allocated equitably, marinated its quality for all sector development and environmental protection. The water will be managed for agriculture, for fisheries, for health, for ecotourism and recreation, for ecosystem, for people and so on. Integration and well-coordination of these sector development aspects will help each sector for example in the river basin, agriculture shall be developed with water management sector, environmental and land management. The development space will be defined as well with aspect of climate change
  • The basin development scenarios support to predict the impact in next 20 year development as planned for key sectors such hydropower, irrigation schemes, water supply, and reservoir development that align with national and basin-wide development perspectives. The assessment of development scenarios as used by different methodologies in the assessment models, provide indicators on losing, and gain from the development. The loss is for fisheries, wetlands, affected people, agricultural productivity and environment. The benefit is for economic growth from hydroelectricity and other sectors based on energy. The results of scenarios provide good recommendation for further interventions such defined the IWRM-based basin development strategy and plan
  • The IWRM-based Basin Development Strategy is ‘owned’ and implemented by the four Member countries. For its implementation each country is able to adapt the guidelines and processes in the Strategy into various transboundary and national governance processes. At the transboundary level, this relates to how each country is able to work through the MRC cooperation process and interact with each other to use and manage the development space. The policies, strategy, institutional and regulatory advancements in all countries have provided an excellent platform to maximize cooperation at the basin level through MRC activities. A priority for the MRC for the next few years (2011-2015) is the consultation with, and participation by the broader basin community to improve processes for transparent basin wide dialogue, and encouraging the development of national approaches to consultation that relate well to the basin perspective. However, all MRC processes must be governed by the views and processes of its “owners” – the four LMB countries – and each country has its own systems, approaches and cultures relating to community or mass participation. All of these views need to be blended into a coherent and well structured stakeholder participation policy and set of processes.
  • The process of formulation of IWRM-based basin development strategy is agreed among member states stakeholders and to be implemented by all for development of socio-economic growth and environmental sound for the whole Mekong basin. It creates a common understanding process for the whole river basin as well national basin planning to be integrated and harmonized. This integrated and harmonized process will provide good development and cooperation platform to maximize cooperation at the basin level through MRC activities. The process can catalyze and promote better cooperation among different agencies and institutions with different stakeholders at national and local level who involve water and related resources management and development. The water related policies, strategies and regulations from each country have been discussed and analyzed during the stages of IWRM-based basin development strategy formulation.
  • To support the sustainable development of the Mekong River Basin, the MRC has been implementing its Strategic Plan 2006-2010 focusing three broad issues: Tangible results focused on poverty reduction through sustainable development Creating ownership and value-added with a broadened interpretation to include better integration of MRC and national development plans Adopting an integrated water resource management (IWRM) approach which is necessary for the MRC to jointly promote development and conservation to ensure sustainable cooperation for the utilization of the Mekong’s common resources. There are development strategies for the Mekong River Basin as based on the 1995 Mekong Agreement: Achieve the full potential of sustainable benefits from the Mekong River Basin Increasing demand from countries for a basin-wide view on how the proposed developments in the LMB can be achieved in a sustainable and mutual beneficial way The need for a framework to help countries undertake developments with due sustainability considerations, both transboundary and national The commitment of the four member countries for their support for sustainable development and management of the Mekong water and related resources has been reaffirmed by the head of the government of the four member countries at the MRC’s Summit held in Hua Hin on 5 th April 2010, recognizing the need for an accelerating development and at the same time finding a balance between development and conservation including capacity development for climate change adaptation.
  • Despite some progress has been made, there are still many challenges lying ahead of MRC and its programme namely: the need to meet the accelerated demand for energy and raw material driving by globalization and economic connectivity, low public investment in water management infrastructure, high poverty rate mostly of rural population, shortage of skill and know how etc.. The basin has so far developed less than 20% of its potential for hydropower and the Mekong water is still could be considered as clean as compared to many other rivers of the world. But results from scenarios assessment indicated that while hydropower benefit could be high, the impact hydropower may caused to the basin environment, ecosystem an fisheries resources could be very high too with great implication on millions of people livelihood mostly subsistence farmers and fisher especially in Tonle Sap Lake affect to about 2 million people in Cambodia. Achieving sustainable hydropower development while preserving vital ecosystems of the basin and food production modernization such as irrigation and drainage as well as navigation, are other major challenges facing by government’s decision makers, investors and concerned stakeholders. In recent years, the emerging development trends become the key for Mekong River Basin. It is expected at the end of 2010, the BDP Program will produce its key outputs such IWRM-based basin development strategy and basin development project portfolios to be adopted by member countries. In next 5 year term Strategic Plan of MRC, these documents will be implemented by member countries for to create balancing development and conservation of natural resources. MRC will have a role Basic requirements for bringing in the process of IWRM are twofold.   In order to achieve the Mekong Basin Vision” An economically prosperous, socially just and environmentally sound Mekong River Basin” and from the views of 1995 Mekong Agreement and perspectives of recent development trends in the river basin, there are challenges that Mekong river basin facing. Those real challenges are the key to achieve the tangible targets in the next five years are as follows:   Understanding of functions of Mekong Basin natural resources and their potential development Emerging development trends in the whole basin including on mainstream and tributaries of the Mekong river Ensuring mutual benefits to all Member States Minimizing the harmful effects from natural concurrences and man-made activities Keeping balance of environmental protection and conservation compared with the development and utilization of water and related resources of the Mekong River Basin, Emerging climate change challenge   For the MRC challenges including MRC to deliver its products to the member countries The implementation of IWRM as cooperative and operative framework Successful implementation of IWRM-based basin development strategy Well designed IWRM-based basin development plan Implementing the roles and core functions of MRC Enhanced public participation of different stakeholders MRC to commit for riparianisation that accountability, responsible by itself, fund securing in 2030.

Watt presentation 28 june 2010 singapore Watt presentation 28 june 2010 singapore Presentation Transcript

  • Mekong Basin Development Perspective and its Challenges at the Singapore International Water Week 2010-River Basin and Delta Management Workshop 28 June 2010
  • Content of presentation
    • Purpose of presentation
    • Understanding about Mekong River Basin: Geography and peoples
    • 1995 Mekong Agreement and Mekong River Commission
    • MRC Basin Development Plan Framework
      • Approach to developing a basin-wide development plan
      • Comprehensive management planning of water resources
      • Regional Cooperation and Transboundary Governance
      • Harmonized Basin and National Basin Planning Processes
    • The Mekong Development Strategy
    • The Mekong Development Challenges
    • Conclusion and comments
    • Key issues for Discussion
  • Purpose of presentation
    • To present to the Workshop: Mekong Basin Development Perspective and its Challenges, focusing mainly on Basin Development Plan and its planning process, as the whole development perspective and its challenges in terms of institutional functions (of Mekong River Commission) for development and the Mekong river basin itself.
  • Understanding about Mekong River Basin: Geography and peoples
  • Mekong River Basin: Geography and peoples The Mekong River Basin Area: 795,000 km2 Length: 4,800 km
  • 1995 Mekong Agreement and MRC
    • 1995 Mekong Agreement singed on 5 April 1995 by Lower Mekong Basin countries: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam, outlines the legal mandate of the Mekong River Commission (MRC) , the International River Basin Organization implementing its functions to support the countries’ development and cooperation based on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles .
  • MRC adopted the IWRM principles
    • The ‘IWRM Strategic Directions’ focuses eight priority IWRM key result areas that are seen as most relevant to the MRC’s goals of sustainable, optimal and equitable development:
      • Economic development and poverty alleviation
      • Environmental protection
      • Social development and equity
      • Dealing with climate variability
      • Information based planning and management
      • Regional cooperation
      • Governance
      • Integration through basin planning
  • MRC Strategic Plan 2006-2010
    • Three results:
    • focusing on pro-poor development through sustainable development, greater engaging in facilitating cross-border trade so as to make a real effect on the lives of the people within the basin,
    • strengthening country ownership of the MRC activities and MRC’s value added, and
    • consolidating an IWRM approach to the Basin Development Planning process.
  • MRC Basin Development Plan Framework
      • Approach to developing a basin-wide development plan
      • Comprehensive management planning of water resources
      • Regional Cooperation and Transboundary Governance
      • Harmonized Basin and National Basin Planning Processes
  • What is Basin Development Plan?
    • The 1995 Mekong Agreement clearly defines the Basin Development Plan as the general planning tool and process that the MRC Joint Committee would use as a blueprint to identify, categorize and prioritize the projects and programs to seek assistance for and to implement the plan at the basin level aiming at achieving socio-economic development while preserving the environment sustaining the unique and most productive ecosystem of the world.
  • Approach to developing a basin-wide development plan
    • BDP Planning Units
    • The LMB is divided into 10 sub-areas as planning unites for the BDP purpose based on geographic, hydrological and administrative feathers, characterized by Transboundary planning unit between two or three countries, country planning unites and the whole LMB-regional planning unite
  • BDP Planning Cycle
  • The IWRM-based BDP
    • comprises three elements:
    • Development Scenarios , which assess the potential and constraints for the further development of some of the water resources in the various parts of the Mekong Basin. The results will guide the formulation of the IWRM-based Basin Strategy and the project portfolio.
    • An IWRM-based Basin development Strategy , which provides a long-term view of how the Mekong Basin may be developed in a sustainable manner for poverty reduction. The strategy will also guide the implementation of the IWRM at basin, national and sub-basin levels, and assist line agencies with preparation of plans and projects that are sensitive to resource protection issues.
    • A project portfolio of structural (investment) projects and supporting non-structural projects, as envisioned in the 1995 Agreement, to develop some of the Mekong Basin’s water and related resources and minimise harmful effects that might result from natural occurrences and man-made activities.
  • considered basin-wide development scenarios
  • Comprehensive management planning of water resources
  • Flexible IWRM-based Basin Development Strategy
    • Defines or reconfirms the long-term goals and current specific objectives of basin development and management .
    • Defines the ‘development space ’ of the basin’s water and related resources and strategic guidance for the use and management of that space.
    • Creates IWRM guidelines and processes that will assist water managers at the national and sub-basin levels in the allocation, use and management of water resources.
    • Provides a relational planning framework for the basin, national and sub-basin levels, building on the existing MRC procedures and associated guidelines under the 1995 Mekong Agreement.
    • Allocates responsibilities for the implementation of the Strategy to the key target groups (riparian countries, MRC, development partners and others).
  • Regional Cooperation and Transboundary Governance
  • IWRM-based Basin Development Strategy
    • is ‘owned’ and implemented by the four Member countries, its implementation that each country is able to adapt the guidelines and processes in the Strategy into various transboundary and national governance processes.
    • At the transboundary level, this relates to how each country is able to work through the MRC cooperation process and interact with each other to use and manage the development space
    • A priority for the MRC for the next few years (2011-2015) is the consultation with, and participation by the broader basin community to improve processes for transparent basin wide dialogue, and encouraging the development of national approaches to consultation that relate well to the basin perspective.
  • Harmonized Basin and National Basin Planning Processes
  • IWRM-based BDS formulation process
    • was agreed among member states stakeholders and to be implemented by all for development of socio-economic growth and environmental sound for the whole Mekong basin.
    • creates a common understanding process for the whole river basin as well national basin planning to be integrated and harmonized, providing good development and cooperation platform to maximize cooperation at the basin level through MRC activities.
    • catalyzes and promotes better cooperation among different agencies and institutions with different stakeholders at national and local level who involve water and related resources management and development
    • The water related policies, strategies and regulations from each country have been discussed and analyzed during the stages of this strategy formulation.
  • The Mekong Development Strategy
  • 1995 Mekong Agreement
    • Development strategies:
    • Achieve the full potential of sustainable benefits from the Mekong River Basin
    • Increasing demand from countries for a basin-wide view on how the proposed developments in the LMB can be achieved in a sustainable and mutual beneficial way
    • The need for a framework to help countries undertake developments with due sustainability considerations, both transboundary and national
  • MRC Strategic Plan 2006-2010
    • Three broad development aspects/issues:
    • Tangible results focused on poverty reduction through sustainable development
    • Creating ownership and value-added with a broadened interpretation to include better integration of MRC and national development plans
    • Adopting an integrated water resource management (IWRM) approach which is necessary for the MRC to jointly promote development and conservation to ensure sustainable cooperation for the utilization of the Mekong’s common resources.
  • MRC’s Summit held in Hua Hin on 5 th April 2010
    • is the commitment of the four member countries for their support for sustainable development and management of the Mekong water and related resources
    • reaffirmed by the Head of the Government the recognizing the need for an accelerating development and at the same time finding a balance between development and conservation including capacity development for climate change adaptation.
  • The Mekong Development Challenges
  • Development Challenges
    • the need to meet the accelerated demand for energy and raw material driving by globalization and economic connectivity, low public investment in water management infrastructure, high poverty rate mostly of rural population, shortage of skill and know how etc..
    • results from scenarios assessment indicated that while hydropower benefit could be high, the impact hydropower may caused to the basin environment, ecosystem an fisheries resources could be very high too with great implication on millions of people livelihood mostly subsistence farmers and fisher especially in Tonle Sap Lake affect to about 2 million people in Cambodia
    • Achieving sustainable hydropower development while preserving vital ecosystems of the basin and food production modernization such as irrigation and drainage as well as navigation, are other major challenges facing by government’s decision makers, investors and concerned stakeholders.
  • Challenges for next five years 2011-2015
    • to achieve the tangible targets:
    • Understanding of functions of Mekong Basin natural resources and their potential development
    • Emerging development trends in the whole basin including on mainstream and tributaries of the Mekong river
    • Ensuring mutual benefits to all Member States
    • Minimizing the harmful effects from natural concurrences and man-made activities
    • Keeping balance of environmental protection and conservation compared with the development and utilization of water and related resources of the Mekong River Basin,
    • Emerging climate change challenge
  • MRC challenges
    • MRC to deliver its products to the member countries
    • The implementation of IWRM as cooperative and operative framework
    • Successful implementation of IWRM-based basin development strategy
    • Well designed IWRM-based basin development plan
    • Implementing the roles and core functions of MRC
    • Enhanced public participation of different stakeholders
    • MRC to commit for riparianisation that accountability, responsible by itself, fund securing in 2030.
  • Conclusion and comments
    • Mekong BDP is the process to support and engage the integrated national and regional development planning guided by the IWRM-based strategy with full participation of all stakeholders is intended to be a transparent and effective at regional, national and sub-basin or River Basin Organization level and support sustainable and equitable development of the Mekong basin as envisioned by MRC.
    • Major challenges would be different level of development and interest of member countries. In spite strong political will, MRC is still an organization depending heavily on its Secretariat for coordination and project and programme implementation and management with less direct involvement of line agencies at national level.
    • Riparianization and decentralization which will begin at the beginning of the upcoming Strategic Plan of MRC (2011-2015) and IWRM-based basin development strategy will mark new trend in the history of MRC towards an effective river basin organization.
  • Key issues for Discussion
    • How to involve China as Upper Mekong Basin Country to MRC?
    • There are different interests in the development of different countries in the Mekong Basin; mechanism and procedure for benefit sharing.
    • How to make MRC to be efficient partner among other players in water and related resources management, development and planning?
    • MRC is not the basin authority, it just river basin commission, what should be best suitable roles and responsibilities of all parties concerned (MRCS, NMCSs, and Line Agencies.
    • How MRC can effectively deliver its products useful to the Member countries?
  • Thank you very much for your kind attention