IWRM Evaluation Result_Singapore

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  •   Since independence, as a small island state with no natural resources, limited land and a rapidly growing population, Singapore had to cope with various challenges to ensure its initial survival and continual liveability. In the context of Singapore, the chief impacts of climate change on water would be a rise in sea level and changes in rainfall patterns. As a low-lying, densely populated island located in the tropics, Singapore is susceptible to the impacts of climate change. In the same manner as Singapore has grappled with its challenges over the last forty years, we have adopted a long-term, pragmatic and flexible approach to meet the challenges of climate change going forward. Today, I am honoured to be able to share with you this approach in managing the impacts of climate change on water, and more importantly, in ensuring the sustainability of our water resources. Singapore has always viewed water as a strategic resource. Being in the tropics, we get a lot of rainfall with some 2400mm falling annually. However, our water challenges stem not from the lack of rainfall, but rather, from limited land to collect and store the rainwater. Given our tropical climate, we also experience high evaporative losses. These factors, coupled with the lack of underground water sources such as aquifers has resulted in the United Nations ranking Singapore 170 out of 190 in terms of water scarcity.
  • The Ministry of Environment and Water Resources (MEWR) focuses on management of water, land, air and public health. The operational undertakings in these areas are carried out by our two statutory boards, the National Environment Agency (for Clean Land, Clean Air, and Public Health) and the PUB (for Clean Water) Touching very briefly on the four main areas of the Ministry’s work:- Clean Land: is about managing waste solid waste, its collection and disposal, as well as controlling land-based pollution Clean Air: is about ensuring that air quality in Singapore is good and remains within international standards Public Health: our efforts are focused on maintaining a high standard of public cleanliness and hygiene, ensuring the living environment is disease-free, and that Singaporeans can enjoy clean, wholesome cooked food. Clean Water: the efforts centre on providing a clean and adequate supply of water for Singapore.
  • PUB’s Role and the Water Loop As the national water agency, PUB not only supplies treated water, but also oversees the management of the entire water loop, including the collection and treatment of rainwater and used water, management of floods and the further treatment of used water for reuse. Within the water loop, rain that falls on the ground is collected through our drains and collection ponds to the reservoirs, where it is pumped to our local waterworks to produce drinking water. It is then supplied to the population for domestic and non-domestic uses. Used water is then collected through our network of sewers and treated at our Water Reclamation plants to standards fit for discharge out to the open sea, where it evaporates to form rain clouds, and returns to earth as rain. Over the last decade, PUB has used advanced technology like Membrane Technology to ‘short-circuit’ the water cycle. Instead of discharging treated used water into the sea, it is sent for advanced membrane treatment at our NEWater plants to produce NEWater. This is then either supplied directly for non-potable uses such as cleaning of wafers and air-con cooling purposes, or is mixed in our reservoir water and treated at our local waterworks to become drinking water. Another way in which we have ‘short-circuited’ the water cycle is through desalination, where drinking water is produced directly from seawater. This entire water loop and its ‘short-circuits’ is managed and operated by over 3,000 PUB employees.
  • This strategy is encapsulated in the PUB’s corporate tagline: Water for All: Conserve, Value, Enjoy. “ Water for All” refers to the supply strategy to ensure a diversified and sustainable supply of water for Singapore. “Conserve, Value, Enjoy” describes water demand management. It reflects the approach to involve the people-public-private sectors to play their part to conserve water, keep the water catchments and waterways clean and build a relationship with water so everyone can enjoy the water resources.
  • To meet the needs of a growing population and a rapidly expanding economy, PUB carried out extensive efforts to diversify and expand our water supply. Today, we have put in place a diversified water supply system with four different sources known as the Four National Taps: water from local catchments, imported water, NEWater (or high grade water reclaimed from treated used water) and desalinated water. To ensure water sustainability, from the outset, Singapore has been compelled to innovate creative solutions amidst competition for scarce resources. One such example is harvesting rainwater from urban water catchments. The conventional approach would have been to keep the catchments pristine. However, given our rapid population growth and economic development, it is important to intensify and optimise land use in this land scarce city-state. This led to the creation of unprotected catchments and eventually, urban catchments to expand Singapore’s local water sources. This means that rainwater in densely populated residential towns is also being collected and conveyed to reservoirs for storage, and then extracted and treated for potable use. By 2011, 2/3 of Singapore’s land will be water catchments, with the Marina Reservoir as well as two new reservoirs in the northeastern part of Singapore, making a total of 17 reservoirs in Singapore.
  • The second National Tap is that of imported water from Johor, Malaysia. Currently there are two water agreements with Johor: one from 1961 to 2011, and another from 1962 to 2061.
  • One of the main highlight of 2005 was the turning on of our fourth tap – desalinated water. PM Lee officiated the official opening of the SingSpring desalination plant in Tuas on 13 Sep 2005. It marked a significant chapter in Singapore’s water history as all our four national taps are now all turned on. The plant is PUB’s first PPP project in which it is design, own and operated by private company. PUB buys the product water under a 20year water purchase agreement. The desalination plant is now in operation, capable of supplying up to 30mgd of desalinated water to supplement our potable water supply to the western part of Singapore. Supplementary Info Desalinated water will be blended with potable water and supplied to Lim Chu Kang, Jurong, Tuas, Jurong Island, Bukit Batok, Clementi, West Coast, Commonwealth Avenue West and Buona Vista The desalination plant can produce up to 30 mgd of drinking water. This represents 10 % of our current water demand The plant was built by SingSpring under the DBOO scheme at a cost of S$200 million. Under the contract, SingSpring will supply 30 million gallons per day of desalinated water to PUB for 20 years. The price of desalinated water will start at $0.78 per cu metre and it would vary monthly with prevailing fuel price and annually with inflation based on a pre-defined formula.
  • 135Ha freed up for use
  • Deep Tunnel Sewerage System But before that , let me give some background on the DTSS. LTA has their highways but PUB has its own superhighway for used water to meet the needs for our future. DTSS was conceived as a sustainable solution to meet Singapore’s long term needs for used water collection, treatment, disposal and reclamation. It is also an integral part of Singapore’s water supply strategy To ensure that our used water infrastructure can continue to support our population and economic growth throughout this 21 st century, in the mid 90s, we started to look for a more long term and sustainable engineering solution. The DTSS is the answer.
  • Deep Tunnel Sewerage System But before that , let me give some background on the DTSS. LTA has their highways but PUB has its own superhighway for used water to meet the needs for our future. DTSS was conceived as a sustainable solution to meet Singapore’s long term needs for used water collection, treatment, disposal and reclamation. It is also an integral part of Singapore’s water supply strategy To ensure that our used water infrastructure can continue to support our population and economic growth throughout this 21 st century, in the mid 90s, we started to look for a more long term and sustainable engineering solution. The DTSS is the answer.
  • Slide 11: DTSS As I said earlier we completely separate our storm water and sewer networks. To ensure sustainability of NEWater we have centralised our water reclamation of used water with a Deep Tunnel solution which helps saves land. The DTSS is a $3.8 billion project that involves the building of a 43 km tunnel conveying the used water from half of Singapore to a centralised water reclamation plant. On top of the plant is being built our fifth and largest NEWater factory. We have been working well with the Japanese water players on a number of PUB projects such as NEWater and Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS), a superhighway to collect used water for treatment and further purification. Toray, Asahi-Kasei and Nitto Denko, have been a part of our NEWater projects, supplying microfiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes to the NEWater plants. A number of Japanese companies were also involved in the DTSS Project. Companies like Kumagai and Penta Ocean were two of the six main contractors for the construction of the 48-km North Tunnel using Japanese tunnel boring machines. For the construction of the DTSS-Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Mitsubishi supplied the large air blowers for the liquid treatment process, Kubota and Torishima supplied large pumps for the deep influent and effluent pumping stations, while Yokagawa supplied a series of process instrumentation and control devices throughout the plant.
  • However, long-term sustainability in water cannot be achieved by boosting water supply alone. Equally important is the need to manage demand through a partnership approach involving different stakeholder groups. Over the last few years, PUB has been actively engaging the community through a series of public engagement programmes and initiatives to encourage the People, Private and Public sectors to use water wisely, keep the waters clean, and develop a relationship with water by enjoying the recreational opportunities that our water resources offer.
  • Let me now move on to talk about climate change and how Singapore is addressing it. By diversifying our water sources to create a sustainable supply for our country, we have made our water system more resilient to the vagaries of nature. This has stand Singapore in good stead to mitigate the threat that climate change phenomena, such as sea level rise and rainfall changes, could pose to our water supply. In 2007, NEA commissioned a study involving local and foreign experts to understand our vulnerabilities to climate change. The first phase of the study covering the physical impacts of climate change has concluded. The study projects that the average daily temperature in Singapore could increase by between 2.7 to 4.2oC from the current average of 26.8oC by 2100 and the mean sea level around Singapore could rise by 24 to 65 cm by 2100. These findings are within the range of our expectations and consistent with global projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In addition, there is no discernible trend in rainfall projections.
  • Singapore is not spared from extreme weather conditions – short intense rainfalls and prolonged dry spells Climate change vs Variability in weather patterns
  • Singapore receives a substantial amount of rain and much of Singapore is relatively low-lying. In the 1960s and 1970s, floods were common and widespread, especially in city area. The development of drainage infrastructure in Singapore, amounting to $2 billion over the last 30 years, has reduced flood prone areas from 3178 ha in 1970's to 66 ha today. We will continue to update our drainage designs regularly with new rainfall projections so as to ensure that our drainage infrastructure is adequate to meet changes in rainfall patterns. In fact we have for new developments, upgraded the design of outlet drains to cater for more intense storms with a return period of 25 years (instead of 5 years) where possible.
  • High sea levels also pose a challenge for drainage to the sea. Higher tide levels can aggravate inland flooding during rainstorms or storm surges. In view of this, since 1991, all land reclamation projects had to be built at least 125 cm above the highest recorded tide level. This judicious requirement has put Singapore in a stronger position to deal with future increases in sea levels arising from climate change. The requirement of 125 cm exceeds current projection of the highest sea level rise of 65 cm by 2100.
  • As mentioned earlier, we have diversified our available water resources by developing alternative sources, namely, NEWater and Desalination. Both desalination and NEWater are water treatment processes that are not subject to the vagaries of weather. The aim of both NEWater and desalination is not to replace natural water, but to build resilience in our water supply to mitigate the effect of changing weather patterns. We have also sought to develop alternative water sources such as Variable Salinity Plant (VSP) that is able to treat feed water of varying salinity to potable water. The VSP can potentially enable Singapore to tap on marginal sources of water from our fringe catchments to further increase the water catchment area in Singapore. PUB had successfully tested the technical feasibility of the VSP through a 240m3 per day pilot plant. Following this, a medium-scale demonstration plant of 4560m3 per day was built and has been operating since July 2007.
  • Climate change is a complex issue and the issues that are discussed can be baffling to the man on the street. As part of informing and educating the public on the impacts of climate change on Singapore, we are rolling out a public communications programme to address public concerns by highlighting government’s current strategies for adaptation. For a start, we have released a climate change brochure sharing the findings of the vulnerability study, and assuring the public that government is proactive in addressing climate change and will regularly review the need for additional adaptation measures. In addition, some simple measures of how individual Singaporeans can also do their part in addressing the challenge of climate change were also shared.
  • PUB’s Role and the Water Loop As the National Water Agency, PUB not only supplies treated water, but also oversees the management of the entire water loop, including the collection and treatment of rainwater and used water, management of floods and the further treatment of used water for reuse. Within the water loop, rain that falls on the ground is collected through our drains and collection ponds to the reservoirs, where it is pumped to our local waterworks to produce drinking water. It is then supplied to the population for domestic and non-domestic uses. Used water is then collected through our network of sewers and treated at our Water Reclamation plants to standards fit for discharge out to the open sea, where it evaporates to form rain clouds, and returns to earth as rain. Over the last decade, PUB has used advanced technology like Membrane Technology to ‘short-circuit’ the water cycle. Instead of discharging treated used water into the sea, it is sent for advanced membrane treatment at our NEWater plants to produce NEWater. This is then either supplied directly for non-potable uses such as cleaning of wafers and air-con cooling purposes, or is mixed in our reservoir water and treated at our local waterworks to become drinking water. Another way in which we have ‘short-circuited’ the water cycle is through desalination, where drinking water is produced directly from seawater. This entire water loop and its ‘short-circuits’ is managed and operated by over 3,000 PUB employees.
  • Innovation and the use of technologies is another important strategy for Singapore to meet long-term water demand and to build capabilities to meet new challenges like climate change. It was through leveraging on technology such as membranes for NEWater that we have been able to significantly expand our available water supply. PUB continues to research and develop various alternatives, such as membrane distillation and variable salinity plants which are less energy-intensive than desalination. In addition, the Singapore Government has also challenged the global research community to produce viable alternatives that would desalinate seawater using 50 per cent less energy than current technologies. Siemens Water Technologies had bested the competition with a novel electrically-driven desalination process and received €2.3 million worth of funds to investigate and develop the concept further.
  • Slide 27: Growing the Water Sector So in the last three years, the Singapore government has decided to encourage the growth of the water industry as a strong knowledge based sector that will be a key strategic growth engine for the Singapore economy, taking advantage of what has been built up, and the opportunities in the world market. The global water sector has also exponentially over the past decade. According to Global Water Intelligence, during the 11 years to January 2009, a total of $1.12 billion of venture capital was invested in developing new water technologies. The Asian Development Bank Water Financing Program 2006-2010 seeks to double investments in rural and urban water services and basin water management to well over $2 billion annually. In 2006, a council chaired by the Prime Minister identified the water sector as one of three new economic growth engines for Singapore. A sum of S$330M was committed by the National Research Foundation, under a Clean Water Programme over five years, to grow the water industry through research and development (R&D). The goal is to triple value-added contribution to S$1.7B and double the number of jobs to 11,000 by 2015. In tandem with this, the Environment and Water Industry Development Council (or EWI) was set up to drive Singapore’s goal to be a hub for environment and water for business, investment, research and technology. Through funding promising research projects, the EWI aims to foster leading-edge technologies and create a thriving and vibrant research community in Singapore.
  • In addition, PUB has been organising the Singapore International Water Week since 2008. This is an annual event conceptualized as the global platform for water solutions and facilitates the formation of partnerships for sustainable water solutions to be implemented around the world. The Singapore International Water Week brings together policy makers, industry leaders, experts and practitioners to address challenges, showcase technologies, discover opportunities and celebrate achievements in the water world through a comprehensive array of key pillar events covering all facets of water. The last Water Week in 2010 attracted more than 10,000 delegates and visitors from more than 80 countries. The next Water Week will be held from 4-8 July 2011, themed “Sustainable Water Solutions for a Changing Urban Environment”. I would like to invite all of you to the Water Week, to contribute to the exchange of ideas and the growth of water capabilities, towards developing better solutions for the region and the world. Thank you.
  • IWRM Evaluation Result_Singapore

    1. 1. Integrated Water Resources Management for Singapore Christopher Chua Singapore
    2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Singapore: Our Unique Circumstances </li></ul></ul>Singapore Land Area ~710 km 2 Population 5.1 mil Average Annual Rainfall 2,400 mm Average Water Demand 1.6 mil m 3 /day
    3. 3. Droughts leading to water rationing <ul><ul><li>Singapore’s Water Challenges in Our Early Days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Growth - Population from 1.65 million in 1960 to 5.1 million in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Economic Growth – Per capital GDP from USD 428* in 1960 to USD 43,867 in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 national taps - catchment (dependent on weather) and imported water from Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Not all homes are sewered (bucket system) </li></ul><ul><li>Street hawkers </li></ul><ul><li>Unaccounted for water is high </li></ul>* Adjusted for Inflation River pollution Bucket System
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Singapore Today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 National Taps - Resilient supply of water </li></ul><ul><li>Unaccounted for Water below 5 % – One of the lowest in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic water consumption per capita at 154litre/day </li></ul><ul><li>100% served by modern sanitation system </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated urban and water planning to enhance the quality of our living environment </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>“ To deliver and sustain a clean and healthy environment and water resources for all in Singapore.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To ensure an efficient, adequate & sustainable supply of water ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To ensure a sustainable quality environment in Singapore” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Health </li></ul></ul>A statutory board to provide integrated water supply, sewerage and drainage services <ul><ul><li>PUB, the national water agency </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. From sourcing, collection, purification and supply of drinking water, to treatment of used water and turning it into NEWater, drainage of storm water PUB Manages the Complete Water Loop <ul><ul><li>PUB manages the entire water loop </li></ul></ul>sea rain stormwater management collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs treatment of raw to potable water reclamation of used water collection of used water in sewers supply of water to the population & industries treatment of used water desalination
    7. 7. Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water Supply - 4 National Taps Demand - 3P Approach “ Conserve Water” “ Value Our Water” “ Enjoy Our Waters” “ Water for All” “ Conserve, Value, Enjoy” <ul><ul><li>Ensuring Water Sustainability </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Protected Catchment Unprotected Catchment Urban Stormwater Collection System <ul><li>Catchment area has been increased to two-thirds of Singapore with the opening of new reservoirs </li></ul>MacRitchie Reservoir <ul><ul><li>Harvesting Every Drop </li></ul></ul>Serangoon Reservoir Marina Reservoir Punggol Legend Unprotected Water Catchment Protected Water Catchment Proposed Water Catchment
    9. 9. <ul><li>Two water agreements with Johor, Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1961 to 2011 (Expired 31 Aug) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1962 to 2061 </li></ul></ul></ul>State of Johor, Malaysia PUB pipelines carrying water from Johor <ul><ul><li>Imported Water </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. NEWater pipeline NEWater Plant Service Reservoir Legend NEWater capacity meeting 30% of Singapore’s water needs Kranji – 17mgd Seletar – 5mgd Bedok – 18mgd Changi - 50mgd NEWater Plant by Sempcorp- DBOO Ulu Pandan – 32mgd NEWater Plant by Keppel Seghers- DBOO Closing the Water Loop
    11. 11. <ul><li>SingSpring Desalination Plant (Hyflux subsidiary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 mgd (136,000m 3 /day), 20-year DBOO plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Officially opened by PM Lee on 13 Sep 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TuasSpring Desalination Plant (Hyflux subsidiary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70 mgd (318,500m 3 /day), 25 year DBOO plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under construction; expected to be ready in 2013 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future plans: to have desalination capacity meet 25% and 30% of water needs by 2020 and 2060 respectively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harnessing Water From the Sea </li></ul></ul>SingSpring Desalination Plant
    12. 12. Water Supply Network 5,380 Km of Pipelines 1.3 Mil Accounts 4.6 Mil Population Boosting Pumps Station Customers on High Grounds <125 m RL Direct Supply 125 m – 137 m RL Indirect Supply through HLT >137 m RL Indirect Supply through LLT & HLT
    13. 13. Used Water Infrastructure before DTSS Jurong WRP Ulu Pandan WRP Kranji WRP Seletar WRP Kim Chuan WRP Bedok WRP Water Reclamation Plants Used Water Pumping Stations
    14. 14. <ul><li>Used water superhighway to meet needs for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable solution to Singapore’s long-term needs for used water collection, treatment, disposal and reclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Integral part of Singapore’s water supply strategy </li></ul>Phase 1 Phase 2 Used Water Infrastructure - Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS)
    15. 15. <ul><li>Used water superhighway to meet needs for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable solution to Singapore’s long-term needs for used water collection, treatment, disposal and reclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Integral part of Singapore’s water supply strategy </li></ul>Present Used Water Infrastructure - Completion of DTSS Phase 1, since 2008 Kranji WRP Seletar WRP to be decommissioned Kim Chuan WRP Decommissioned Bedok WRP Decommissioned Changi WRP Ulu Pandan WRP Jurong WRP Jurong Island Transforming water management in Singapore – the Deep Tunnel Sewerage System
    16. 16. DTSS ($3.6 billion; 2000 to 2008) Completed in Feb 2005 DEEP TUNNEL Completed in 2008 Changi NEWater Plant - Completed in 2010 <ul><ul><li>Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water 4 National Taps 3P Approach “ Conserve Water” “ Value Our Water” “ Enjoy Our Waters” “ Water for All” “ Conserve, Value, Enjoy” <ul><ul><li>Ensuring Water Sustainability for Singapore </li></ul></ul>3P Approach “ Conserve Water” “ Value Our Water” “ Enjoy Our Waters” “ Conserve, Value, Enjoy”
    18. 18. <ul><ul><li>3-Pronged Strategy to Manage Water Demand </li></ul></ul>Water Conservation Strategy Pricing Reflect the strategic importance and scarcity value of water Voluntary 3P approach Promote ownership of water conservation Mandatory Cut down on excessive flow and wastage of water Pricing Reflect the strategic importance and scarcity value of water
    19. 19. <ul><ul><li>1: Water Conservation Tax – Tax on consumption to reinforce the water conservation message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2: Waterborne Fee – Volume-based used water fee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3: Sanitary Appliance Fee – Fixed used water fee based on the number of sanitary appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume-based billing </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by Ministry (Environment & Water Resources) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Water Demand - Pricing </li></ul></ul>Potable Water Used Water Tariff category Consumption block (m3 per mth) Tariff (¢/m3) WCT 1 (%) Total (¢/m3) WBF 2 (¢/m3) SAF 3 (¢/appliance) Domestic 1 to 40 117 30 152 30 300 Above 40 140 45 203 30 300 Non-domestic All units 117 30 152 60 300
    20. 20. <ul><li>Since 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Closing Delayed-Action Taps </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Flow Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Low Capacity Flushing Cisterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Water Demand - Mandatory </li></ul></ul>9 litre flushing cistern 4.5 litre
    21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Managing Water Demand - Voluntary </li></ul></ul>Water Efficiency Labeling Scheme 50 models of fittings labelled under WELS since end Oct 06 Web Portal 76300 hits since Mar 06 Activities in Reservoirs and Canals NEWater Visitor Centre More than 500,000 visitors since its opening
    22. 22. <ul><li>Water Efficient Labeling Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS) launched on 31 Oct 06 </li></ul><ul><li>Scheme made mandatory from 1 Jul 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of WELS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to help consumers make well-informed purchasing decisions and reduce their water consumption by providing information on the water efficiency of products </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WELS rate products in terms of water efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 tick for Good rating, 2 ticks for Very Good rating and 3 ticks for Excellent rating </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Mandatory Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme <ul><li>To enhance the Scheme, PUB mandated it through the Mandatory WELS (MWELS) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of water fittings under Mandatory WELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basin taps & mixers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shower taps & mixers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sink/bib taps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual flush low capacity flushing cisterns (LCFC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterless Urinals & urinal flush valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clothes washing machines (wef 1 Oct 2011) </li></ul></ul>Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations SS CP 48 – Code of Practice for Water Services About 7000 models labelled to-date
    24. 24. Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS) Water Efficiency Ratings <ul><li>To pass laboratory simulation test on waste transportation efficiency in pipes </li></ul><ul><li>To pass dilution test </li></ul>Products/Fittings Flow Rate / Flush Capacity Requirements WELS Zero Tick              Good            Very Good                     Excellent                              Shower Taps & Mixers (Pressure Range from 0.5 to 5.5 bar) > 9 litres/min > 7 to 9 litres/min > 5 to 7 litres/min 5 litres/min or less Basin Taps & Mixers (Pressure Range from 0.5 to 5.5 bars) > 6 litres/min > 4 to 6 litres/min > 2 to 4 litres/min 2 litres/min or less Sink/Bip Taps & Mixers (Pressure Range from 0.5 to 5.5 bars) > 8 litres/min > 6 to 8 litres/min > 4 to 6 litres/min 4 litres/min or less Flushing Cisterns (Per Flush) NA Dual Flush > 4 to 4.5 litres (full flush) > 2.5 to 3 litres (reduced flush) Dual Flush > 3.5 to 4.0 litres (full flush) > 2.5 to 3 litres (reduced flush) Dual Flush 3.5 litres or less (1) (full flush) 2.5 litres or less (reduced flush) Urinals & Urinal Flush Valve (Per Flush) NA > 1 to 1.5 litres > 0.5 to 1 litres 0.5 litres or less (2) or waterless urinals Clothes Washing Machines (Per Washload) > 15 litres/kg > 12 to 15 litres/kg > 9 to 12 litres/kg 9 litres/kg or less Showerheads NA > 7 to 9 litres/min > 5 to 7 litres/min 5 litres/min or less Under Mandatory WELS Under Voluntary WELS
    25. 25. . <ul><li>ACTIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New recreational spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BEAUTIFUL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of waters with urban landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CLEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“… Turn Singapore into a city of gardens and water” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At ABC Waters Public Exhibition Opening </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Feb 07) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing, Enjoying our Waters - ABC Waters Programme </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Kolam Ayer ABC Waterfront Before After
    27. 27. Bedok Reservoir MacRitchie Reservoir Lower Seletar Reservoir - Family Bay & Rowers’ Bay Pandan Reservoir <ul><ul><li>Completed ABC Water Projects </li></ul></ul>Sengkang Floating Island
    28. 28. Jurong Lake Bioswales at Sengkang <ul><ul><li>Completed ABC Water Projects </li></ul></ul>Rain Garden, Balam Estate Lorong Harus Wetlands
    29. 29. <ul><li>PUB’s Mission Statement reflects on the key challenges moving forward : </li></ul><ul><li>“ To ensure an efficient , adequate & sustainable supply of water” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate & Sustainable Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Manage weather uncertainties and adaptation to climate change to ensure water sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Water Masterplan – meeting our water needs for the next 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Continuous investment in R&D, technology and innovation to increase our efficiency and reduce cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Challenges – Moving Forward </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Manage weather uncertainties and adaptation to climate change to ensure water sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Water Masterplan to meet our water needs for the next 50 years </li></ul>Sustainability
    31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Climate Change and Weather Uncertainties </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><ul><li>Multi-Pronged Approach to Mitigate & Adapt to CC </li></ul></ul>Sustainable and Resilient Water Supply Investment in R&D, Technology & Innovation Multi-Pronged Approach to Adapt to Climate Change Adapting to Sea Level Rise & More Rainfall Public Communications Partnership
    33. 34. <ul><li>Drainage infrastructure and improvement programmes to reduce flood prone areas: </li></ul><ul><li>3200 ha 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>124 ha 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>66 ha 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Raising low-lying areas in conjunction with development proposals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Rainfall Patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An expert panel consisting of members from academia, professional bodies, private and public sector formed to review drainage design criteria and flood protection measures </li></ul>
    34. 35. 1960 Singapore Coastline 1990 Singapore Coastline Current & Future Singapore Coastline Land Reclamation 1.25 m above highest tide (minimum) Highest Tide <ul><ul><li>Adapting to Sea Level Rise </li></ul></ul>0.65 m (max. forecast by our Study)
    35. 36. Independent of the vagaries of weather NEWater Desalination Variable Salinity Plant <ul><ul><li>Sustainable & Resilient Water Supply </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>Singapore has rolled out a public communications programme to inform and educate the public on climate change impacts on Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight Singapore’s current strategies for adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Assure the public that government is proactive in addressing climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Share how individual Singaporeans can also do their part </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Communications </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><ul><li>Water Masterplan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PUB has developed a Water Masterplan to meet our water needs until 2060 </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Singapore’s land area to become water catchment </li></ul><ul><li>NEWater and desalination to meet 50% and 30% of our water needs respectively </li></ul><ul><li>Target to reduce our domestic water consumption to 145 litre per person </li></ul>
    38. 39. Continuous investment in R&D, technology and innovation to increase our efficiency and reduce cost Efficiency
    39. 40. PUB’s R&D Strategies 1. Increase Water Resources 2. Water Recycling 3. Improve efficiency 4. Improve Water Quality 5. “Harden” the Water Loop sea rain stormwater management collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs treatment of raw to potable water reclamation of used water collection of used water in sewers supply of water to the population & industries treatment of used water desalination desalination collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs reclamation of used water
    40. 41. Variable Salinity Process Low Energy MBR Water Quality Modelling and Prediction Integrated Anaerobic & Aerobic Treatment Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis Regenerative Photocatalysts Biomimetic Membranes Microbial Fuel Cells Capacitive Deionisation Forward Osmosis Source Control Reducing Evaporation Biomimicry Membrane Distillation DOHS Backwash Membrane Integrity Sensors Rainfall Prediction Robust Sensors Microbial Source Tracking Contaminants of Emerging Concerns <ul><ul><li>R&D in our water loop </li></ul></ul>Electro-chemical desalting sea rain stormwater management collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs treatment of raw to potable water reclamation of used water collection of used water in sewers supply of water to the population & industries treatment of used water desalination
    41. 42. SWRO Current ~3.5 kWh/m 3 Breakthrough R&D <ul><li>Long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Process: 0.75 kWh/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>System < 0.75 kWh/m 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(with optimisation and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recovery) </li></ul></ul>? Biomimetics??? <ul><ul><li>Investment in R&D, Technology & Innovation to improve Energy Efficiency </li></ul></ul>Memstill (with waste heat); Electrochemical Desalting; Short-term < 1.5 kWh/m 3
    42. 43. <ul><li>National Research Foundation set aside S$330mil over five years (2006 to 2010) to grow the water industry </li></ul><ul><li>Additional $140mil injected in 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>2015 Targets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase value-add from S$0.5bn to S$1.7bn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double number of jobs to 11,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Agencies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing the Water Sector </li></ul></ul>Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources PUB, the national water agency Economic Development Board National University of Singapore Nanyang Technological University
    43. 44. <ul><li>Singapore International Water Week </li></ul><ul><li>– the global platform for water solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>2-6 Jul 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Theme - “Water Solutions for a Liveable and Sustainable Cities” </li></ul><ul><li>2012 Event will be held in conjunction with the 3 rd World Cities Summit </li></ul><ul><li>Key Pillar Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Leaders Summit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Expo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Forums </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Thank You Thank You Marina Barrage, Singapore

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