EVALUATION OF THE STATUS OFIWRM IMPLEMENTATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 2000 -2010: POLICY, LEGISLATION & INSTITUTION Global Water Partnership Southeast Asia UN Conference Centre, Bangkok September 21, 2011
THE PHILIPPINE REPORT Prepared by: Dr. Jessica Calfoforo Salas Philippine Water Partnership
Contents Objective Methodology Summary of Findings Policy Legislations Institutions Way Forward
Objectives, methodology, limitations
Objective To assess IWRM implementation with respect to policy, legal and institutional aspects for years 2000 to 2010. Output will be an input to Southeast Asia Water Security Roadmapand Philippine Water Security Roadmap.
Methods: The Inception Report was circulated for comments and approval. Initial data for water resource condition, supplied by PWP members or accessed from their reports and websites comprised the first draft (Part II), was circulated for comments and presented in the first workshop. Instruments: a checklist and unstructured interview were used for purposive data gathering to attain the objective of the study. Eighteen (18) cases were reviewed. The first draft of Part I was prepared with data from the cases and these were circulated among PWP and discussed in the second workshop.
Limitations Evaluation design is limited to TOR variables and design provided by the TOR. Data needed are assumed to be with PWP members and will be made available by them. Since PWP asked for involvement of non-members, only agencies/organizations referred to by PWP members were included.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
POLICY & PLANS before year 2000 There were policy statements calling for integrated management of water resources before year 2000: Presidential Decree 424, 1974 The PD created the National Water Resources Board or NWRB. To “Effect inter-sectoral/inter-departmental coordination of water resources plans and programs within the context of national plans and policies for social and economic development…” The Water Code of 1976 “There is a need for a Water Code based on rational concepts of integrated and multi-purpose management of water resources and sufficiently flexible to adequately meet future developments.”
Continued The First National Water Summit, 1994 “…urgent need to properly manage the nation’s water in a sustainable manner, and the need for an integration and coordination of all water related efforts towards a more focused approach to water resources management.” 1980 Water Resources Assessment 1998 Master Plan for Water Resources Management (JICA Study) 1994 Water Supply and Sanitation Master Plan 1994-2005 Provincial Master Plans for Water Supply and Sanitation
Policy and Plans after year 2000 2004 Medium Term Development Plan 2004 to 2010 2004 Clean Water Act 2005 Adoption of Collaborative Approach to Watershed Management by DENR 2006 IWRM Framework Plan 2008 Creation of Sub Committee on Water Resources, Infrastructure Committee, NEDA 2009 Climate Change Act 2010 Philippine Water Supply Sector Roadmap 2010 National Framework Strategy for Climate Change 2010 Philippine Development Plan for 2011 to 2016
Policy observation IWRM has been in the policy since the passing of PD 424 in 1974 and the Philippine Water Code in 1976 Gap:
attention to managing water asa product and the service of ecosystem state and function;
decentralized/ local water governance
integration of natural systems or the use of ecosystem management tools and processes
Local government integration with link to river basin organization
decreasing water, siltation and technology
Collaboration/ integration with the upstream communities Integration of natural system through Ecosystem Management
Water supply and sanitation
The Water Quality Management Area (WQMA) Board of the Clean Water Act provided a platform for integration and coordination.
Harmonization with River Basin and Watershed policies.
Attention to ecosystem services in supplying water and facilitating sanitation
Creating a lead implementing agency and separate economic regulatory body
Lack of link between flood management plans and water resources plans An integrated policy to address flow of water on land and through infrastructures and built-up areas. Understanding Environmental Flow using Ecosystem Management and tools
River Basin Sector
Coordinating and control office established
Guideline for organizing watershed of tributaries for local and decentralized water management. A mechanism for vertical and horizontal integration. Provision for decision support system tools to enable river basin organizations to plan and help local government units.
Forest / Upper watershed
Policy provides structure for coordination/ integration with communities and local government units.
A guideline for utilization of the forest for water storage and water production in addition to production forest and timber plantation Use of ecosystem management tools
Partial devolution of natural resource management helping decentralization of water resource management.
Awareness of the impact of climate change and the need to adapt made local government units embrace water resource management and integrate same in their administrative and legislative systems
Lack of guideline and decision support system tools for effective and efficient IWRM Recognition of water resources regions/basin level planning – most plan based on political boundaries Local plans (such as land use plans, development plans) not water sensitive
Water users’ organization
Inadequate institutional, technical and financial capacities Weak regulatory framework and implementation
Influence in policies can be balanced by integrating consumers’ education and mainstreaming consumers’ concerns. Advocacy for a water regulatory commission Ecosystem management in water users’ operation can redirect water supply policy and regulation from infrastructure orientation to ecosystem integration and collaboration.
water Legislation framework
Legislated laws affecting water resources before year 2000 1963, RA 3601 creation of National Irrigation Administration 1966, RA 4850, Laguna Lake Development Authority 1971 RA 6234 Creation of Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System 1990, RA 7160. The Local Government Code
CONTINUED 1995 RA 8041 The National Water Crisis Act 1997 Agriculture and Fishery Modernization Act Electrical Power Industry Reform Act 1987 The Philippine Constitution
Legislated laws affecting water resources after year 2000 2001 RA 9147. Wildlife Resources and Conservation Act. 2004 RA 9275 The Clean Water Act 2009 R.A. 9729. Climate Change Act
Elements of an Integrated Water Legislation Framework (GWP INBO) National, provincial and local water laws and policies determine how stakeholders play their respective roles in the development and management of water resources. Basin organizations put up by law have a strong mandate Laws and water policies spell out rules, responsibility and accountability of public and private sectors
Continued 4. Water management framework should e part of an existing national administrative system 5. Basin and national water policy management plans should be harmonized. ________ All items were rated by PWP members as implemented “to a little extent.”
Figure 10 Emerging Pattern of Institutional Integration Local
Three separate initiatives for integration coming from:
National level with NWRB and NEDA sub committee on water
Mezzo level with river basin organizations
Local governments with community watershed organizations
Vertical integration is taking two paths
River basin organizations under RBCO with NEDA sub committee on water to NWRB
Watersheds outside river basins are integrated through local government units to the Regional Development Councils to RBCO to NWRB through NEDA sub committee on water
National agencies with NEDA sub committee on water
20 river basin organizations with RBCO
RBOs and RDCs
Provinces integrating watershed organizations.
Impeding factors in the implementation of IWRM Inadequate and/or undefined mechanisms for coordination. Unresolved issues for restructuring central level water authority. Capacity to provide the required leadership and support for IWRM implementation. Water sector policies do not have mechanisms for coordination with other sectors (no lateral nodes for integration, except the Clean Water Act)
5. Inadequate studies and decision-support systems 6. Not engaging the education sector for research and outreach. 7. Not enough public awareness 8. Inadequate understanding of the depth of issues of water resources particularly at the ecosystems level (natural systems integration). 9. Lack of recognition and encouragement for existing effort in other water resources management levels
The following maybe considered in policy reviews: Provision for a specific sector mechanism for coordination, Attention to watershedsor catchments below 1,000 km2 which is the area for river basin classification and provide coordinating guidelines for areas outside the 20 major river basins. Establish a guideline for LGUs in the integration of water management in its administrative system. Provide quality information and scientific decision support systems for policy formulation.
Gaps at the national level coordination may be addressed by high level directives providing for: Collaboration Representation Multi-stakeholders participation Use of timely and quality and science-based information Conflict resolution mechanisms Technical/ scientific input
Work towards the economic regulation of water Increase awareness , appreciation and education towards ecosystem services Concept development of WRM units as nodes of integration and their operationalization. Knowledge sharing platforms including collegial learning among the 20 organized river basin management units in the country and other water management bodies Need for specific guidelines for vertical and horizontal integration at river basins/ watersheds
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