WORKSHOP on Evaluation of IWRM Implementation Process in Cambodia 2000-2010 21 September, 2011 Kim Sreang BOUY Organized by GWP-SEA Bangkok, Thailand
Content National overview of IWRM National resources policy National water legislation Water resources status Water use and resources development Country investment in WRM IWRM in progress Burning issues The way forwards
National overview Country enriches of water resources, so the water resources potential of the economic development of country. Wet season accounts 80 per cent of the annual rainfall. Total annual rainfall is between 1,000 and 1,500 millimeters (mm). Groundwater use and its potential is very limited. Country has limited water storage capacity. Study conducted by MRC in 1984 identified that 195,000 ha potential irrigation areas within the sub-basins.
National overview (con’t) Mekong River agreement 1995, states member committed to jointly manage and conserve water resources for long term use. RGC has adopted IWRM as a means to sustainable development and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as the Cambodian MDGs which consists of 9 goals as compared to the Universal MDG, which has only 7 goals.
National water resources policy National Water Resources Policy (NWRP, 2004) is mainly focus on the study for preparing short, medium and long term development plans for river basin; the expansion of surface of water shortage, channel capacities and drainage systems for supplying water to farmers and mitigation floods. Policy is not for MOWRAM, but for all agencies relevant to the water resources sector.
National water legislation New Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia (KC, 1993), article 58 & 59 focus on national resources protection and conservation and environmental balance. States country member have been jointly committed to promoting, supporting and coordinating cooperation for mutual benefits in all areas of management and development of the Mekong River Basin.
National water legislation (con’t) Rectangular Strategy of the Government (RGC, 2003) is the enhancement of agricultural sector covering: 1) improved productivity and diversification of the agriculture; 2) land reform and clearing of mines; 3) fisheries reform and 4) forest reform. Law on Environmental Protection and National Resources Management (RGC, 1996), Article 8 is conserving the natural resources.
National water legislation (con’t) Circular No. 01 (RGC, 1999) on the Implementation Policy of Sustainable Irrigation System is aiming to construct the new irrigation scheme and rehabilitate the existing scheme. The Land Law (RGC, 2001): Article 49, Article 144-146 and Article 155-159 is focusing on land right its occupation.
National water legislation (con’t) Law on Forest Management and Administration, LFMA (RGC, 2005) is aiming at proper management of forest resource for long term use. Law on Fishery (RGC, 2002) is aiming at aiming at using and managing fishery resources for long use. CMDG (RGC, 2003) consists of 9 goals. One of the nine goals is ensuring the environmental sustainability. To achieve this goal, it has set a benchmark for year 2015.
National water legislation (con’t) RGC’s NPRP (RGC, 2003): Key actions called for in the NPRS that can be linked to river basin management such as draft sub-decree on land use plans. RGC’s SEDP II (RGC, 2006). It recognizes that changes to the Mekong River, Tonle Sap River and Tonle Sap Great Lake, which has resulted in extensive flood.
National water legislation (con’t) SAW (RGC, 2007) is aiming to ensure enough, safe and accessible food and water for all people, reduce poverty and contribute to economic growth, while ensuring the sustainability of natural resources. Law on Water Resources Management (RGC,2007) is aiming to foster the effective and sustainable management of the water resources of the country. Article 4: water resources shall be developed and managed following an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Approach.
National water legislation (con’t) Some royal decrees, sub decrees and other legal documents such as dub-decrees on river basin managements. Some policies and strategies such as rectangular strategy, national policy on water supply and sanitation.
Institutional framework & structure MRC plays an important role in studying, researching and coordinating the common action and activities. CNMC and CamboWP, and other ministries concerned: MOWRAM, MAFF, MOE, MRD, MPWT, MOH, MEF, PPWSA, TSA and PDOWRAM. Those institution have different roles and responsibilities for managing, using and conserving natural resources.
Water resources status 86 per cent of Cambodia’s territory, including the Tonle Sap Basin and the Cambodian Mekong delta, lies within the Mekong River Basin (constituting 20 per cent of the total basin area, and 18 per cent of the total flow) and is thus highly dependent on the development in the Mekong Basin. Ongoing and planned construction of dams in the Mekong, in the tributaries as well as on the mainstream, will affect the flow, sediment and water quality conditions of the river, as well as its navigability
Water resources status (con’t) Water quality for agriculture is not detected yet as a serious problem in Cambodia. Drinking water quality standard is formulated by MIME in 2004
Water resources demands and use for sector developments such as: Domestic and industrial water supply; agriculture, hydropower development; fishery; navigation; tourism; industry and ecosystem.
In short, the volume of water use are:
455 mcm/yr for agricultural use;
100 mcm/yr for livestock use;
136 mcm/yr for domestic use;
30 mcm/yr for industrial and commercial use;
80 mcm/yr for other use.
Country Investment in water resources management Source of investment funds come from two main sources: Government and donors such as ADB, World Bank, JICA and NGOs. Several projects focus on water resources and its use: Stung Chinit irrigation project, North West irrigation development project, Eastern rural irrigation development project, Agricultural quality improvement project, Hydropower development projects…etc.
Country Investment in water resources management (con’t)
Several NGOs projects and programs in term of water resources management such as PRASAC program, ECOSORN project, CARERE and Seila program…etc;
The annual investment in term of water resources management are:
Government is about $ 20 million per year
DPs is about $ 60-70 million per year.
IWRM in progress 4Ps demonstration project supported by MRC, ADB, and GWP considered as good lessons need to be taken into accounts as follows: 1) Provincial government agencies must be clear what need to be done and committed to involve, support and provide inputs;
IWRM in progress (con’t) 2) Knowledge need to be encouraged and applied within the process of IWRM along with new knowledge; 3) Community involvement is the basic factor for all management processes of natural resources; 4) Stakeholders shared views, knowledge and agreed to apply IWRM as a useful tool for their adoptive management.
Burning issues Urbanization and changed lifestyles, resulting in higher demand of water and electricity, and higher waste production. Less investment from the government agencies in the IWRM due to it is new concept for Cambodia;
Burning issues (con’t) Limited capacity and knowledge of the sector stakeholders including the government officers on IWRM; Establishment of a national IWRM based governance framework is still not existed;
Critical Challenges Implementation of the new water law, which is a framework for administrative decrees to be promulgated in the time to come. Other important legal documents is still in draft such as the sub-decree on river basin management and sub-decree on water licensing.
Critical Challenges (con’t) Knowledge sharing and capacity building among sector stakeholders, especially local authorities and farmers are very limited due to there is no direct capacity building programs or projects for this sector. There is not clear scope for strengthened land management of agricultural lands, headwater areas and aquatic habitats, it means that the legal document on strengthening land management of agricultural land is required.
Critical Challenges (con’t) Escalating or developing tourism in the natural resources areas is limited due to technical and financial capacity of the responsible ministries and less consideration of DPs and private sector. Effective and sustainable coordination network among respective agencies is still not well function. This means that the effective and sustainable coordination network needs to encourage and put into practices;
Critical Challenges (con’t) Proper mechanism with full IWRM promotion and implementation among sector agencies at all level is still not existed. This means that the proper mechanism towards promoting and implementing IWRM at all levels is strongly recommended. Not much strong commitment for IWRM promotion and implementation from respective agencies including the government.
The way forwards Climate change adaptation and its legal base needs to put in place and strongly enforce. Extension of the regional cooperation framework needs to increase among each country and the MRC with the financial and technical support of donors. Extension of the implementation of IWRM pilot projects at the local river basin level should be done more in an effective way
The way forwards (con’t) Participatory and appropriate natural resources management including water resources management and land use planning tools should be implemented among the sector agencies. Increasing periodically professional dialogues and networking at the national level (CamboWP), Mekong Basin level and the international level (APWF, GWP, and others) about the IWRM concept,
The way forwards (con’t) IWRM steering committee needs to develop and function in effective and sustainable way from the national to the local level. Improving sustainability of hydropower development through identifying sub-basins with high ecological value to be protected and those where hydropower can be developed with limited social and environmental impacts.