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  • {"5":"Exploration covers learning,\nawareness-raising, the stimulation of creative thinking, and investigating the\ninteraction of societal processes.\nProduct-oriented scenario studies are more concerned with the nature\nand quality of the output than with how it was arrived at. Their functions\nare: the identification of driving forces and signs of emerging trends, policy\ndevelopment, and to test policy.\n","6":"The Great Lake is the heart of the basin, in many sense. The lake covers about 3000 km2 in the dry season, but in the wet season the force of flow in the Mekong reverses the flow in Tonle Sap, and water flows into the lake from the mainstream, increasing its size by a factor of 6about 13,000 km2. As the river level falls in the dry season, the flow reverses again, and water drains out to the delta. The floodplains of the lake and the river are a very bio diverse and productive ecosystem – they are the “fish factories” of the basin, which support the \n","3":" \n","4":"The Mekong Delta begins at Phnom Penh, where the river divides into its two main\ndistributaries, the Mekong and the Bassac. The Mekong then divides into six main channels\nand the Bassac into three to form the “Nine Dragons” of the outer delta in Viet Nam. The\nmain delta is made up of a vast triangular plain of approximately 55,000 km2. Most of this\nplain is lower than 5 m above sea level.\n"}


  • 1. GWP SEA Workshop on WRM Financing Hotel Mi Casa, 3 Oct 2013 Yangon-Myanmar FINANCING WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA by Watt Botkosal Chair, Cambodia Water Partnership
  • 3. Cambodia in the Mekong River Basin Source of MRC 3
  • 4. River system in Cambodia 18 8 6 Source of MOWRAM
  • 5. Water resources in Cambodia Mekong Basin = 86%
  • 6. Mixed Flow Drainage Basin Cambodia is rich in water and related resources that have served not only as a source for subsistence livelihood, but also as an opportunity for economic development. Most of the territory of Cambodia (86%) lies within the basin of the Mekong River  high dependence of country on this natural resource-rich river basin.      Area: 2500 – 15000 km2 Volume: 1.3 – 70 km3 Water depth: 0.7 – 9 m Catchments: 13 Catchment area: 90’000 km2
  • 7. Rectangular Strategy and NSDP focuses on key strategic considerations: 1.Food and energy demands keep growing in Cambodia especially in the capital and other main cities; 2.Present rice policy of the government focuses on expanded irrigation for rice export based on selected rice varieties and technology. 3.Food and energy, as well as other economic activities are linked to water and water related resources. Opportunities and strategic priorities that Cambodia would like to focus on in the water resources financing strategy
  • 8. CHALLENGES Water Resources Management will need to be ready to adapt to the coming conditions: •Crop water requirements •Distribution of water along the year will need to be supported by more storage and functional distribution system to ensure supply during growing drought window and dry season, •Floods in general, and flash floods in particular, will be higher and more frequent; •flood protection structures will need to be designed to the level of protection expected. •Changes in flood-plans
  • 9. OVERALL OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Dividend and challenge for the next 30-40 years • Growing productive ages. • East Asia Community in 2015. • Labor cost in neighboring countries
  • 10. KEY WATER STAKEHOLDERS IN CAMBODIA Global/ •Ramsar Conventions; Inter-ministerial committee Provinces Government, Ministries and Agencies •Cambodia National Mekong Committee Vested interest – powerful tycon National •Tonle Sap Authority 22 provinces and municipality & Sectoral Department/Offices Local Districts, 526 communes and 4245 villages •Decentralization and Deconcentration Committee Local Organizations River Basin Committees Community based Fishery Farmers/water users Communities Million of people directly depending on and/or living Mekong Basin Tonle Sap Stakeholders at Various Scales m a N t e i V d n a d n a l i a h T •Numerous conventions Region, ASEAN, Mekong River Commission, ADB, World Bank and development partners and funding agencies s O S C d n a s O G N l a n o i g e r & l a n o i t a n r e t n I Regional •UNESCO Biosphere Reserve L m y , a h : s i r t u C g n o k e M • Greater Mekong Sub- Stakeholders can be differentiated in many ways: 1.Consume resources/ control the site; 2.Benefit from the use of resources; 3.Have rights and responsibilities over the use and management of resources; 4.Have decision making power
  • 11. ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED UNDER WATER RESOURCES FINANCING MECHANISM Non-structural Measures: •Knowledge management for informed decision (intervention options, technology for irrigation planning, cropping calendar and diversity and selection of the most appropriate sites). •New technological know-how (fish migration, passage, aquaculture expertise and funding, sediment friendly dam/reservoir design and site). 1 gauge for every 600900 km2 of flat terrain and 1 gauge for every 100-250 km2 of mountainous area. (WMO)
  • 12. ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED (2) Capacity and Institutional Development: •National, sub-national and local levels in many aspects of IWRM Awareness Raising and Mainstreaming •Local communities. •CSOs, and LAs. Creating Enabling Environment: •Workable and effective mechanism and guidelines for benefit sharing, and promotion of joint development (multi-purpose). •Coordination among various agencies involved. •Improve regional water governance . Structural Measures: •Infrastructure for flow regulation, drainage and diversions. •Most appropriate measures for flood and drought control/management. •Irrigation design improvement in changing of water level and flow and more study and design for improving drainage of flood water in the flood plains.
  • 13. CONTRIBUTION OF WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ‘Rectangular Strategy’ and NSDP are to sustain the achievements of the ‘Millennium Development Goals’ and recognizes the contribution of water resources management in: 1. Agricultural development (incl. fisheries and forestry) 1. Water resources management 2. Energy sector development 3. Private sector development and employment 4. Human resources development (incl. education, health, population policy, gender equity)
  • 14. INVESTING IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Private and Public Investment
  • 15. Tr en ds in Dev el opm en t Assi st ance Disbursement Trends (USD million) Devel op m en t par t n er di sbu r sem en t s ( USD m i l l i on ) 2007 2010 Sector Allocations (USD million) Source: Cambodia ODA Database (October 2011) UN (core) World Bank IMF ADB Global Fund UN & multilateral Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Netherlands Spain Sweden UK EC EU partners Australia Canada China Japan New Zealand Rep of Korea Switzerland USA Other bilateral NGO (own funds) TOTAL 58.3 47.5 0.9 69.4 21.1 197.1 7.2 9.8 5.2 21.7 20.7 0.1 3.5 17.3 23.7 44 153.2 29.6 12.6 92.4 117.2 4.5 31.3 3.6 58.1 349.4 77.7 777.5 2008 2009 2010 USD % 73.2 101.8 88.2 41.7 57.0 56.9 0 0 0 145.7 89.4 76.3 38.6 46.5 61.2 299.2 296.3 288.8 2.8 4.8 2.2 10.6 13.8 15.7 9.0 6.0 6.5 29.8 25.4 23.2 36.6 27.9 35.3 2.2 0.7 0.7 6.1 16.6 28.0 15.9 22.8 24.7 29.6 32.6 24.7 48.4 49.4 34.2 191.0 200.7 196.3 49.1 47.8 67.4 11.5 16.7 7.9 95.4 114.7 138.2 126.4 134.0 146.0 2.8 2.3 5.2 33.0 15.8 33.9 3.9 3.0 3.1 55.7 56.9 60.4 377.6 391.3 462.1 110.8 108.5 127.5 978.5 996.8 1,074.7 2011 (est) 8.2 80.9 5.3 96.0 0 0 7.1 149.7 5.7 68.4 26.9 400.0 0.2 2.1 1.5 6.8 0.6 3.4 2.2 20.0 3.3 44.4 0.1 0.1 2.6 11.4 2.3 30.1 2.3 17.8 3.2 55.8 18.3 192.5 6.3 74.3 0.7 11.4 12.9 210.7 13.6 120.6 0.5 3.5 3.2 43.6 0.3 4.5 5.6 57.2 43.0 525.8 11.9 117.0 100 1,235.3
  • 16. • The analysis of the aid disbursement and NSDP resource allocation for 2010 shows gaps between the NSDP and aid disbursement for key agricultural and water/environmental sectors. • By 2014, the ODA is projected to lower down significantly with an observed increase in the local and international direct investment share.
  • 17. Growing role of domestic private
  • 18. Growing role of domestic private investment • Private sector investment in Cambodia places less emphasis on water. • Investment law places an emphasis on some key water sectors • Law on concessions emphasizes in key areas such as power, transport (navigation and port), irrigation and agriculture related infrastructure, waste water, drainage and dredging. CDC (2013) identified four main paths for enhanced ODA-private sector complementarity in Cambodia: 1. Support to public infrastructure development (transport infrastructure, energy, water and irrigation services, and infrastructure loans for private-sector role in infrastructure projects); 2. Support to enhance the enabling environment; 3. Strategic investments that promote economic competitiveness including alignment of ODA with Government actions to promote urban-rural linkages and climate change adaptation; and 4. Direct partnerships with the private sector.
  • 19. Conclusion: Strategic priorities • Financial and human resource capacities are both of great strategic importance for Cambodia’s water resources management: • For improving and sustaining technical assets and facilities. • More incentives and resources for addressing shortage of both physical/financial and human resources  for positive change in ownership and leadership, and in planning, M&E; • Action Plan for knowledge transfer and capacity building - absorbing capacity, brain-drainage, and attitude– the will, skill and incentive. • Relevant LAs’ annual work planning and budgeting cycles for IWRM. • MEF, Council for Development of Cambodia (CDC), and MOP , as budgeting depends a lot on understanding and appreciation of the priorities and significance. To conduct outreach visit to the MEF, MOP, CDC, and SNEC for discussing possibility for deliberation and development of sustainable financing plan and stronger water focus in the national development framework. Role of private sector and Private-Public coordination == harmonization of standards for design, construction and operation.