SustSan workshop: Planing and process tools by Tandiwe Erlmann

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SustSan workshop: Planing and process tools by Tandiwe Erlmann

  1. 1. SSWM Planning and Process Tools SSWM Planning and Process Tools 1 seecon international gmbh Tandiwe Erlmann Ljubljana, Slovenia, April 5th 2014
  2. 2. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 5 1. Introduction “Participatory Planning and Decision Making” How can I optimize my local water and sanitation system? How can I plan and implement my water and sanitation initiatives in a more sustainable way? Planning & Process Tools Implementation Tools Behavioural change approaches Technical tools
  3. 3. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 6 1. Introduction to Participation What is Participation? Brainstorming •  Take part in an activity •  Be involved •  Contribute to the definition of goal to achieve •  Contribute to the achievements of goal
  4. 4. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 8 What is Participation? 1. Introduction to Participation • “... means that people … are involved in economic, social, cultural and political processes that influence their lives”. (United Nations Development Programme, UNDP) • “... Is the process through which stakeholders influence and share control over priority setting, policy-making, resource allocations and access to public goods and services”. (The World Bank, WHO) • …is a multi-directional communication process between all the people and groups involved in making a joint decision SOURCE: WERNER, C.; PANESAR, A.; BRACKEN, P.; MANG, H. P.; HUBA-MANG, E. and GEROLD, A. (2003): „An ecosan source book for the preparation and implementation of ecological sanitation projects”. GTZ- ecosan program, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany. Participation …
  5. 5. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 9 What is Participation? 1. Introduction to Participation Participation is therefore not just a process where external agents inform , instruct , motivate and educate people to take what they believe to be the correct course of action. SOURCE: International Association for Public Participation (2014): IAP2 Spectrum
  6. 6. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info What are the challenges of implementing such a process? 10 1. Introduction to Participation Brainstorming
  7. 7. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Challenges in Participatory Approaches •  Ensuring participation of all sections of the community •  balance between strong leadership and room for everyone to enter into action •  Requires skilled manpower •  needs government support (especially in urban areas) •  Time consuming and (therefore) hard to finance •  Traditional decision making processes •  Influence by dominant stakeholders •  Gender •  Religion •  Might lead to an unsustainable decision or no decision at all! 11 1. Introduction to Participation
  8. 8. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info When it is so difficult, why should we bother with participation? 12 1. Introduction to Participation Brainstorming •  Increases ownership •  Mobilises and empowers the community •  Involves education and information of stakeholders to let them make informed decisions •  Ensures that goals are set according to the local conditions and thus enhances long-term sustainability •  Ensures a demand-driven approach (beneficiaries ask for help) •  Resources, ideas, responsibilities are shared and mobilized •  Consensus can be achieved among stakeholders •  Reduces vandalism •  Can be an icebreaker for future interventions
  9. 9. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info And what happens if we don’t do it? 14 1. Introduction to Participation Brainstorming •  No ownership •  Inappropriate technologies are implemented •  People’s priorities are not considered •  “Wrong” problem is solved •  Lack of O&M •  Vandalism •  Failure of project
  10. 10. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info What happens if we don‘t do it? 15 1. Introduction to Participation Unmaintained public toilets in India.
  11. 11. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Stakeholder participation is considered being essential in all aspects of development and management. The objectives are to increase the sustainability of the intervention through: Objectives of Participation 2. Participatory Processes •  incorporating wide range of perspectives and priorities •  increasing stakeholder compliance and ownership •  incorporating knowledge and skills •  identifying conflicts between users and negotiating solutions •  contributing to stakeholder empowerment and local institutional development Source: http://www.wsp.org/userfiles/image/2009_JUL.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010]
  12. 12. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 19 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Introduction: See also: http://www.sswm.info/category/planning-process-tools/planning-process-tools-introduction
  13. 13. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 21 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Programming & planning frameworks:
  14. 14. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 1: Exploring 25 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  15. 15. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Allows to collect background information necessary to determine the scope and boundaries of the project. -> It also allows to establish a link with the community, inform about the process and initiate the involvement of the community members. The sub-steps involved in this first phase are: •  Preliminary Assessment of Current Status •  Definition of Boundaries •  Stakeholder’s Analysis •  Preliminary Assessment of possible solutions Step 1: Exploring 26 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  16. 16. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 2: Demand creation 28 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  17. 17. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 2: Demand creation 29 Many water & sanitation programmes have failed because they were supply driven People will only want and use solutions when they understand them and see benefits in them (demand driven) -> Only if people understand and want systems they will operate and maintain them Demand creation uses awareness raising tools – examples are: •  Social Marketing •  Media campaigns •  School campaigns 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  18. 18. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 2: Demand creation 30 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  19. 19. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 3: Participatory Decision Making 31 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  20. 20. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 3: Participatory Decision Making In a participatory decision making process the identified stakeholders undertake a collective action of understanding, deciding and planning a project to reach a common objective. The components involved are: •  Gathering Ideas •  Analysing the Situation •  Deciding •  Planning -> A vision paper, such as a Community Action Plan or a Long Term Strategy should capture the decisions taken in this step. 32 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  21. 21. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Step 3: Participatory Decision Making 33 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Source: TCCO (Editor) (1995): Community Action for the Environment. A Guide to Helping Your Community Go Green. Ontario: The Conservation Council of Ontario. http://www.weconserve.ca/pdf/cap.pdf [Accessed: 22.04.2012]. Source: BARTLE, P. (2008): Preparing a Community Action Plan. Province of British Colombia: CEC Community Empowerment Collective. http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/org-cap.htm [Accessed: 02.04.2012]
  22. 22. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 34 Step 3 Example: Community Action Plan A community action plan is a road map for implementing measures to change a given situation in a given locality. It has to clarify the following points: What: What the community wants to achieve How: Which activities are required during a specified time period Who: Which resources are used (money, people and materials) 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools
  23. 23. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools 35 Step 4: Implementation
  24. 24. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Step 4: Implementation Once an action plan has been developed in a participatory process, the objectives are now to be translated into projects. 37 Objective 1: Stop open defectation Objective 2 Recycle water and lower water consumption Activity 1: Awareness raising Activity 2: Construct dry toilet Activity 3: Teach population how to construct and use greywater towers
  25. 25. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Step 4: Implementation Usually a project… •  covers a reduced and concrete number of purposes •  has a set timetable •  contributes to reaching the vision of the community •  is measurable by the community itself. The phases to be carried out are: •  Project designing (logical framework, proposal writing etc.) •  Financing the project •  Executing (Project management, monitoring) 38
  26. 26. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools 40 Step 5: Ensuring Sustainability
  27. 27. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Once a project has been implemented, it has to be ensured, that it will continue to satisfy the needs of the concerned communities as well as economic and environmental criteria. This step is the most important, but often forgotten in the planning process. A lack of monitoring, follow-up and operation and maintenance is the reason for the many failures of sanitation and water interventions. Main activities are: •  Participatory monitoring and evaluation •  Sound operation and maintenance •  Follow-up of projects 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Step 5: Ensuring Sustainability Ensuring sustainability also requires resources (human, financial, material)!
  28. 28. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info 3. SSWM Planning & Process Tools Step 5: Ensuring Sustainability
  29. 29. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Identification of Planning & Process Tools 4. Introduction to Group Work •  Consult the SSWM Toolbox •  Identify the set of planning and process tools which will be useful to plan and implement sustainable SSWM projects Max. 45 Minutes 63 Planning Tools Find help in the SSWM Toolbox: Planning & Process Tools http://www.sswm.info/ category/planning-process- tools/planning-process- tools-introduction With what kind of processes, measures and tools can I plan and implement my SSWM project?
  30. 30. SSWM Planning and Process Tools More information at www.sswm.info Presentations of Group Work 4. Introduction to Group Work •  Each team will have 10 minutes to present their work •  Don’t forget to comment on the tools you have chosen to optimise your water and sanitation system Max. 30 Minutes for preparation 64 Hardware Software Planning Tools
  31. 31. SSWM Planning and Process Tools 65 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture” With the support of: Created by:

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