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Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM
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SustSan workshop: Introduction to SSWM by Tandiwe Erlmann

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  1. 1. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management seecon international gmbh Tandiwe Erlmann Ljubljana, Slovenia, April 4th 2014
  2. 2. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. What is water? Source:BARRETO–DILLON2008 Where does it comes from? How do we use it?
  3. 3. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. The most important natural resource... Source: BARRETO –DILLON 2007 2008 It forms oceans and... Water is... Source: http:// www.grida.no/ publications/rr/sickwater/
  4. 4. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Source:aucklandcity.govt.nz The amount of water is constant...
  5. 5. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Global Water Resources •  70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water. (PIDWIRNY 2006) •  3% is freshwater whereas only 0.5% is easily accessible for human use. (INFORESOURCES FOCUS 2006) à only 0.5% of global water resources are usable 6 Source: WBCSD (2009)
  6. 6. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Agriculture Industry Household Sector-wise distribution of water uses Source: WBCSD (2009): Facts and Trends. Water (Version 2). Geneva: WBDSC. URL: http://www.wbcsd.org/ [Accessed 20.04.2010] And we use it mainly for...
  7. 7. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. What are nutrients? Where do they come from? How do we use them? Source: L. BARRETO –DILLON
  8. 8. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. ...chemicals that all plants and animals require for growth. Macronutrients Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Sulphur (S) Magnesium (Mg) Calcium (Ca) Nutrients Micronutrients Boron (Bo) Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) Chloride (Cl) Manganese (Mn) Molybdenum (Mo) Zinc (Zn) Source: R. Gensch Nutrients are...
  9. 9. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Nutrients are continuously in a circular movement... Source:http://www.pikeconservation.org/soil_ecosystem.htm
  10. 10. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. We remove the nutrients in agriculture... In an agricultural ecosystem, minerals and organic matter are exported from the soil by harvesting the products. Source: unknown
  11. 11. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Where do Nutrients come from? 12 Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Availability?
  12. 12. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Mineral Phosphorus Resources Worldwide 13 http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/ guide/humimpac.html [Accessed: 29.09.2010] Source: A. Rosemarin et al Only some few big reserves worldwide!
  13. 13. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Peak Phosphorus 14 Peak phosphorus Hubbert curve Source: CORDELL, D., DRANGERT, J.-O., WHITE, S. (2009)
  14. 14. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Nitrogen 17 Nitrogen can be extracted from the surrounding air, but very energy- intensive process (1 litre of oil to produce 1 kg of nitrogen) Your food doesn't come from here, but it starts here: an ammonia factory. Source: http://www.grist.org/article/2010-02-11-tracking-u.s.-farmers-supply-nitrogen- fertilizer/ [Accessed: 27.09.2101] http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/media/galleries/ greenhouse_gas_sources.html [Accessed: 27.09.2010] Affordability?
  15. 15. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. So, how do we handle the water and nutrient cycle? Everything OK?
  16. 16. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Land degradation and reduction of the productivity. TODAY.Source: http://crs-blog.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2009/02/afg2008018673.jpg Maybe not… 756 million people without access to clean water. TODAY. Source: L. Barreto Dillon 90% wastewater in developing countries is discharge w/o any treatment. TODAY. Source: L. Barreto Dillon TODAY. Source: L. Barreto Dillon 1.03 billion people without sanitation.
  17. 17. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. 21 What’s Going Wrong? Sectoral Thinking Water Sanitation Agriculture Source: Own Graph Solid Waste Energy
  18. 18. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. (1) Sectoral thinking Providing Water / Toilets à But what about the wastewater? Source: L. Barreto Dillon Source: L. Barreto Dillon What is going wrong? Providing Food à But no recycling of organic wastes ... etc.
  19. 19. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. (1) Sectoral thinking Energy intensive transport of drinking water in Germany Stuttgart Lake Constance Water transported over 200 km! (uphill) What is going wrong?
  20. 20. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. *Based on an average for a toilet that uses about 8 L of Water per flush (11). With conventional waterborne flush-toilets, we mix roughly 50 kg of faecal matter (per person/year) roughly 500 l of urine (per person/year) with roughly 20’000l of clean flushwater* 50 kg 500 L 20’000 L If this wastewater is discharged untreated into rivers, an even higher amount of water is polluted!http://thomasmayerarchive.de (2) Path dependencies What is going wrong?
  21. 21. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. (2) Path dependencies Mixing different types of wastewaters… What is going wrong? What happens at the end of the pipe?
  22. 22. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. (2) Path dependencies High-Tech Wastewater Treatment Plants What is going wrong? Which will need: •  Long sewer network & pumps to get the wastewater to the plant •  Electricity for aeration, pumps and other moving parts •  Skilled (and thus expensive) operation & maintenance staff •  High cost •  Recycling difficult due to contamination of heavy metals, etc.. à Who will pay for this?
  23. 23. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Source: L. BARRETO –DILLON (2) Path dependencies Transfer of path dependencies to developing countries What is going wrong? Straight transfer of conventional systems from industrialised to developing countries
  24. 24. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. (3) Linear approach Many people still act as if we lived on a flat world… What is going wrong? Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com
  25. 25. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. What is going wrong? Source: PHADKE 2009 (3) Linear approach Many people still act as if we lived on a flat world…
  26. 26. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. (3) Linear approach Situation today: linear water flows What is going wrong? GROUNDWATER UTILISATION WATER DISCHARGE INTO SURFACE WATER BODIES à WATER FLOW à WASTE WATER Source:OwnGraph
  27. 27. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Nutrients excreted are not recycled, but essentially end up in aquatic ecosystems. What is going wrong? NUTRIENT DEPLETION NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION à NUTRIENT FLOW à FOOD WASTE WATER (3) Linear approach Situation today: linear nutrient flows
  28. 28. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. NPK + H20 How are the two cycles interlinked? NPK NPK = Nutrients H20 = Water H20 H20 What is going wrong? NPK
  29. 29. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. After all, the world is round! Source: http://blogs.glam.de
  30. 30. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. The world works in cycles! Source: PHADKE 2009
  31. 31. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. The Water… …as well as the Nutrient Cycle! The world works in cycles! Source: aucklandcity.govt.nz Source: http://www.pikeconservation.org/soil_ecosystem.htm
  32. 32. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. 37 LET’S DO IT BETTER!
  33. 33. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. 38 Let’s link water, sanitation, agriculture … … and tackle these issues in a holistic way! Source:OwnGraph
  34. 34. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Let’s recycle nutrients and water! Source: MORGAN 2007 Source: SHEWA & GELETA 2009
  35. 35. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. High level policy making is important, but… Source: http://mattkava.com
  36. 36. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. … in the meantime let’s start at a level where WE have the power to do something… …at the local level!
  37. 37. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. ..let’s involve the affected people in the decision making process… Source: M. KROPAC 2004
  38. 38. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. ...and take into consideration all aspects of a solution: planning, implementation, operation & maintenance! Source: M. KROPAC 2008
  39. 39. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. 44Source: http://www.wsp.org …let’s not only focus on hardware, but also on software! Source: www.sswm.info Source: http://www.wsp.org/userfiles/image/november2002.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010]
  40. 40. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. 45 Let’s have an integrated approach to all the functional components of the water and nutrient loops: Water Distribution Purification Industrial Use Recharge / Reuse Collection Domestic Use Agricultural Use Water Sources Treatment Water Loop Nutrient Loop
  41. 41. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Let’s take a holistic approach! è Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management Source: http://www.sswm.info
  42. 42. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM)… … is a holistic approach. … links sustainable sanitation with water management and agriculture. … considers the water and the nutrient cycle together.
  43. 43. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM)… … starts simple, and locally. … is not a specific technology, but about all measures that aim at making sanitation and water management more sustainable. … gives equal importance to hardware and software. Source:PHADKE2009
  44. 44. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Thank you for your attention! water sanitation agriculture
  45. 45. Enter the title of your presentation here (go to view à master (THIS TITLE YOU NEED TO ENETER ON BOTH MASTERS: TITLE PAGE MASTER AND NORMAL PAGE MASTER and FINAL PAGE MASTER) 51 Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture With the support of: Created by:
  46. 46. Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management - SSWM Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. 52 Group Work A) Understanding your Water and Sanitation System Water Distribution Purification Industrial Use Recharge / Reuse Collection Domestic Use Agricultural Use Water Sources Treatment Water Loop Nutrient Loop Let’s form 4 groups: Group 1: rural disperse 50 pp Group 2: rural town with 100 pp Group 3: peri-urban area with 500 pp Group 4: urban area with 1000 pp. Using the material given, prepare a locality map. Follow the instructions A) of the hand-out. Time: 40 Minutes
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