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IDMP CEE 2nd workshop: Drought information exchange platform by Luka Honzak and Gregor Gregoric

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  • 1. Drought information exchange Platform Training on Activity 1.3 Ljubljana, 8 April 2014 Luka Honzak, BO-MO LTD. luka@bo-mo.si Gregor Gregorič, EARS/DMCSEE gregor.gregoric@gov.si
  • 2. Agenda
  • 3. European Drought Observatory (EDO) http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu EDO provides: • Continental overview of information on drought • Visualization and analysis • Seamless access to regional and national drought information
  • 4. Geographical information system (GIS) • system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and visualize all types of geographical data Raster (map of drought index)
  • 5. Geographical information system (GIS)
  • 6. Geographical information system (GIS) Vector – Points (drought index on the stations) – Lines or polylines – Polygons (drought index for regions)
  • 7. Geographical information system (GIS)
  • 8. Geographical information system (GIS) Vector -> raster: interpolation (different types of kriging) Output: special formats (include information about coordinate system, resolution, boundaries) Every software for plotting maps is a kind of GIS -> output can be saved to GIS file format JPEG: world file
  • 9. Geographical information system (GIS) Mapping
  • 10. Geographical information system (GIS) Reference surface • WGS84 Projections
  • 11. Geographical information system (GIS) Coordinate systems • latitude-longitude/geographic coordinate system • Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) – sixty zones (UTM zone number), each 6° – UTM zone number, east and north coordinate in meters • Gauss-Krüger – similar to the UTM, 3° instead of 6° • EPSG geodetic parameter – Four-digit number describing coordinate system Web mapping / Web GIS – Google Maps, EDO – Web Map Service (WMS)
  • 12. Data by region - Slovenia DMCSEE (www.dmcsee.org) • SPI 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 • WBA60 • Drought bulletins • Precipitation, Percentiles • Archive • Availability: – http://www.dmcsee.org/en/drou ght_monitor/, – http://dmcsee.org/GISapp/ – EDO MapViewer – Drought Metadata Catalogue
  • 13. SI - DMCSEE SPI 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 • Based on GPCC data in 0.5° (http://gpcc.dwd.de/) • Calibration period: 1961- 1990 • Frequency: monthly (available after 5th day of the next month) • Availability: http://dmcsee.org/GISapp/, http://www.dmcsee.org/en/drought_monitor/, EDO MapViewer
  • 14. SI - DMCSEE WBA60 (60 day water balance anomaly) • Based on NWP model simulations for area, limited to SE Europe. • Non-hydrostatical Meso-scale Model (NMM) is used. Historical DMCSEE model climatology was computed with NMM model for time period between 1 January 1989 until 31 December 2009 with ERA-Interim as IC/BC • Frequency: decade (from 11.3. to ~15.12.) • Availability: http://dmcsee.org/GISapp/, EDO MapViewer
  • 15. SI - DMCSEE Precipitation, Percentiles • Based on GPCC data in 0.5° (http://gpcc.dwd.de/) • Calibration period: 1951-2000 • Frequency: monthly (available after 5th day of the next month) • Availability: http://www.dmcsee.org/en/drought_monit or/
  • 16. SI - DMCSEE Drought bulletins • Frequency: monthly (end of the month from ~March- ~November) • Availability: http://www.dmcsee.org/en/drought_bulle tin
  • 17. SI - DMCSEE Archive SPI 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 for 1951-2000 • Calibration period: 1971- 2000 • Slovenia: Slovenian stations • SEE : GPCC • Same legend for easier comparison • Availability: http://www.dmcsee.org/GISapp/
  • 18. SI – national data (meteo.si) meteo.si (National Meteorological Service for Slovenia), Agrometeorology (http://www.meteo.si/met/sl/agromet/) • Variables in current year • Long-time averages • Phenological phases • Daily data archive from 1961 • SPI per region
  • 19. SI – national data (meteo.si) Variables in current year (http://www.meteo.si/met/sl/agromet/recent/) • Temperatures – 10 stations (air), 8 (soil) – Frequency: daily (for previous day) • Water balance – 10 stations – Frequency: daily, weekly (for previous day) • Water balance bulletins – Frequency: decade (April- September), monthly otherwise
  • 20. SI – national data (meteo.si) SPI 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 per region (http://www.meteo.si/met/sl/agromet/indeks_spi/) • Calibration period 1971-2000 • Frequency: 1., 15. from April to September 1 HODOŠ SPI1 0.45 2 SUHI VRH SPI1 0.4 3 DOLENCI SPI1 0.96 4 BUDINCI SPI1 1.04 5 MARKOVCI SPI1 1.01 ……………………………………
  • 21. SI – national data (meteo.si) http://www.meteo.si/uploads/probase/www/agromet/product/form/sl/SPI_karte.pdf •15.6. • 1.9.
  • 22. SI – national data (Geoportal EARS) EARS Geoportal (http://gis.arso.gov.si/) • Search metadata • Download data (WFS) (http://gis.arso.gov.si/wfs_web/faces/ WFSLayersList.jspx) • GIS Viewer (Environment Atlas) (http://gis.arso.gov.si/atlasokolja/prof ile.aspx?id=Atlas_Okolja_AXL@ Arso&culture=en-US)
  • 23. SI – national data (Geoportal EARS) WFS • Climate – Air temperature – Precipitation – Snow cover – Sunshine duration – Wind speed – Phenology In Drought Metadata Catalogue.
  • 24. SI – national data (Geoportal EARS) Environment Atlas
  • 25. Data by region - overview Agreement with At the workshop Questionnarie Bulgaria National Scientific Coordination Center of Global Changes Vesselin Alexandrov - national leader OK X Czech R. Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation in Prague Hana Pokladnikova Tatana Navrkalova Petra Kulířová Hana Středová Hungary Lower-Tisza District Water Directorate Karoly Fiala X X Lithuania Department of Hydrology and Climatology, Vilnius University Edvinas Stonevicius Gintautas Stankunavicius - leader Edvinas Stonevicius Donatas Valiukas (LHS-ME) Moldova Institute of Ecology and Geography - Maria Nedealco OK OK Poland GWP Poland supported by Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Dorota Pusłowska OK X Romania National Meteorological Administration Elena Mateescu - leader Daniel Alexandru OK Slovakia Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) Marek Švec X OK Slovenia Slovenian Environmental Agency /DMCSEE Gregor Gregorič - leader OK OK Ukraine UkrHydroMetCentr Tatiana Adamenko X OK
  • 26. Data by region – Bulgaria ** (Based on “Soil drought monitoring” presented by Tania Marinova in 2009.) • soil moisture – gravimetric method – every 10 cm to 100 cm every ten days – every 20 cm to 200 cm every month – Monthly Bulletin of the NIMH National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) (www.meteo.bg)
  • 27. Data by region – Czech Republic • Drought Monitor – Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) • Integrated Warning Service System (IWSS) – CHMI & Meteorological Service of the Army of the Czech Republic • Integrated system for drought monitoring (The Drought Monitor) – Academy of Sciences, Mendel University, Masary University, CHMI
  • 28. CZ: Drought Monitor • Soil and climatic drought • Map of the threat of drought in the soil profile – 0-20 cm, 0-100 cm – Combination of measured and model-derived data of soil moisture • Other maps – Measured soil moisture (0-10 cm,10-50 cm, 50-100 cm), modeled soil moisture (0-20 cm) – Evaporation, water balance • Frequency: weekly in the warm half of the year (on Tuesday from Sunday data) www.chmi.cz – Monitoring sucha
  • 29. CZ: Drought Monitor
  • 30. CZ: Integrated system for drought monitor • Meteorological and agricultural droughts • Combines: – Ground-based measurements – Dynamic water balance model – Remote sensing methods • Map of the drought intensity – 0-100 cm, 0-40 cm, 40-100 cm – comparing with values of soil moisture in the time period +- 10 days from 1961-2010 – The probability of repetition of the soil moisture at a given day • Frequency: weekly (every Monday to 15 CET on the situation on Sunday at 7 CET)
  • 31. CZ: Integrated system for drought monitor The normal state S0 – reduced level of soil moisture S1 – incipient drought S2 – significant drought S3 – very significant drought S4 – exceptional drought S5 – extreme drought http://www.intersucho.cz/ (webpage under the development)
  • 32. Data by region – Lithuania • (Selianinov) Hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) – HTC=∑P [mm] / ΣT [°C ] /10 • P – sum of the precipitation • T – sum of the mean air temperature • 30 consecutive days – for the vegetation period of active plants (when the T > 10 °C), calculated for each day, starting from 30th day of the active plants vegetation period • Frequency: weekly Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under Ministry of Enviroment
  • 33. LT >1.6 - excess moisture, 1.0-1.5 - optimum moisture content 0.8-0.9 - lack of moisture 0.6-0.7 - arid, 0.4-0.5 – dry <0.4 - very dry Dry period: 15 days+ HTC <0.5 Extreme drought: 30 days+ HTC<0.5 http://www.meteo.lt/dregmes_salygos.php
  • 34. Data by region – Moldova Atlas Climatic resources of The Republic of Moldova • Precipitation for a period of 30 years (1981-2010) • 16 stations and 17 posts of State Hidrometorological Service • Base for SPI calculations Identifying droughts and dry periods • SPI • Martonne index • Dry periods index (sum of dry days in May-August compared to multiyear average)
  • 35. Data by region – Romania • Agrometeorological indicators: – soil moisture reserve • Various dephts (0-20 cm, 0-50 cm, 0-100 cm) % of AWC Humidity classes 0 – 20 % Extreme pedological drought / ED 20 – 35% Severe pedological drought / SD 35 – 50% Moderate pedological drought / MD 50 – 70% Satisfactory supply / SS 70 – 100% Optimal supply / OS >100% Above normal moisture values / EX – heat waves • Period of at least 3 consecutive days in which the maximum T reaches or exceeds 32°C
  • 36. Data by region – Romania – rainfall amounts – ETP – Weekly agrometeorological bulletin • the specific information (air and soil temperature, rainfall, ETP, soil moisture, crop water requirement) needed for assessment of drought occurrence • National Observation Network (158 meteorological stations and 55 agrometeorological stations)
  • 37. Data by region – Romania • Data are analyzed and compared with the critical thresholds in order to evaluate the threat and make recommendations to decision-makers and farmers • Disseminated to Presidency, Government, Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MECC), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) for informational and decisional purpose. • For the general public the information is disseminated through mass-media • Periodical broadcasts (i.e. “Village Life”) are made at the public radio and television having nationwide coverage, and targeting rural audience.
  • 38. Data by region – Romania – monthly and seasonal agrometeorological bulletin (diagnosis/forecasts), dedicated agrometeorological reports • Articles for specialized publications and magazines are disseminated weekly and monthly in electronic format (www.agriplus.ro; www.revista-ferma.ro; http://www.gazetafermierului.ro/). • Climatological indicators: SPI-3 • Indicators based on satellite techniques: – NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) – fAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation) – NDDI (Normalized Difference Drought Index) • Availability: www.meteoromania.ro, e-mail or paper format National Meteorological Administration
  • 39. Data by region – Slovakia * • SPI – 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 – 77 homogeneous and 44 inhomogeneous precipitation stations • PDSI – 25 homogeneous and 22 inhomogeneous precipitation stations • Calibration period: 1961-2013 • Frequency: monthly – SPI: delay of one month after revision of measurement reports from precipitation stations – PDSI: delay couple of weeks after revision of climatological reports • Availability: via e-mail (Excel tables) Slovak hydrometeorological institute (SHMI)
  • 40. Data by region – Ukraine • (Selianinov) hydrothermal coefficient (GTC) – 140 meteorological stations – Aridity assessment of the current year and estimation of climate impact on moisture supply of the areas – One of parameters used in the models for crop productivity prognoses – >1.6 - too wet, 1.6 -1.3 – wet, 1.2 - 1.0 - not wet, 0.9 - 0.6 – drought, ≤ 0.5 extreme drought • Frequency: monthly (for the period with average daily T > 10°C) Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center
  • 41. UA – meteo.gov.ua • Maps (http://meteo.gov.ua/ua/333 45/agrometeorology/agro_c urrent_conditions/) – “State of topsoil” – Average daily soil temperature at 5, 10 cm
  • 42. Implementation
  • 43. Introduction - INSPIRE, EUROGEOSS • INSPIRE is an EU initiative to establish an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe • EuroGEOSS was an FP7 project that demonstrated the added value to the scientific community and society of making existing systems and applications interoperable and used within the GEOSS and INSPIRE frameworks • EuroGEOSS developed a European Drought Observatory. • Benefits from EuroGEOSS project – Provide a central repository of drought relevant metadata that can be accessed by everyone over the Internet. – A place for data producers to publish their data and data consumers to find the data – New services, interoperability
  • 44. Drought metadata catalogue • Information about drought – data (raster or vector) – links to documents (field reports, bulletins …) – national web pages providing drought information • Realtime or near-realtime • Climatological Obligatory
  • 45. Drought metadata catalogue – metadata Metadata • "data about data” • descriptive metadata: data providing information about of the data with standard language • Indicator name, indicator description, organization, availability … Metadata Catalogue • Service that stores metada • We can easily browse summary of all data • Other users/organization/companies can also find our data if catalogues are publicly available • Essential to enable interoperability
  • 46. Drought metadata catalogue – needed data • Organization – Name of the organization responsible for the indicator – Contact (e-mail) • Indicator name • Indicator description – How is the indicator created? By the application of a software? Which? Manually? Automatically through a spatial model or GIS analysis? – How the component was assessed: Monitored, Calculated, Estimated. – What is calibration period? – What is the frequency of updating information?
  • 47. Drought metadata catalogue – needed data • Availability of information – Is the information available to the public? – If so, references, hyperlinks, … • Data Range Available – Indicate the range of data from which information is available • Geographic extent • Keywords – Type of drought • Which is the type of drought that the indicator assesses? – ... List of keywords will be provided.
  • 48. Drought metadata catalogue - SW • XML (Extensible Markup Language) file – Textual data format – Representation of arbitrary data structures • CatMDEDit (http://catmdedit.sourceforge.net/, free) • Inspire Metadata Editor (http://inspire-geoportal.ec.europa.eu/editor/, online) • ESRI ArcCatalog (part of ArcGIS: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/) • ISO Metadata Editor (http://www.crepad.rcanaria.es/metadata/en/index_en.htm, free) • Altova XML Editor (http://www.altova.com/xml-editor/) • ...
  • 49. Catalogue - SW CatMDEdit + includes all the sections of interest for metadata - medium difficulty INSPIRE Metadata Editor + easy to use + fully compliance with INSPIRE directive - low number of groups for metadata - online
  • 50. Drought metadata catalogue – live example Inspire Metadata Editor http://inspire-geoportal.ec.europa.eu/editor/ Documentation: http://www.eurogeoss.eu/Documents/EuroGEOSS_D_2_2_3.pdf
  • 51. Implementation: EDO MapViewer • Raster or vector data, raster data prefered • Real-time or near real-time – Can be time-based (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, …) • Highly desirable • WMS (Web Map Service) spatial data WMS server EDO MapViewer National web mapping service server user WMS client
  • 52. WMS example http://www.dmcsee.org/cgi- bin/mapserv?map=/var/www/tmp/dmcsee_wms/dmcsee_wms.map&SERVICE=WMS&VE RSION=1.0.0&REQUEST=GetMap&SRS=EPSG:4326&HEIGHT=360&WIDTH=760&FOR MAT=image/png&BBOX=11,33.995,47.005,50&LAYERS=SPI6&TIME=19991001
  • 53. Data Raster data • Format: recommended GeoTIFF • Legend • EPSG Point data • Dense network station - raster ?
  • 54. WMS server Free: • GeoServer http://geoserver.org/ • Mapserver http://mapserver.org/ • QGIS Server (previously Quantum GIS) http://qgis.org/ Non-free: • ArcGIS Server http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgisserver/ More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Map_Sevice
  • 55. WMS server: UNM Mapserver • Robust software (launched in the mid-1990s) • Lightweight • Runs on different platforms • Supports many file formats • Easy to install • More difficult to configurate http://mapserver.org/
  • 56. Future work: us • Final version of implementation guide with detailed examples will be available till the end of April. • During the project we offer support with implementation (luka@bo-mo.si) – Preparing XML files for Catalogue – Preparing mapfiles (MapServer) • Review of implementation on next workshop in Budapest end of September.
  • 57. Future work: you Drought Metadata Catalogue • prepare XML files • send it to luka@bo-mo.si (CC: idmp.sabina@gmail.com) with subject: IDMP CEE “Your Country Name” until 1.7.2014 • focus on: public available, drought related, realtime or near-realtime EDO MapViewer • check national web services (INSPIRE) • contact your IT service
  • 58. Future work – Catalogue (draft) Product Product type Availability Bulgaria Monthly Bulletin of the NIMH Bulletin Online Czech R. Map of the threat of drought in the soil profile Measured soil moisture … Integrated system for drought monitor Map Map … Map Online Online … Online Hungary Lithuania Hydrothermal coefficient Map Online Moldova ? - Atlas Climatic resources of The Republic of Moldova Poland Romania Weekly agrometeorological bulletin Bulletin Online Slovakia SPI PDSI Excel file Excel file E-mail E-mail Slovenia SPI 1, 2, 4, 6 per region Water balance bulletin Text Bulletin Online Online Ukraine “State of topsoil” Average daily soil temperature at 5, 10 cm Map Map Online Online

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