SIDS need to act now to address these issues, but are hampered by small populations which limit the amount of technical capacity in-country as well as the economic base from which to finance mitigation measures.
A status review of IWRM and Water Efficiency Plans in Selected SIDS  , undertaken in 2008, reveals (refer to Table 1) that in a sample of 13 Caribbean and Pacific SIDS, only Samoa has a IWRM Plan in place; nine of the countries were in the process of preparing the plans; and one country had taken initial steps towards formulating the Plan. On the other hand, t here is some relevant experience in the Pacific and Caribbean SIDS from which to develop IWRM policies, strategies, and activities, as demonstrated by the findings of the country IWRM diagnostic reports in the Pacific and the IWCAM National Reports in the Caribbean. Countries responding to the GWP Survey in 2006. Refer to Pages 9 to 12 of Inception Report for examples of work undertaken in Caribbean and Pacific SIDS
To facilitate the implementation of IWRM plans, there is a need for establishment of effective and appropriate coordination mechanisms among different agencies and development of financial structures that enable these agencies to perform their tasks effectively and in a sustainable manner. At the operational level, stakeholders should be responsible for monitoring, progress reporting, and evaluation of the implementation of various measures and actions and to provide feedback on the impacts of the implementation of specific activities on water resources to a leading agency. This process calls for the establishment of a reformed institutional structure, that involves decision makers, at the highest political level, from ministries, agencies, local administrations in addition to representatives from civil society, NGOs, private sector, and other actors concerned with management of water resources. The nature, structure, and organisation of reformed institutions have to allow for involvement of all sectors at all levels to guarantee a nation-wide consultation and to promote bottom-up approaches in planning and implementation of IWRM combined with the more common top-down approaches. The reformed institutional structure must be able to warrant the political support and commitment and provide the enabling environment needed to implement multi-sectoral water policies and strategies.
Water institutions in SIDS Regions have severe shortage of the skilled staff on issues related to IWRM. Involved personnel are commonly engineers or environmentalists. There is a severe shortage of other professions such as agronomists, economists, sociologists, lawyers, environmental health experts, etc. Multi-discipline efforts need to be mobilized for the mainstreaming of environmental, economic, social, and legal dimensions in the developed IWRM policies and strategies. At the local level, there is a serious shortage of capacities, knowledge, know-how, and other capabilities needed to participate in and implement water policies and projects. This can be attributed to the centralized approach (i.e. top-down approach) of water policy development and lack of advanced training and capacity building campaigns on the new emerging IWRM issues and approaches. The inappropriateness and overlap of roles and functions of current water-related institutions within the context of IWRM and lack of coordination and integration among concerned stakeholders hinder the implementation of IWRM policies. Most of existing coordination instruments are related to short-term activities/projects and lack sustainability and empowerment. Stakeholder participation process is usually practiced through technical committees that are typically inactive following the completion of these projects. Some actors that have a vital role in water management do not participate in IWRM plan formulation. For example, at the central level, ministries of planning and finance that are responsible for approving developments which may have implications for national water plans and for allocating and providing the required investments to implement these, have no significant roles during the formulation phase of water policies.
There are four things that we would like the HLS to conclude on: 1. That the present GWP Toolbox is not quite appropriate for SIDS - scale and lack of resources - although we are also cognizant that the donors and IFIs would rather us not use that arguement because the rest of the DCs also use that same arguement. but as practitioners in the field we know that lack of capacity and resources - and the issue, generally of scale dominate all natural resource and environmental management. 2. Sector wide reform of the water sector is too cumbersome for a SIDs to tackle. Therefore, a better approach would be a problem based approach which is tied into a national priority and which will allow for easy buy in - at all levels - and for scaling up in the future. 3. The IWRM plan must be built around a demonstration project(s) so that there is buy in and so that the IWRM plan does not become a futile exercise. You know how we like to formulate plans which adorn the bookshelves! 4. That our preliminary thoughts on a set of guidelines for SIDS is acceptable.
IWRM Methodology and Guidelines for SIDS
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Methodology and Guidelines for Small Island Developing States CHRISTOPHER CORBIN For UNEP/DEPI in partnership with UNEP Division of the Global Environment Facility
BACKGROUND <ul><li>Quantity and quality of water in SIDS impacted by </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Intense competition for scarce land and water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change & variability </li></ul><ul><li>Increased frequency of natural disaster events </li></ul>
Challenges to Water management in SIDS <ul><li>Fragile and limited water resources, highly vulnerable to climatic variability </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply and sanitation provisions restricted by human and financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Complex water governance arrangements </li></ul>
Where SIDS differ from other Developing Countries <ul><li>Immediacy of problems and lack of capacity to respond in a timely manner </li></ul><ul><li>Limited land mass; limited water + other natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures of economic development on limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change & climate variability </li></ul><ul><li>Some SIDS close to natural carrying capacity of islands and watersheds </li></ul>
Why IWRM for SIDS? <ul><li>IWRM can </li></ul><ul><li>improve integration of existing agencies, stakeholders, sectoral planning and activities, </li></ul><ul><li>provides ideal way to use existing but limited capacity and funding within SIDS to their best effect. </li></ul>
IWRM for SIDS: Pacific Experience <ul><li>Pacific SIDS identify IWRM as </li></ul><ul><li>solution to managing and protecting water resources, </li></ul><ul><li>improving governance arrangements and </li></ul><ul><li>improving water supply and sanitation provision. </li></ul>
IWRM Plans for SIDS 2 Tuvalu 2 Trinidad and Tobago 2 (Union – an Outer Island) St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3 Solomon Islands 1 Samoa 2 Saint Lucia 2 Mauritius 2 Kiribati 2 Jamaica 2 Grenada 2 Fiji 2 Belize 3 Cape Verde 2 Barbados 1=plan in place 2=plans in preparation 3=only initial steps taken Country
IWRM Planning in SIDS – The Requirements <ul><li>Are governance systems, the management capacities and the types of financing required for IWRM culturally and politically sensitive to needs of SIDS? </li></ul><ul><li>Successful implementation of existing IWRM plans will require SIDS to perform significant institutional and legislative reforms – do SIDS have capacity and resources ? </li></ul>
IWRM Planning in SIDS – The Realities <ul><li>Severe shortage of the skilled staff on issues related to IWRM. </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder participation process is usually protracted because same stakeholders involved in other non-water issues too. </li></ul><ul><li>Some actors that have a vital role in water management do not participate in IWRM plan formulation. </li></ul>
IWRM Planning in SIDS – The Opportunities <ul><li>Major reforms in water governance not requisite for IWRM and for catalyzing change in the water sector. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to promote the adoption of good water management through an IWRM approach, more important to understand national development planning system and priorities for water within it. </li></ul><ul><li>Each country will have different priorities and planning systems, and therefore different entry points, from which better water management can and should be promoted. </li></ul>
IWRM for SIDS <ul><li>“ Problem-based” approach leads to an action strategy based on tangible and immediate issues and can help win broad public support. </li></ul><ul><li>The scale of IWRM for SIDS is entire watershed and its receiving waters </li></ul>
IWRM for SIDS <ul><li>The focus for SIDS is </li></ul><ul><li>to create and improve linkages across the sectors and scales (communities, watershed, islands, nation), and </li></ul><ul><li>build capacity within and between stakeholders in utilising the management instruments and tools. </li></ul>
IWRM for CARIBBEAN SIDS Where are we? <ul><li>Caribbean SIDS have completed diagnostics and analysis of water sector. This information can lead to </li></ul><ul><li>policy development and/or reform, </li></ul><ul><li>strategy choice, </li></ul><ul><li>development of National IWRM Plans, and </li></ul><ul><li>demonstration projects which can help monitor and evaluate IWRM changes to the enabling environment, institutional roles and management approaches/tools. </li></ul>
But… <ul><li>Caribbean SIDS lack broad political support needed to get the process of creating an IWRM strategy off the ground . </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: </li></ul><ul><li>more effective to define a geographic entry point (e.g. a specific watershed) </li></ul><ul><li>use pilot cases to demonstrate IWRM’s effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>use problem-based” approach to lead to an action strategy based on tangible and immediate issues e.g. IWCAM </li></ul>
Proposed Methodology for IWRM for SIDS <ul><li>(1) Integrate water issues into national development priorities </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Identify entry point(s) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Identify problem to be resolved </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Identify spatial extent of problem(s) </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Develop Action Plan and Strategy to mitigate problem(s) based on a combination of enabling environment; institutional framework or management instruments. </li></ul>
Proposed Guidelines for developing IWRM Plans for SIDS <ul><ul><li>Identify major water issues impacting on national development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree on an entry point. Identify the key substantive issues radiating out from that point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe existing water management approaches that surround the issues in the entry point and/or spatial extent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undertake an inventory of activities relevant to water resources management in the entry point </li></ul></ul>
Proposed Guidelines for developing IWRM Plans for SIDS <ul><li>Identify core problem at point of entry and causes and effect of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Use sensitivity analysis to prioritise issues surrounding causes and effect of core problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop response strategy – IWRM Plan – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>goals, aims and objectives to be attained) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how the vision, goals, aims and objectives will be achieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How Plan will be linked to other development process related to core problem – e.g. PSIP; IDP, MTESP </li></ul></ul></ul>
Proposed Guidelines for developing IWRM Plans for SIDS <ul><li>Identify demonstration project(s) around core problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identify necessary institutional arrangements; policy framework; resource requirements; type of stakeholders and how they will participate. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify M&E mechanisms to monitor implementation of plan through demonstration projects. </li></ul>
Proposed Guidelines for developing IWRM Plans for SIDS <ul><li>Templates and tools will be developed to assist SIDS in using/adapting the Guidelines. </li></ul>