Economic and Financial Instruments for IWRM Introduction to IWRM Part 1: Discovering IWRM
Goal and objectives of the session
To introduce the importance of water
To give an indication of the water crisis
To present the challenge in resolving the crisis
To define IWRM
To introduce the importance of a water management framework
Overview of the importance of water
Water crisis: Facts
Challenges in addressing crisis
What is IWRM
Water management framework and core elements
Benefits of the framework
The Importance of Water
Water is essential to human survival (20-40 litres per person daily)
Effective primary health care
Fight poverty, hunger, child mortality, gender inequality and environmental damage.
Millennium Development Goals
Facts on Water Crisis
More than 2 billion people suffer from water shortages in over 40 countries;
1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water;
4 out of 10 people in the world do not have access to improved sanitation (very basic facilities);
2 million tonnes per day of human waste is discharged into water courses;
Every year 1.6 million children below 5 years old die because of unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation.
Reasons for Water Crisis
Water resources under pressure from population growth, economic activity, growing competition from many water users;
Withdrawals increased more than twice the rate of population growth;
Development and pollution are exacerbating water scarcity;
Uncoordinated development and management of water resources;
Climate change will impact on water resources.
Improving access to water (all users) and sanitation
What is needed?
Government making this a priority;
Appropriate long-term financing;
Resolving competition among users and environmental challenges;
Advocacy on-behalf of poor;
Improved capacity of governments to deliver services to all users;
Government accountability in meeting the needs of all users.
What is IWRM?
A systematic process for sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of social, economic and environmental goals and objectives.
IWRM is a paradigm shift.
Departs from traditional approaches in three ways:
Cross-cutting and departs from traditional sectoral approach.
Spatial focus is the river basin;
Departure from narrow professional and political boundaries and perspectives and broadened to incorporate participatory decision-making of all stakeholders ( Inclusion versus exclusion ).
The basis of IWRM is that there are a variety of uses of water resources which are interdependent.
The need to consider the different uses of water together
Examples of Competing but Interdependent Uses
The Water Balancing Act
Increasing in all sectors
Quantity ( Natural Scarcity,
Cost of Options
The IWRM Process Governance Health Water Quality Water Supply Floods/Droughts Energy Agriculture Industry Pollution Prev Coastal Mgt. Ecosystem Mgt. Activity Sectors (water uses) Social Development Economic Development Env . Protection Objectives Policy/Inst. Framework Management Institutions Feedback Prosperity IWRM Water and water related policies review and revision IWRM Resource development, management, monitoring, and evaluation IWRM Resource availability/use analysis and allocation
Water Management Framework
At the core of the water management framework is:
Treatment of water as an economic and social good;
Decentralised management and delivery structures;
Greater reliance on economic instruments;
Broader participation of stakeholders.
What will a Water Management Framework do?
1) Provide framework for analysing policies and options that will guide decisions in relation to:
Water allocation; and
2) Facilitate consideration of relationships between the ecosystem and socio-economic activities in river basins.
Think about it
Could you give examples from your own country where interdependency of water uses exists?
The next presentation deals with the principles of water management