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Meetup Performance
Greg Whalin, CTO Meetup (@gwhalin), Justin Cataldo, Lead UI Engineer (@jcataldo), Will Howard, Lead UI ...
Meetup

Platform for local groups

Mission is MEME (Meetup Everywhere About Most Everything)

~6.2m members
~70k Groups
~5...
General Architecture and Back-
      end Performance
     (just a tiny bit - this could and
     should be another present...
Data
MySQL (any RDBMs store) biggest pain
   replication
   use InnoDB!
   smart indexing (take advantage of clustered ind...
Storage


  Over half a million photos uploaded to Meetup every month

  Scaled and processed into 4 different sizes (plus...
Storage solutions
  Options for growth include NAS, SAN, or something else

  NAS and SAN are single point of failure and ...
MogileFS
 developed by Brand Fitzpatrick (i.e. Memcached)
 OSS distributed filesystem (built in Perl)
 any hard drive on n...
Much much much more going on

       but...
UI Performance
(much of our focus here)
Why does performance matter?
Why does performance matter?

             Slow site
Why does performance matter?

              Slow site

         Bad User Experience
Why does performance matter?

              Slow site

         Bad User Experience

           Drop in Member
           ...
Why focus on front end performance?

  Back end only accounts for 10-15% of the response time
  Less time and resources
  ...
Case Study: Event Details
Event Details:
 Load Time

  Load time = 6.321s




www.webpagetest.org
Event Details: Requests




        Lots of javascript being loaded
How do we improve
  performance?
3 Steps to improving performance

1. Externalize script
2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page
3. Reduce requests
3 Steps to improving performance

1. Externalize script
2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page
3. Reduce requests
Why externalize scripts

  Prevents blocking
     Inline scripts prevent asynchronous downloads
     Downloads must wait f...
Pull out inline script



<script type="text/javascript">




                                                >
if(typeof ...
3 Steps to improving performance

1. Externalize script
2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page
3. Reduce requests
Web:script
    Custom tag built in house
    Moves inline and external script to the bottom of the page
    Allows UI engi...
3 Steps to improving performance

1. Externalize script
2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page
3. Reduce requests
Reduce Requests

 Concatenate as much as possible
 Load only what we need upfront
Concatenation using Sprockets

 Sprockets (www.getsprockets.com)
 Created by 37Signals
 Ruby library that preprocesses and...
Concatenation using Sprockets (cont.)



EventDetails.js
CommentDeleteConfirm.js
BubbleTips.js
PlacesManager.js
MaxCharact...
Using Sprockets
/******* Sprockets Directives *******/

//= require <CommentDeleteConfirm>
//= require <DomDeco/BubbleTips...
Lazy Loading

 Defer loading of javascript files until they are needed
 Reduces the initial upfront requests
 Helps reduce...
Lazy Loading: How it works
Inserts scripts into the head dynamically
 var scriptNode = function(src) {
   return createDOM...
Did it make a difference?
Reduced requests




       Javascript requests cut by 50%
Event Details
Page Load After
Old Load Time = 6.321s
New Load time = 4.643s
Event Details
Page Load After
Old Load Time = 6.321s
New Load time = 4.643s




   Load time
  decreased by
      27%!
But that's not all
Execute early




       Execute when the dom is ready
Execute early: DOMReady
Libraries that have a DOM ready solution:
   jQuery
   YUI
   Prototype
   Pretty much every moder...
Execute early: DOMReady
And by rolled our own, I mean we're using the Dean
Edwards/Matthias Miller/John Resig implementati...
Execute early: Even earlier

Do you need to wait for the DOM to be ready?

If you aren't manipulating the DOM, there's no ...
Automated Image Optimization
Using smush.it
http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow/smushit/



Smusher Ruby gem
http://github.co...
Event Delegation

Run less JavaScript up front
Event Delegation

But first, a little bit about event bubbling...




  From: http://www.quirksmode.org/js/events_order.ht...
Event Delegation
Pros                             Cons
                                      Does not work well with neste...
Event Delegation: Meetup.Dispatcher
 <div id="C_page">
   ...

    <span class="meetup-topic"><a class="topic-id-7029 topi...
Event Delegation: Meetup.Dispatcher
Event Delegation: Meetup.Dispatcher
 <div id="C_page">
   ...

    <span class="meetup-topic"><a class="topic-id-7029 topi...
Speeding up DOM crawling with Sizzle



                         sizzlejs.com

  Internet Explorer 7

  MochiKit: 6623.94m...
Where do we go from here?

 More concatenation and lazy loading where it makes sense
 Defer image loading where it makes s...
Deployment and Serving
   As it pertains to css/html/js
Launches

Launch multiple times a day (sometimes)

Need launches to be quick / no downtime

Optimize static resources only...
Deployment of static content

Sprockets (reduce requests)

YUICompressor for js (local mod to speed up optimizing
multiple...
Link generation
   Custom JSTL page function
   http vs https
   domain sharding and cookie free domain
   content version...
Versioning static content
     MD5 checksum of contents of file
     Run w/ each launch
     Store versions in db tied to ...
Static content serving
    Served off CDN (reverse proxy)
    Anycast DNS for hostname resolution
    Origin servers runni...
Questions?
Also, we need help! Hiring for:

   Linux Systems Administrator
   Software Engineers
   UI Engineers
   QA Eng...
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Meetup Performance

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Presentation on how Meetup tackles web performance. Given on:
- Nov 17th, 2009 for the NY Web Performance Group (http://www.meetup.com/Web-Performance-NY/)
- Jan 26th, 2010 for NYC Tech Talks Meetup Group (http://www.meetup.com/NYC-Tech-Talks/)

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Transcript of "Meetup Performance"

  1. 1. Meetup Performance Greg Whalin, CTO Meetup (@gwhalin), Justin Cataldo, Lead UI Engineer (@jcataldo), Will Howard, Lead UI Engineer
  2. 2. Meetup Platform for local groups Mission is MEME (Meetup Everywhere About Most Everything) ~6.2m members ~70k Groups ~500k group joins every month ~5 million Meetups have happened ~53 million RSVPs
  3. 3. General Architecture and Back- end Performance (just a tiny bit - this could and should be another presentation)
  4. 4. Data MySQL (any RDBMs store) biggest pain replication use InnoDB! smart indexing (take advantage of clustered indexes) server side conn pools and short timeouts on connections smart about fs choice on Linux (we use XFS after benchmarking) Hardware - relatively expensive boxes multi-core (8 or 16) Opteron lots of ram (32/64GB) fast drives (lots of spindles, RAID10) Cache, cache, cache! innodb buffer cache memcache local app server memory Shrink data when possible archive unused data custom serialization when serializing data partitioning/sharding
  5. 5. Storage Over half a million photos uploaded to Meetup every month Scaled and processed into 4 different sizes (plus original)
  6. 6. Storage solutions Options for growth include NAS, SAN, or something else NAS and SAN are single point of failure and possibly $$$ Only postpones problem
  7. 7. MogileFS developed by Brand Fitzpatrick (i.e. Memcached) OSS distributed filesystem (built in Perl) any hard drive on network can easily be added to cluster scales easily and cheaply
  8. 8. Much much much more going on but...
  9. 9. UI Performance (much of our focus here)
  10. 10. Why does performance matter?
  11. 11. Why does performance matter? Slow site
  12. 12. Why does performance matter? Slow site Bad User Experience
  13. 13. Why does performance matter? Slow site Bad User Experience Drop in Member Activity
  14. 14. Why focus on front end performance? Back end only accounts for 10-15% of the response time Less time and resources Costs less http://developer.yahoo.net/blog/archives/2007/03/high_performanc.html
  15. 15. Case Study: Event Details
  16. 16. Event Details: Load Time Load time = 6.321s www.webpagetest.org
  17. 17. Event Details: Requests Lots of javascript being loaded
  18. 18. How do we improve performance?
  19. 19. 3 Steps to improving performance 1. Externalize script 2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page 3. Reduce requests
  20. 20. 3 Steps to improving performance 1. Externalize script 2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page 3. Reduce requests
  21. 21. Why externalize scripts Prevents blocking Inline scripts prevent asynchronous downloads Downloads must wait for the script to be executed Caching Inline JavaScript is downloaded every time External scripts are cached by the browser Reduced overall page size Reusable Can use the same code somewhere else on the site easily
  22. 22. Pull out inline script <script type="text/javascript"> > if(typeof Meetup.EventDetails == 'undefined') Meetup.EventDetails = {}; (function(){ EventDetails.js var self = Meetup.EventDetails; ... })(); </script>
  23. 23. 3 Steps to improving performance 1. Externalize script 2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page 3. Reduce requests
  24. 24. Web:script Custom tag built in house Moves inline and external script to the bottom of the page Allows UI engineers to not have to worry about where they place scripts Compresses inline script using YUICompressor /***** Load External Script *****/ <web:script src="/script/Meetup/packed/EventDetails.js" /> /***** Load Inline Script *****/ <web:script> Meetup.Copy.noMembersMarkedAttended = "<trn:message key="event.attendance.noMembersMarkedAttended">No members have been marked attended</trn:message>"; Meetup.Copy.noMembersMarkedAttendedDynam = '<trn:message key="event.attendance. noMembersMarkedAttendedDynam"><trn:param name="GROUPING">__GROUPING__</trn:param>No members in "{GROUPING}" have been marked attended</trn:message>'; Meetup.Copy.noMembersMarkedAbsent = "<trn:message key="event.attendance.noMembersMarkedAbsent">No members have been marked absent</trn:message>"; </web:script>
  25. 25. 3 Steps to improving performance 1. Externalize script 2. Move scripts to the bottom of the page 3. Reduce requests
  26. 26. Reduce Requests Concatenate as much as possible Load only what we need upfront
  27. 27. Concatenation using Sprockets Sprockets (www.getsprockets.com) Created by 37Signals Ruby library that preprocesses and concatenates JavaScript files Baked into our build process
  28. 28. Concatenation using Sprockets (cont.) EventDetails.js CommentDeleteConfirm.js BubbleTips.js PlacesManager.js MaxCharactersEnforcer.js > EventDetails.js
  29. 29. Using Sprockets /******* Sprockets Directives *******/ //= require <CommentDeleteConfirm> //= require <DomDeco/BubbleTips> //= require <DomDeco/PlacesManager> //= require <DomDeco/MaxCharactersEnforcer> /******* Begin Event Details Code *******/ if(typeof(Meetup.EventDetails) == 'undefined') Meetup.EventDetails = {}; (function(){ var self = Meetup.EventDetails; ........... })(); /******* Build Process *******/ <exec executable="sprocketize" failonerror="true" output="${image.dir} /script/Meetup/packed/EventDetails.js"> <arg value="-I"/> <arg path="${image.dir}/script/Meetup/"/> <arg path="${image.dir}/script/Meetup/EventDetails.js"/> </exec>
  30. 30. Lazy Loading Defer loading of javascript files until they are needed Reduces the initial upfront requests Helps reduce blocking by downloading files asynchronously Precaching
  31. 31. Lazy Loading: How it works Inserts scripts into the head dynamically var scriptNode = function(src) { return createDOM("script", { "type": "text/javascript", "src": src }); } var load = function(id, src, n) { var script = scriptNode(url); head.appendChild(script); script.onload = script.onreadystatechange = function() { if (!this.readyState || this.readyState == "loaded" || this.readyState == "complete") { script.onload = script.onreadystatechange = null; } } } Meetup.Script.include("http://static2.meetupstatic.com/script/Meetup/DomDeco/LinkDecorator.js",callback);
  32. 32. Did it make a difference?
  33. 33. Reduced requests Javascript requests cut by 50%
  34. 34. Event Details Page Load After Old Load Time = 6.321s New Load time = 4.643s
  35. 35. Event Details Page Load After Old Load Time = 6.321s New Load time = 4.643s Load time decreased by 27%!
  36. 36. But that's not all
  37. 37. Execute early Execute when the dom is ready
  38. 38. Execute early: DOMReady Libraries that have a DOM ready solution: jQuery YUI Prototype Pretty much every modern JS library (not MochiKit) Meetup uses MochiKit, so we rolled our own.
  39. 39. Execute early: DOMReady And by rolled our own, I mean we're using the Dean Edwards/Matthias Miller/John Resig implementation. http://dean.edwards.name/weblog/2006/06/again/#comment5338 With a few changes. Meetup.DOMReady.ready(function(){ Meetup.EventDetails.init(); if(Meetup.EventDetails.isCanceled != 4 && Meetup.EventDetails.rsvp != 0){ deletePopup = new Meetup.CommentDeleteConfirm(); deletePopup.pagerOffsetFieldName = "p_commentsList"; deletePopup._decorate(); } });
  40. 40. Execute early: Even earlier Do you need to wait for the DOM to be ready? If you aren't manipulating the DOM, there's no reason to wait until it's ready.
  41. 41. Automated Image Optimization Using smush.it http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow/smushit/ Smusher Ruby gem http://github.com/grosser/smusher (gem install smusher) BASH script that watches our image directories for changes and executes smusher. ./filescan.sh /usr/local/meetup/static/img/ 'smusher -q @' 'jpg,png'&
  42. 42. Event Delegation Run less JavaScript up front
  43. 43. Event Delegation But first, a little bit about event bubbling... From: http://www.quirksmode.org/js/events_order.html
  44. 44. Event Delegation Pros Cons Does not work well with nested elements Much faster on load (not Doesn't work with all events connecting DOM elements) Slight performance hit with execution No need to disconnect / reconnect with AJAX calls Fewer memory leaks A lot of JS libraries already have plug-ins for event delegation (jQuery, YUI, prototype). But, it's pretty easy to write your own (we did).
  45. 45. Event Delegation: Meetup.Dispatcher <div id="C_page"> ... <span class="meetup-topic"><a class="topic-id-7029 topic-link J_onClick topic-info-hover" href=" http://javascript.meetup.com/cities/us/ny/brooklyn/">JavaScript</a></span> ... </div> var mdp = Meetup.Dispatcher.init("C_page", "onmouseover"); mdp.registerFunc("topic-info-hover", Meetup.UI.InfoHover.mouseOver); Meetup.UI.infoHover.mouseOver = function(e) { topicId = _getTopicId(e.target()); if (!topicId || topicId == "") return; _primeCache(topicId); var activeEl = _getActiveEl(e.target()); var pos = getElementPosition(activeEl); ... }
  46. 46. Event Delegation: Meetup.Dispatcher
  47. 47. Event Delegation: Meetup.Dispatcher <div id="C_page"> ... <span class="meetup-topic"><a class="topic-id-7029 topic-link J_onClick topic-info-hover" href=" http://javascript.meetup.com/cities/us/ny/brooklyn/">JavaScript</a></span> ... </div> // Inits a new instance of dispatcher // Connects a mouseover event to the parent container "C_page" var mdp = Meetup.Dispatcher.init("C_page", "onmouseover"); // Calls Meetup.UI.infoHover.mouseOver() when target element has "topic-info-hover" class. mdp.registerFunc("topic-info-hover", Meetup.UI.InfoHover.mouseOver); Meetup.UI.infoHover.mouseOver = function(e) { topicId = _getTopicId(e.target()); if (!topicId || topicId == "") return; _primeCache(topicId); var activeEl = _getActiveEl(e.target()); var pos = getElementPosition(activeEl); ... }
  48. 48. Speeding up DOM crawling with Sizzle sizzlejs.com Internet Explorer 7 MochiKit: 6623.94ms Sizzle: 306.03ms Firefox 3.5 MochiKit: 210.524ms Sizzle: 111.553ms
  49. 49. Where do we go from here? More concatenation and lazy loading where it makes sense Defer image loading where it makes sense Reduce DOM elements Reduce CSS and improved selector efficiency and more
  50. 50. Deployment and Serving As it pertains to css/html/js
  51. 51. Launches Launch multiple times a day (sometimes) Need launches to be quick / no downtime Optimize static resources only at deploy time and only if modified
  52. 52. Deployment of static content Sprockets (reduce requests) YUICompressor for js (local mod to speed up optimizing multiple files) Pre-compress css and jsp Set cache-control to be fresh for over a year (indefinite) All links on site generate programatically and versioned
  53. 53. Link generation Custom JSTL page function http vs https domain sharding and cookie free domain content versioning <link rel="stylesheet" href="${mfn:staticUrl( "/style/meetup.css", state.context.isSecure )}" type=" text/css" /> <img src="${mfn:imgUrl( '/img/noPhoto_50.gif', state.context.isSecure )}" alt="" class="noPhoto" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://static1.meetupstatic. com/050991196173395491322880/style/meetup.css" type="text/css" /> <img src="http://img1.meetupstatic.com/39194172310009655/img/noPhoto_50.gif" alt="" class=" noPhoto"/>
  54. 54. Versioning static content MD5 checksum of contents of file Run w/ each launch Store versions in db tied to release mysql> select * from resource_version where filename = '/style/base.css'; | 394328 | /style/base.css | 39020083689267241 | 567 | | 398052 | /style/base.css | 8487620432388779772669 | 568 | | 401776 | /style/base.css | 357470606563045379 | 569 | | 405506 | /style/base.css | 3068234199748867 | 571 | | 409240 | /style/base.css | 024745310801291061590 | 572 | | 412974 | /style/base.css | 024745310801291061590 | 573 | | 416708 | /style/base.css | 09972542737049101325 | 574 |
  55. 55. Static content serving Served off CDN (reverse proxy) Anycast DNS for hostname resolution Origin servers running lighttpd Strip versioning from url using rewrite rules Cache set to 12 months out Compress expire.url = ( "/" => "access plus 12 months" ) compress.cache-dir = "/var/cache/lighttpd/" compress.filetype = ("text/plain", "text/html", "text/css", "application/x-javascript", "text/javascript") url.rewrite-once = ( "^/script/(.*/)?[0-9]+/(.+).js$" => "/script/$1$2.js", "^/style/(.*/)?[0-9]+/(.+).css$" => "/style/$1$2.css", "^/img/(.*/)?[0-9]+/(.+).(gif|png|jpg)$" => "/img/$1$2.$3", "^/d+/script/(.+).js" => "/script/$1.js", "^/d+/style/(.+).css" => "/style/$1.css", "^/d+/img/(.+).(gif|jpg|png)" => "/img/$1.$2", "^/photos/(([^/]+)/.+/(.+).jpeg)(?:?.*)?$" => "/cgi-bin/photos.fcgi?type=$2&key=$3", "^/photos/([^/]+)/([^/]+).jpeg(?:?.*)?$" => "/cgi-bin/photos.fcgi?type=$1&key=$2", "^/file.*" => "/" )
  56. 56. Questions? Also, we need help! Hiring for: Linux Systems Administrator Software Engineers UI Engineers QA Engineers Community Specialist PR Renegade Sponsorship Sales Account Coordinator http://www.meetup.com/jobs/
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