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Roman Art

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  • 1. Roman Art 0
  • 2. Introduction to Italian Art Etruscan Art Roman Art
  • 3. The Etruscans
    • The Etruscan civilization on the Italian peninsula was the most significant before that of ancient Rome.
    • Their history dates from around 700 BCE to the 4th century BCE
    • They are believed to have come from Asia Minor.
    • This link may explain some of the similarities between Etruscan art and culture, and that of Eastern countries.
    • By 88 BCE, the Romans had vanquished the last of the Etruscans
  • 4. Etruscan Architecture
    • The only architecture that survives from the Etruscans are its tombs
    • Tomb construction was similar to that of a domestic dwelling.
    • Walls were covered with hundreds of everyday items carved in low relief.
  • 5. Etruscan Sculpture
    • Bronze and clay (terra-cotta) sculptures have survived from the Etruscan tombs.
    • Cinerary urns often portrayed Etruscan dwellings.
    • Figural sculpture often topped the sarcophagi in the tombs.
    • The figures are highly stylized.
  • 6. Sarcophagus, from Cerveteri (Etruscan, c. 520 BCE). Terra-cotta. L: 6 ’ 7 ” .
  • 7. ROME: Artistic Periods
    • Republican
    • Early Empire
    • Late Empire
  • 8. Rome
    • Established in 500 BCE.
    • Eventually Rome would control Greece, western Europe, northern Africa, and part of the Near East (see Map).
    • Roman art combined native talents, needs, and styles with other sources, especially Greek.
    • It was fashionable to own copies of Greek art.
    • Roman’s invented concrete!
  • 9. The Republican Period
    • The Republican Period - c. 500 BCE – 44 BCE
    • The patricians - ruled the country and were like an aristocratic class.
    • The plebeian class - common folk with little say in running the government.
    • On March 15th (the ides of March) in 44BCE Julius Caesar was assassinated by members of the senate. With his death came the absolute end of the Roman republic and the beginnings of the Roman Empire under Augustus.
  • 10. Roman Sculpture
    • Much of Roman art is derived from that of Greece.
    • However, their realistic portrait sculptures were wholly Roman.
    • Wax death masks were made and often converted to bronze or terra-cotta sculptures.
    • This led Roman sculpture to become more realistic, detailed.
  • 11. Head of a Roman (Republican period, 1st century BCE). Marble. H: 14 3⁄8 ” .
  • 12. Roman Architecture
    • Rome’s greatest contributions were in architecture and engineering
    • Architecture in the Republican period is linked to that of Greece and the Etruscans.
    • They adopted the temple podium, the wide cella plan with columns and a portico.
    • Roman Innovations:
      • Column shafts are one piece (instead for stacked drums)
      • Freestanding columns on temples.
      • No relief sculpture on the friezes.
      • Architecture not sculpture but instead emphasized the relationship between form and function.
  • 13. Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome (Republican period, late 2nd century BCE).
  • 14. Roman Painting
    • Walls of Roman domestic dwellings were decorated with frescoes and mosaics, and some have survived.
    • This gives us a link to Greek painting which has not survived.
    • Roman wall painting went 4 phases:
      • Architectural style - the illusion of space created through Herringbone perspective , a system where orthogonals vanish to a specific point along a vertical line that divides that canvas.
  • 15. Ulysses in the Land of the Lestrygonians, from a Roman patrician house (50–40 BCE). Fresco. H: 60 ” .
  • 16. The Early Empire
    • Believed that art should be created in the service of the state.
    • They desired to glorify Rome’s power through magnificent buildings and civic monuments.
    • In the areas that they conquered, Rome built apartment buildings, roads, bridges, water systems, sanitation, recreation facilities, gymnasiums, public baths, and theaters.
  • 17. Architecture
    • Roman Innovations:
      • The Roman Arch
      • The Dome
      • Reinforced Concrete, which allowed for domed and vaulted structures
    • Three of the Most Famous Structures:
    • The Aqueducts - series of arches for irrigation and water.
    • The Coliseum - Made of 2 back to back amphitheaters .
      • A major feat of architectural engineering and practical design.
      • Contained columns of all 3 styles, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
    • The Pantheon – temple to all the gods
      • Inside of the dome is coffered - carved with recessed squares.
      • Oculus - a large 30 ft hole in the center of the dome that let light in.
  • 18. Pont du Gard, Nîmes, France (Early Empire, c. 14 CE). L: 900 ’ ; H: 160 ’ .
  • 19. The Pantheon, Rome (Early Empire, 117–125 CE). Exterior view.
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Colosseum, Rome (Early Empire, 80 CE). Concrete (originally faced with marble). H: 160 ’ ; D: 620 ’ and 51 3’ .
  • 24.  
  • 25. Colosseum, Rome (Early Empire, 80 CE). Concrete (originally faced with marble). H: 160 ’ ; D: 620 ’ and 51 3’ .
  • 26. Sculpture
    • Augustus was determined to create monuments that reflected Rome’s power, glory, and influence of the Western World.
    • During the Empire Period, the pure realism of the Republican period portrait busts joined with Greek idealism.
    • The result was classical idealized bodies and poses with individualized heads.
    • They also invented the equestrian portrait !
    • Stoicism - said it was best to be indifference to emotion and the things of this world, maintaining that virtue was the most important goal in life.
  • 27. Sculpture continued…
    • Sculptures differed from Greek sculptures in:
    • Individuals were rendered in portrait-like likeness.
    • The reliefs commemorate a specific event with specific persons present.
    • The figures are set in a shallow(low relief), but convincing, 3D space.
  • 28. Augustus of Primaporta (Roman, c. 20 BCE). Marble. H: 6 ’ 8 ” .
  • 29. Imperial Procession, from the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome. Marble relief.
  • 30. Marcus Aurelius Equestrian , Capitoline Hill, Rome (Early Empire, c. 165 CE). Bronze. Larger than life-size.
  • 31. The Late Empire
    • The declining years of the Empire.
    • The Empire was ultimately divided into two sections, with separate rulers.
    • Constantine moves the capital to Constantinople.
    • Rome and the western empire left vulnerable to barbarians.
  • 32. Architecture
    • Basilicas were large meeting halls that were constructed in or near the public Forums .
      • Set a precedent form Christian church architecture.
  • 33. Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Rome (Late Empire, c. 310–320 CE). 300 ’ x 215 ’ .
  • 34. Sculpture
    • As a result of growing religious beliefs, sculpture began to reflect the new spiritualism.
    • Constantine became the first Christian Emperor.
    • Returned to attributes of the archiac style
      • This can been seen in
      • The Head of Constantine the Great
  • 35. Head of Constantine the Great (Roman, Late Empire, early 4th century CE).
  • 36. Discussion Questions:
    • What are the differences and similarities between Greek and Roman sculpture?
    • What were some of the major Roman achievements in architecture and engineering?
    • Why is Classical art important in the discussion of the history of the western tradition of art?