Late Gothic


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Late Gothic

  1. 1. Late Gothic Art Northern Europe, 1400 to 1500Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e, Chapter 20 1
  2. 2. Europe in the 15th Century 2
  3. 3. Goals• Understand the effect of political power in the development of Northern European art.• Examine the variety and types of media used in art in this period.• Identify specific artists, their respective styles, and their key works of art.• Understand the integration of sacred and secular power and wealth, along with its resultant display in art. 3
  4. 4. The Art of France and Flanders• Examine the effect of political power on the sumptuous art forms that developed in the 15th Century.• Examine the results of Burgundian wealth and largesse directed to art.• Understand the growth of public devotional art, the artists, new art media and new illusionistic devices developed. 4
  5. 5. The Very Sumptuous Hours• Examine the sumptuous art forms that developed in the 15th Century.• Explore French manuscript illumination and the new spatial and illusionistic devices used in art. 5
  6. 6. LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN),January, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry,1413–1416. Ink on vellum, approx. 8 7/8" X 5 3/8".Musée Condé, Chantilly. 6
  7. 7. Jean, Duke of Berry was the noble patron who commissioned Les Très Riches HeuresLIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN),October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry,1413–1416. Ink on vellum, 8 7/8" X 5 3/8”.Musée Condé, Chantilly. 7
  8. 8. The fountain created by Claus Sluter for the cloister of Chartreuse de Champmol symbolizes everlasting Life. Sluters sculptural works can be characterized as having little physical movement or weight shift.CLAUS SLUTER, Well of Moses,Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France,1395–1406. Limestone with traces of paint,Moses 6’ high. 8
  9. 9. MELCHIOR BROEDERLAM, Retable de Champmol. from the chapel oft he Chartreuse de Champmol,Dijon, France, installed 1399. Oil on wood, each wing 5’ 5 3/4” X 4’ 1 1/4”. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon. 9
  10. 10. ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca. 1425-1428. Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). Most major works included the donors along with the subjects.The format for most northern altarpieces was the triptych arrangement. 10
  11. 11. Burgundian Wealth and Art• Understand the need for sacred sculpture and new sacred art.• Examine the growth of devotional altarpieces, the media, and individual artists. 11
  12. 12. JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed),Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium,completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’ 6". 12
  13. 13. JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 5" X 15’ 1”.The following were included in the twelve panels: Adam and Eve, Christ the King, Mary, John the Baptist, and the Adoration of the Lamb. 13
  14. 14. After his death in 1464, Rogier van der He eliminated the secondaryWeyden became one of the most symbolism from hisinfluential painters in northern Europe. compositions. ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Deposition, center panel of a triptych from Notre-Dame hors-les-murs, Louvain, Belgium, ca. 1435. Oil on wood, 7’ 2 5/8" X 8’ 7 1/8". Museo del Prado, Madrid. 14
  15. 15. Northern artists secularized the Holy figures in their paintings by making them appears as contemporary Northern Europeans.ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN,Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin,ca. 1435-1440. Oil and tempera onwood, 4’ 6 1/8” X 3’ 7 5/8”.Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. (Gift ofMr. and Mrs. Henry Lee Higginson) 15
  16. 16. 20.2 Flemish Public and Private Devotional Art • Examine the large numbers of private and public devotional art created at this time. • Identify specific artists, their respective styles and their key works of art. • Understand the relationship between religious and secular authority in the development of art. • Examine the rise of portraiture and self-portraits. 16
  17. 17. Flemish Public Devotional Art• Examine the complex illusionary images of the Flemish artists, especially noting the development of a single vanishing point. 17
  18. 18. Figure 20-12 DIRK BOUTS, LastSupper central panel of the Altarpiece of theHoly Sacrament, Saint Peter’s, Louvain,Belgium, 1464–1468. Oil on wood, 6’ X5’. 18
  19. 19. HUGO VAN DER GOES, Portinari Altarpiece (open), from Sant’Egidio, Florence, Italy, ca. 1476.Tempera and oil on wood, 8’ 3 1/2" X 10’ center panel, 8’ 3 1/2" X 4’ 7 1/2" (each wing). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 19
  20. 20. HANS MEMLING, Virgin with Saints and Angels, center panel of the Saint John Altarpiece, Hospitaal Sint Jan,Bruges, Belgium, 1479. Oil on wood, 5’ 7 3/4" X 5’ 7 3/4" (center panel), 5’ 7 3/4" X 2’ 7 1/8" (each wing). 20
  21. 21. Private Images• Examine the private devotional art created at this time.• Understand the illusionistic devices in painting, the atmosphere of the private home, and the attention to symbolism. 21
  22. 22. JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride,1434. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 9" X 1’ 10 1/2".National Gallery, London. 22
  23. 23. PETRUS CHRISTUS, A Goldsmith inHis Shop, 1449. Oil on wood, approx.3’ 3" X 2’ 10". Metropolitan Museumof Art, New York (the Robert LehmanCollection, 1975). 23
  24. 24. Portraiture and the Growing Interest in Secular Art• Examine the rise of portraiture and self-portraits and the social and economic factors that made portraiture desirable. 24
  25. 25. The Man in the Red Turban is thought to be a self-portrait by Jan Van Eyck. He appears to be staring into a mirror. JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban,1433. Oil on wood, 1’ 1 1/8” X 10 1/4".National Gallery, London. 25
  26. 26. VAN DER WEYDEN, Portrait of a Lady,ca. 1460. Oil on panel, 1’ 1 3/8" X 10 1/16".National Gallery, Washington, D.C.(Andrew W. Mellon Collection). 26
  27. 27. 15th Century French and German Art• Understand the royal court art in France and the integration of the sacred and the secular in art.• Examine the art that developed in Germany and in the Holy Roman Empire.• Comprehend the variety and types of media used in art in this period.• Identify specific artists, their respective styles, and their key works of art.• Examine the development of graphic art, especially in Germany in the 15th Century. 27
  28. 28. French Sacred and Secular Art• Identify specific artists, their styles, media and works of art.• Understand royal court art and the integration of the sacred and the secular. 28
  29. 29. JEAN FOUQUET, Melun Diptych. Étienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen, (left wing), ca. 1450. Oil on wood, 3’ 1/2” X 2’ 9 1/2”.Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Virgin and Child, (right wing) ca. 1451. Oil on wood, 3’ 1 1/4” X 2’ 9 1/2”.Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp. 29
  30. 30. 15th Century German Art• Identify specific artists, styles and works of art.• Examine the art patronage interest in private piety and familiar themes. 30
  31. 31. KONRAD WITZ, Miraculous Draught of Fish, from the Altarpiece of Saint Peter, from Chapel of Notre-Dame des Maccabéesin the Cathedral of Saint Peter, Geneva, Switzerland, 1444. Oil on wood, approx. 4’ 3” X 5’ 1”. Musée d’art et d’Histoire,Geneva. 31
  32. 32. VEIT STOSS, The Death and Assumption of the Virgin(wings open), altar of the Virgin Mary, church ofSaint Mary, Kraków, Poland, 1477–1489. Paintedand gilded wood, central panel 23’ 9” high. 32
  33. 33. TILMAN RIEMENSCHNEIDER, The Assumptionof the Virgin, center panel of the Creglingen Altarpiece,Herrgottskirche, Creglingen, Germany, ca. 1495–1499.Lindenwood, 6’ 1” wide. 33
  34. 34. Development of Graphic Arts• Examine the development of graphic arts, especially in Germany in the 15th Century.• Understand the processes that were developed in relief and intaglio printmaking. 34
  35. 35. The Nuremberg Chronicle is a tribute to the new craft of the printed illustrated book. The content of the Nuremberg Chronicle was the history of the world.MICHEL WOLGEMUT and shop, Tarvisium,page from the so-called Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493.Woodcut,1’ 2” X 9”.Printed by ANTON KOBERGER. 35
  36. 36. In Martin Schongauers engraving, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons, he created distinctions of tonal values and textures. He distinguished between skin and cloth, feather and fur. To produce an engraving, the artist used a tool called a burin to incise lines creating an image into the surface of a copper plate.MARTIN SCHONGAUER, Saint AnthonyTormented by Demons, ca. 1480–1490.Engraving, 1’ 1/4" X 9".Fondazione Magnani Rocca, Corte di Mamiano. 36
  37. 37. Discussion Questions What were some of the most important innovations in art media and spatial techniques at this time? How does the court and wealthy merchant patronage shape the content and appearance of religious and secular art? Why does the portrait – absent in art for nearly 1000 years – return in this period? 37