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Understand the diverse cultural influences on Greek artistic development
Discuss the representation of the human form through different periods of Greek art.
Greek Artistic Development
Understand the diverse cultural influences on Greek artistic development.
Identify the artistic elements and influences in the Geometric (9 th – 8 th centuries BCE) and Orientalizing styles (7 th century BCE).
Observe the values of religion, military valor, heroism, and athleticism as they emerge in Greek art during these periods.
Geometric Period (9 th - 8 th centuries BCE )
Describe geometric features in the design of the Geometric krater from the Dipylon Cemetery.
What type of scene is being displayed in the registers?
What was the purpose of such an item?
Figure 5-2 Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
The Human Figure in Early Greek Art
Describe the representation of the human form in early Greek art.
Examine Greek religion, mythology, and philosophy and their expression in art.
Figure 5-3 Hero and centaur (Herakles and Nessos?), from Olympia,Greece, ca. 750–730 BCE. Bronze, 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (gift of J. Pierpont).
Orientalizing Period ( 7 th century BCE )
The pace and scope of Greek trade and colonization increased in the near East and Egypt during this period.
What Egyptian and/or near Eastern qualities can be observed in the works of Greek art during this period?
Figure 5-4 Mantiklos Apollo , statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, from Thebes, Greece, ca. 700–680 BCE. Bronze, 8” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Figure 5.5 Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes, from Rhodes, Greece, ca. 625–600 BCE. 1’ 2” high. British Museum, London. Observe the creatures on this black-figure amphora. Are there any precedents for such composite creatures?
Architecture during the Orientalizing Period
Examine features of Temple A from Prinias on the island of Crete.
What architectural structures may have influenced this building either from Egypt, the near East, or the Greek mainland?
Figure 5-6 Plan of Temple A, Prinias, Greece, ca. 625 BCE.
Figure 5-7 Lady of Auxerre , ca. 650–625 BCE. Limestone, 2’ 1 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.
5.2 Archaic Period (6 th century BCE)
Notice how representation of the human figure changes
Recognize the emergence of the Doric and Ionic orders of architecture
Realize the refinement of Greek vase painting and differentiate between black-figure and red-figure vases
The Human Figure in Archaic Art
Understand the development and influences relating to the early Greek kouros (male youth)/ kouroi (pl.)
Understand the development and influences relating to the kore (maiden)/ korai (pl.).
What culture(s) had a significant influence on the New York kouros ? How is it uniquely Greek?
What was/were the purpose(s) of such statues?
How is the Kroisos figure different from the other kouroi?
Figure 5-8 Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Figure 5-9 Calf Bearer, dedicated by Rhonbos on the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 560 BCE. Marble, restored height 5’ 5”; fragment 3’ 11 1/2” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Figure 5-10 Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens . Why did Greek artists render the male form in the nude?
Figure 5-11 Peplos Kore , from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 4’ high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Notice traces of encaustic paint on the Peplos Kore . Most Greek stone statues were painted. Notice also that the Peplos Kore is clothed.
Figure 5-12 Kore , from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 520–510 BCE. Marble, 1’ 9” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Greek Architectural Development
Observe the development of Greek architectural structures in accordance with their purposes
Identify the orders of Greek architecture and compare and contrast their appearances
What is a common support element that Greek temples share with structures with other historical periods even Stonehenge?
Figure 5-13 Plan of a typical peripteral Greek temple. Peripteral Greek Temple
Figure 5-14 Elevations of the Doric and Ionic orders. Compare Doric and Ionic Orders
Figure 5-15 Temple of Hera I (“Basilica”), Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE .
Figure 5-16 Plan of the Temple of Hera I, Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE .
Figure 5-17 West pediment from the Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greece, ca. 600–580 BCE. Limestone, greatest height 9’ 4”. Archaeological Museum, Corfu.
F igure 5-18 Reconstruction drawing of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, Greece, ca. 530 BCE (John Burge).
Figure 5-19 Gigantomachy, detail of the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 2’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Delphi.
Greek Vase Painting
Observe the representation of the human form on Archaic vases. What similarities do figures on these vases share with figural art of other ancient cultures?
Differentiate between black-figure and red-figure vases in terms of appearance, tools used, and technique.
Identify individual painters and potters who signed their vases.
Identify common subject matter in the paintings
Realize the importance of Greek vases as the main surviving repositories of Greek painting.
Figure5-20 KLEITIAS and ERGOTIMOS, François Vase (Athenian black-figure volute krater), from Chiusi, Italy, ca. 570 BCE. General view ( top ) and detail of centauromachy on other side of vase ( bottom ). 2’ 2” high. Museo Archeologico, Florence.
Figure 5-21 EXEKIAS, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (detail from an Athenian black-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 540–530 BCE. Whole vessel 2’ high; detail 8 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Figure 5-22 ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–520 BCE. Black-figure side ( left ) and red-figure side ( right ). 1’ 9” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Figure 5-23 EUPHRONIOS, Herakles wrestling Antaios (detail of an Athenian red-figure calyx krater), from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 510 BCE. Whole vessel 1’ 7” high; detail 7 3/4” high. Louvre, Paris.
Figure 5-24 EUTHYMIDES, Three revelers (Athenian red-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 510 BCE. 2’ high. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich.
Aegina and the Transition to the Classical Period
Compare and contrast the design of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (500 – 490 BCE) to the Temple of Hera I at Paestum.
Notice the refinement of form of the Temple of Aphaia.
Compare and contrast the pediment sculpture of the Temple of Aphaia to the Temple of Artemis of Corfu.
Notice that the pediment of Temple of Aphaia utilized sculpture in the round, similarly sized figures throughout, and a unified narrative.
Figure 5-25 Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE.
Figure5-27 Plan ( left ) and GUILLAUME-ABEL BLOUET’S 1828 restored view of the façade ( right ) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE.
Figure 5-28 Dying warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE. Marble, 5’ 2 1/2” long. Glyptothek, Munich.
Figure5-29 Dying warrior, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1” long. Glyptothek, Munich.
Dying Warriors from the Temple of Aphaia
Notice the difference(s) between the two dying warriors from the west and east pediments of the Temple of Aphaia.
How are they different?
5.3 Early and High Classical Periods (5 th century BCE)
Understand the significance of the Persian invasions of the early 5 th century to the development of the Classical period.
Examine the development of human representation in sculpture and the philosophy and principles behind its form.
Explore the Acropolis, its architecture and sculpture.
Perfection in Sculptural Form
Understand the concepts of contrapposto, Polykleitos’ canon, and the expression of the Greek ideal of human form in the work of Classical sculptors.
Examine the art materials, techniques, and individual artists that made the sculptural forms possible.
Temple of Zeus at Olympus (470 – 457 BCE)
First great monument of Classical art and architecture
Since it is largely in ruins today, compare to Temple of Hera II at Paestum (believed to influenced by Temple of Zeus)
Statuary of east pediment of Temple of Zeus remain
How do they differ from Archaic statuary?
Figure 5-30 Temple of Hera II, Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE.
Figure 5-31 East pediment from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 87’ wide. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
Figure 5-32 Seer, from the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, full ﬁgure 4’ 6” high; detail 3’ 2 1/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia .
Figure 5-33 Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with the apples of the Hesperides, metope from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
Figure 5-34 Kritios Boy , from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Kritios Boy is the earliest known example of contrapposto , a relaxed and natural stance. Notice how his weight shifts to his left leg and how his head turns slightly to his right. Notice absence of Archaic smile
Figure 5-35 Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’ 6” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria. This Riace Warrior, like most Classical Greek statues, was sculpted in bronze. Most Classical bronzes have not survived. Much of the Classical Greek sculptures today are Roman marble copies.
Fig. 5-38 Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’ 10” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens .
Figure 5-39 MYRON, Diskobolos ( Discus Thrower ). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5’ 1” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme.
Figure 5-40 POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) . Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
Doryphoros (Spear Thrower),
Originally titled Canon
Established Polykleitos’ canon
of proportions, setting ideal correlations among body parts
Notice the harmony of opposites
Figure 5-41 KRESILAS, Pericles. Roman marble herm copy of a bronze original of ca. 429 BCE. Full herm 6’ high; detail 4’ 6 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Elected stratego , general
of Athens 15X
Instrumental in rebuilding and beautifying Athens after second Persian invasion
Notice his idealized appearance
The Acropolis of Pericles
Examine the architectural detail of the Parthenon, the Propylaia, and the Erechtheion.
Explore the sculpture of Phidias at the Acropolis.
Figure 5-42 Aerial view of the Acropolis looking southeast, Athens, Greece.
Figure 5-44 IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, (Temple of Athena Parthenos, looking southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE.
Figure 5-45 Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of sculptural program (after Andrew Stewart), 447–432 BCE.
Figure 5-46 PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos , in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the lost chryselephantine statue. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto .
Figure 5-48 Helios and his horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4’ 3”. British Museum, London.
Figure 5-49 Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4’ 5”. British Museum, London.
Figure 5-50 Details of the Panathenaic Festival procession frieze, from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE. Marble, 3’ 6” high. Horsemen of north frieze ( top ), British Museum, London; seated gods and goddesses (Poseidon, Apollo, and Artemis) of east frieze ( center ), Acropolis Museum, Athens; elders and maidens of east frieze ( bottom ), Louvre, Paris.
Figure 5-53 Plan of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE.
Figure 5-54 Caryatid from the south porch of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. Marble, 7’ 7” high. British Museum, London.
Figure 5-55 KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (looking southwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE.
Figure 5-56 Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, 3’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Figure 5-57 Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5’ 2” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Classical Vases and Painting
Painters painted large wooden panels that were displayed in public buildings; these are lost today
Classical vases provide insight into possible elements of those panel paintings
Examine polychromy and white-ground vase painting.
Learn about Polygnotos, landscape painting, and mosaic copies of Greek painting.
Figure 5-58 ACHILLES PAINTER, Warrior taking leave of his wife (Athenian white-ground lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. Approx. 1’ 5” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Figure 5-59 NIOBID PAINTER, Artemis and Apollo slaying the children of Niobe (Athenian red-figure calyx krater), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE. 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris.
Figure 5-60 PHIALE PAINTER, Hermes bringing the infant Dionysos to Papposilenos (Athenian white-ground calyx krater), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 440–435 BCE. 1’ 2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Figure 5-61 Youth diving, painted ceiling of the Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 BCE. 3’ 4” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Paestum.
5.4 Late Classical Period (4 th century BCE)
Late 5 th century was marked by the devastating Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta
Macedonians invade Greece and defeat the united city states at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE.
4 th century Greece – political turmoil
Affected appearance of art
Figure 5-62 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos . Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Aphodite of Knidos, PRAXITELES
Bold step to render a goddess in the nude
Sensuous and humanizing qualities – different from the cold, aloof gods and athletes of the High Classical
Figure 5-63 PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an original work of ca. 330–270 BCE by a son or grandson. Marble, 7’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia
Hermes and the infant Dionysus
By follower of Praxiteles (son or grandson possibly)
Notice S-curve of the body (pronounced contrapposto)
New standard of adult and child interaction
Figure 5-64 Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Grave stele influenced by the work of Skopas of Paros (sculptor) Known for including intense emotionalism in his work
Figure 5-65 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Apoxyomenos, LYSIPPOS Established a different canon of proportions from that of Polykleitos
Figure 5-66 LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles ( Farnese Herakles ). Roman marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF ATHENS, of a bronze original of ca. 320 BCE. 10 ‘ 5” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale,Naples.
Figure 5-67 Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, third century BCE. Marble, 1’ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
Figure 5-69 Hades abducting Persephone, detail of wall painting from tomb 1, Vergina, Greece, mid-fourth century BCE, 3’ 3 ½ ”
Figure 5-70 PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus , ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy ( Alexander Mosaic ) from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8’ 10” X 16’ 9”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
Late Classical Architecture
Explore the development of late classical architecture in the Greek theater, the Corinthian capital, and the tholos .
Figure 5-71 POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE.
Figure 5-72 THEODOROS OF PHOKAIA, Tholos, Delphi, Greece, ca. 375 BCE .
5.5 Hellenistic Period (323 – 30 BCE)
Begins after the death of Alexander the Great (323 BCE); lasts through the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony by the Romans at the Battle of Actium (30 BCE)
Relate the influence on Greek architecture as a result of the expansion of the Greek world.
Observe the different qualities and values of Hellenistic art compared to the Classical period
Figure 5-73 POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Corinthian capital, from the tholos, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE. Archaeological Museum, Epidauros.