Early Modern Art, 1900 - 1940

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European and American Art from 1900 to 1940

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Early Modern Art, 1900 - 1940

  1. 1. Early Modern Art Europe and America, 1900 to 1945
  2. 2. Colonial Empires About 1900
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Understand the impact of war and economic instability as catalysts for change in art. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the development of Modernism in the early 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the rejection of representational art and pictorial illusionism in favor of abstraction and spatial distortion. </li></ul><ul><li>Define primitivism and explain why it appealed to modern European artists </li></ul><ul><li>Recall major artistic movements, their stylistic features, and the goals/objectives behind these movements </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the chronological placement of artistic movements and how some movements influenced others </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize important artists and works of art of the early 20 th century </li></ul>
  4. 4. Europe, 1900 to 1920 <ul><li>Understand the evolution of Modernism and the growth of the avant-garde in the early 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the color and space issues of Fauvism. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the styles of the German Expressionists – Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter. </li></ul><ul><li>Define primitivism and comprehend its affect on certain 20 th century artists </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the evolution of Cubism and differentiate between Analytic Cubism and Synthetic Cubism </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Art of the Fauves <ul><li>Explore the Fauves’ interest in color and in the altering of space. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall that the art of the Fauves first gained attention at the Salon d’Automne of 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Recall that Henri Matisse and Andre Derain were Fauvists </li></ul>
  6. 6. HENRI MATISSE, Woman with the Hat , 1905. Oil on canvas, 2’ 7 ¾” X 1’ 11 ½”. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art., San Francisco (bequest of Elise S. Haas).
  7. 7. HENRI MATISSE, Red Room (Harmony in Red) , 1908–1909. Oil on canvas, 5’ 11” x 8’ 1”. State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
  8. 8. ANDRÉ DERAIN, The Dance, 1906. Oil on canvas, 6’ 7/8” x 6’ 10 1/4”. Fridart Foundation, London.
  9. 9. The German Expressionists <ul><li>Examine the styles of the German Expressionists, especially Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the use of line, color, space, and emotion in the work of the German Expressionists. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the various influences on the work of the German Expressionists. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER, Street, Dresden, 1908 (dated 1907). Oil on canvas, 4’ 11 1/4” x 6’ 6 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  11. 11. EMIL NOLDE, Saint Mary of Egypt among Sinners , 1912. Left panel of a triptych, oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 3”. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg.
  12. 12. VASSILY KANDINSKY, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 7/8” x 5’ 3 7/8”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (gift of Solomon R. Guggenheim, 1937).
  13. 13. FRANZ MARC, Fate of the Animals , 1913. Oil on canvas, 6’ 4 3/4” x 8’ 9 1/2”. Kunstmuseum, Basel.
  14. 14. Evolution of Cubism <ul><li>Understand Pablo Picasso’s development as an artist up to the seminal works that preceded his Cubist work </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Gertrude Stein and her contributions to avant-garde artists like Picasso and Matisse </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque collaborated in the development of Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>Understand primitivism and recognize its influence on Picasso </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze Cubist use of line and shape as well as space and color </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between Analytic and Synthetic Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize other Cubist artists including Cubist sculptors </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the meaning of Purism </li></ul>
  15. 15. PABLO PICASSO, Gertrude Stein , 1906–1907. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3” x 2’ 8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (bequest of Gertrude Stein, 1947).
  16. 16. PABLO PICASSO, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon , 1907. Oil on canvas, 8’ x 7’ 8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest).
  17. 17. GEORGES BRAQUE, The Portuguese , 1911. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10 1/8” x 2’ 8”. Kunstmuseum, Basel (gift of Raoul La Roche, 1952).
  18. 18. ROBERT DELAUNAY, Champs de Mars or The Red Tower , 1911. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3” x 4’ 3”. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.
  19. 19. PABLO PICASSO, Still Life with Chair-Caning , 1912. Oil and oilcloth on canvas, 10 5/8” x 1’ 1 3/4”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
  20. 20. GEORGES BRAQUE, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass , 1913. Charcoal and various papers pasted on paper, 1’ 7” x 2’ 1”. Private collection, New York.
  21. 21. PABLO PICASSO, maquette for Guitar , 1912. Cardboard, string, and wire (restored), 1’ 1 1/4” x 1” x 7 1/2”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  22. 22. PABLO PICASSO, Guernica , 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’ 5 1/2” x 25’ 5 3/4”. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid.
  23. 23. JACQUES LIPCHITZ, Bather , 1917. Bronze, 2’ 10 3/4” x 1’ 1 1/4” x 1’ 1”. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City (gift of the Friends of Art).
  24. 24. ALEKSANDR ARCHIPENKO, Woman Combing Her Hair , 1915. Bronze, 1’ 1 3/4” x 3 1/4” x 3 1/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest).
  25. 25. JULIO GONZÁLEZ, Woman Combing Her Hair, ca. 1936. Iron, 4’ 4” x 1’ 11 1/2” x 2’ 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund).
  26. 26. FERNAND LÉGER, The City, 1919. Oil on canvas, 7’ 7” x 9’ 9 1/2”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (A. E. Gallatin Collection).
  27. 27. Futurism <ul><li>Explain the goals/objectives of the Futurists </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Futurist artists </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze Futurist works of art in terms of line, color, and space </li></ul><ul><li>Make comparisons between Futurism and other artistic movements </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the chronological placement of Futurism </li></ul>
  28. 28. GIACOMO BALLA, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash , 1912. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 3/8” x 3’ 7 1/4”. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY (bequest of A. Conger Goodyear, gift of George F. Goodyear, 1964).
  29. 29. UMBERTO BOCCIONI, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space , 1913 (cast 1931). Bronze, 3’ 8” x 2’ 11” x 2” Museum of Modern Art, New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest).
  30. 30. GINO SEVERINI, Armored Train , 1915. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10” x 2’ 10 1/8”. Collection of Richard S. Zeisler, New York.
  31. 31. Dada <ul><li>Understand the influence of the Dada movement with its emphasis on spontaneity and intuition. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the issues of anarchy and chance as they apply to form and content in visual art. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the rejection of convention in Dada and its reaction to world events. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the impact of Dada on the development of 20 th and 21 st century art </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Dada artists </li></ul>
  32. 32. JEAN (HANS) ARP, Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance , 1916–1917. Torn and pasted paper, 1’ 7 1/8” x 1’ 1 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  33. 33. MARCEL DUCHAMP, Fountain , (second version), 1950 (original version produced 1917). Readymade glazed sanitary china with black paint, 1’ high. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.
  34. 34. MARCEL DUCHAMP, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass ), 1915-23. Oil, lead, wire, foil, dust, and varnish on glass, 9’ 1 1/2” x 5’ 9 1/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Katherine S. Dreier Bequest).
  35. 35. HANNAH HÖCH, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany , 1919–1920. Photomontage, 3’ 9” x 2’ 11 1/2”. Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin.
  36. 36. KURT SCHWITTERS, Merz 19, 1920 . Paper collage, 7 1/4” x 5 7/8”. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, (gift of Collection Société Anonyme).
  37. 37. America, 1900 to 1930 <ul><li>Understand the gradual development of modernist art in America </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the significance of the Armory Show of 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the work of major American artists of the first half of the 20 th century and describe their artistic goals/objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the diverse artistic techniques, media, and approaches to line, color, and space taken by these American artists </li></ul>
  38. 38. JOHN SLOAN, Sixth Avenue and Thirtieth Street, New York City , 1907, 1909. Oil on canvas, 2’ 1/4” x 2’ 8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (gift of Meyer P. Potamkin and Vivian O. Potamkin, 2000).
  39. 39. The Remarkable Armory Show <ul><li>Examine the art and artists of the influential Armory Show. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Installation photo of the Armory Show, New York National Guard’s 69th Regiment, New York, 1913. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  41. 41. MARCEL DUCHAMP, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 , 1912. Oil on canvas, 4’ 10 “x 2’ 11”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection).
  42. 42. ALFRED STIEGLITZ, The Steerage , 1907 (print 1915). Photogravure (on tissue), 1’ 3/8” x 10” Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth.
  43. 43. EDWARD WESTON, Nude , 1925. Platinum print, 7 1/2” x 9 1/2”. Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Tucson.
  44. 44. American Art Forms <ul><li>Examine the distinctive American art forms seem in photography, art of the Harlem Renaissance, and precisionist forms of Cubism. </li></ul>
  45. 45. MAN RAY, Cadeau ( Gift ), ca. 1958 (replica of 1921 original). Painted flatiron with row of 13 tacks with heads glued to the bottom, 6 1/8” x 3 5/8” x 4 1/2”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (James Thrall Soby Fund).
  46. 46. MARSDEN HARTLEY, Portrait of a German Officer, 1914. Oil on canvas, 5' 8 1/4” x 3' 5 3/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Alfred Stieglitz Collection).
  47. 47. STUART DAVIS, Lucky Strike, 1921. Oil on canvas, 2’ 9 1/4” x 1’ 6”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of The American Tobacco Company, Inc.). Estate of Stuart Davis/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.
  48. 48. AARON DOUGLAS, Noah’s Ark, ca. 1927. Oil on masonite, 4’ x 3’. Fisk University Galleries, University of Tennessee, Nashville.
  49. 49. CHARLES DEMUTH, My Egypt , 1927. Oil on composition board, 2’ 11 3/4” x 2’ 6”. Collection of Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (purchased with funds from Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney).
  50. 50. GEORGIA O’KEEFFE, New York, Night , 1929. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4 1/8” x 1’ 7 1/8”. Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln, (Nebraska Art Association, Thomas C. Woods Memorial Collection).
  51. 51. Europe, 1920 to 1945 <ul><li>Understand the intense realistic post-war expressionism of German artists. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the European post-war malaise and the importance of cathartic subject matter in Expressionist art. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the origins, development, methods and content of Surrealism and Fantasy art. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Post-war Expressionism <ul><li>Understand the post-war expressionism of German artists. </li></ul>
  53. 53. GEORGE GROSZ, Fit for Active Service , 1916–17. Pen and brush and ink on paper, 1’ 8” x 1’ 2 3/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of the American Tobacco Co., Inc.). Estate of George Grosz/Licensed by VAGA, New York.
  54. 54. MAX BECKMANN, Night, 1918–1919. Oil on canvas, 4’ 4 3/8” x 5’ 1/4”. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf.
  55. 55. OTTO DIX, Der Krieg (The War), 1929–1932. Oil and tempera on wood, 6’ 8 1/3” x 13’ 4 3/4”. Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Gemäldegalerie Neue Meister, Dresden.
  56. 56. KATHE KOLLWITZ, Woman with Dead Child , 1903. Etching and soft-ground etching, overprinted lithographically with a gold tone plate, 1’ 4 5/8” X 1’ 7 1/8”. British Museum, London.
  57. 57. WILHELM LEHMBRUCK, Seated Youth, 1917. Composite tinted plaster, 3’ 4 5/8” x 2’ 6” x 3’ 9”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Andrew W. Mellon Fund).
  58. 58. ERNST BARLACH, War Monument, Cathedral, Güstrow, Germany, 1927. Bronze.
  59. 59. Surrealism <ul><li>Examine the development, methods and content of Surrealism. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Surrealist artists. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that the Surrealists were influenced by Dada </li></ul>
  60. 60. GIORGIO DE CHIRICO, Melancholy and Mystery of a Street , 1914. Oil on canvas, 2’ 10 1/4” x 2’ 4 1/2”. Private collection.
  61. 61. MAX ERNST, Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924. Oil on wood with wood construction, 2’ 3 1/2” x 1’ 10 1/2” x 4 1/2”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  62. 62. SALVADOR DALÍ, The Persistence of Memory , 1931. Oil on canvas, 9 1/2” x 1’ 1”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  63. 63. RENÉ MAGRITTE, The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images, 1928–1929. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11 5/8” x 3’ 1”. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles (purchased with funds provided by the Mr. and Mrs. William Preston Harrison Collection).
  64. 64. MERET OPPENHEIM, Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure), 1936. Fur-covered cup, 4 3/8” diameter; saucer, 9 3/8” diameter; spoon, 8” long. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  65. 65. JOAN MIRÓ, Painting , 1933. 5’ 8” x 6’ 5”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Loula D. Lasker Bequest by exchange).
  66. 66. PAUL KLEE, Twittering Machine , 1922. Watercolor and pen and ink, on oil transfer drawing on paper, mounted on cardboard, 2’ 1” x 1’ 7”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  67. 67. The Utopian Styles <ul><li>Examine the forms and utopian notions in Suprematism, Constructivism, and in De Stijl. </li></ul>
  68. 68. KAZIMIR MALEVICH, Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying , 1915 (dated 1914). Oil on canvas, 1’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 7”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  69. 69. NAUM GABO, Column, ca. 1923 (reconstructed 1937). Perspex, wood, metal, glass, 3’ 5” x 2’ 5” x 2’ 5”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
  70. 70. PIET MONDRIAN, Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow , 1937-1942. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11 ¾” X 1’ 9 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 2008 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International, Warrenton, VA, USA.
  71. 71. CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI, Bird in Space , 1928. Bronze, 4’ 2 5/16” high. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection, 1950).
  72. 72. BARBARA HEPWORTH, Oval Sculpture (No. 2), 1943. Plaster cast, 11 1/4” x 16 1/4” x 10”. Tate Gallery, London.
  73. 73. HENRY MOORE, Reclining Figure , 1939. Elm wood, 3’ 1” x 6’ 7” x 2’ 6”. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit (Founders Society purchase with funds from the Dexter M. Ferry, Jr. Trustee Corporation).
  74. 74. America, 1930 to 1945 <ul><li>Understand issues of rebellion and the depiction of social injustice in art. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that American artists had different goals in their art and these goals affected the formal qualities of their work </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the art of the Depression, the depiction of displaced workers, poverty and urban isolation, along with the beginnings of government support for art in the WPA programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the political content and form of art resulting from African American migration in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the themes of Regionalism in American art. </li></ul>
  75. 75. ALEXANDER CALDER, Lobster Trap and Fish Tail , 1939. Painted sheet aluminum and steel wire. 8’ 6” X 9’ 6”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  76. 76. DOROTHEA LANGE, Migrant Mother, Nipomo Valley , 1935. Gelatin silver print. Oakland Museum of California, Oakland (gift of Paul S.Taylor)
  77. 77. EDWARD HOPPER, Nighthawks , 1942. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 4’ 8 11/16”. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago (Friends of American Art Collection).
  78. 78. JACOB LAWRENCE, No. 49 from The Migration of the Negro , 1940–1941. Tempera on masonite, 1’ 6” x 1’. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
  79. 79. Documenting Lives in Art <ul><li>Examine the political content of art resulting from African American migration along with the themes of Regionalism. </li></ul>
  80. 80. GRANT WOOD, American Gothic , 1930. Oil on beaverboard, 2’ 5 7/8” x 2’ 7/8”. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago (Friends of American Art Collection). Estate of Grant Wood/Licensed by VAGA, New York.
  81. 81. THOMAS HART BENTON, Pioneer Days and Early Settlers , State Capitol, Jefferson City, Missouri, 1936. Mural. Art © T. H. Benton and R. P. Benton Testamentary Trusts/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.
  82. 82. 20 th Century Mexican Artists <ul><li>Examine the art of the Mexican painters along with their mediums, techniques, and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how Mexican artists incorporated political statements into their work through their choice of subject matter and formal elements </li></ul>
  83. 83. JOSÉ CLEMENTE OROZCO, Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-America (panel 16), Baker Memorial Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, ca. 1932–1934. Fresco. Copyright © Orozco Valladares Family/SOMAAP, Mexico/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.
  84. 84. DIEGO RIVERA, Ancient Mexico , from the History of Mexico fresco, National Palace, Mexico City, 1929–1935. Fresco.
  85. 85. FRIDA KAHLO, The Two Fridas , 1939. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 5’ 7”. Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City.
  86. 86. Architecture <ul><li>Understand variables that affected the development of 20 th century architecture such as building materials, political and cultural events, developments in avant-garde art, as well as the personal desire for recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the forms of Modernist designs and architecture of the Bauhaus and in the International Style. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall the work of famous architects and their goals/objectives </li></ul>
  87. 87. New Art for a New Society <ul><li>Understand the early 20 th century belief that art could contribute to improving society. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the International Style in architecture and the concept of modernism in architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the geometric forms of Art Deco and Modern Sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the desire for natural and organic forms in sculpture and architecture. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International , 1919–1920. Reconstruction of the lost model, 1992–1993. Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf.
  89. 89. GERRIT THOMAS RIETVELD, Schröder House, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1924.
  90. 90. WALTER GROPIUS, Shop Block, the Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925–1926.
  91. 91. MARCEL BREUER, Wassily chair, 1925. Chrome-plated tubular steel and canvas, 2’ 4 ¼” x 2’ 6 3/4” x 2’ 4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Herbert Bayer).
  92. 92. LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, model for a glass skyscraper, Berlin, Germany, 1922 (no longer extant).
  93. 93. LE CORBUSIER, Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France, 1929.
  94. 94. WILLIAM VAN ALEN, Chrysler Building, New York, New York, 1928–1930.
  95. 95. Natural and Organic Forms <ul><li>Understand the desire for natural and organic forms in sculpture and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the goals of Frank Lloyd Wright and how they affected his designs </li></ul>
  96. 96. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Robie House, Chicago, Illinois, 1907–1909.
  97. 97. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, plan of the second (main) level of the Robie House, Chicago, Illinois, 1907–1909.
  98. 98. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Kaufmann House (Fallingwater), Bear Run, Pennsylvania, 1936–1939.

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