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Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
Christian Art
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Christian Art

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  • This module takes a quick look at the first 1300 years of Early Christian and Byzantine through Gothic art. Around 33 CE, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius, Jesus Christ was crucified outside the city of Jerusalem, then a part of the Roman empire. The followers of Jesus of Nazareth, at first merely a despised handful, confounded the Roman authorities by their perseverance in the face of torture and martyrdom in a faith derided by the haughty Roman writer Tacitus as "mischievous superstition." But this revolutionary Christian doctrine of brotherhood of man appealed powerfully to the down trodden, the world-weary and disaffected people. They had the promise of spiritual comfort, salvation and eternal life (a philosophy held by the Egyptians). After striving for 300 years to stamp out Christianity, the rulers of Rome, alarmed for their future, turned for support to the faith. This faith represented a new phase in human development, engendering a new consciousness that manifested itself in life and art.
  • A basilica in Roman times meant "a royal hall." Constantine began construction of this first great Christian church. Christian basilicas developed a distinctive form. Common to most was the oblong plan with an entrance at one end, a Roman-style atrium, the sanctuary frequently terminating in a hemispheric apse at the opposite end. The long body was divided into a nave and aisle and covered by a double pitched roof, with roof beams either exposed to the interior or covered by a flat wooden ceiling. From the entrance, a congregation of 14,000 worshipers walked solemnly along a royal path to approach the altar of Christ. All this in underneath the foundation of the present Saint Peter’s of Rome.
  • Mosaic. This is a narrative with monumental central figures.
  • Christ the Good Shepherd , mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy Fifth-century chapel and burial place of a Byzantine empress
  • Mosaics, archway detail Cross in Starry Sky; Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna Compare/contrast with Joyce Kozloff’s Galla Placidia in Philadephia
  • Christianity was officially recognized in 313 CE. Constantine moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium, Turkey and renamed the city after himself, Constantinople. This was quite a distance. He split his empire in two. The weakened Rome became prey to the predatory tribes of France and England.
  • Christianity was officially recognized in 313 CE. Constantine moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium, Turkey and renamed the city after himself, Constantinople. This was quite a distance. He split his empire in two. The weakened Rome became prey to the predatory tribes of France and England.
  • Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, (Byzantine, 532-537 CE). The minarets were added after the Ottoman conquest following 1453, when it became an Islamic mosque.
  • The word “Gothic” refers to the Goths, a Germanic tribe, who invaded Greece and Rome. But in reality, the Goths did nothing to produce this beautiful style. Gothic style was at first defined in architecture and architectural motifs. It is easily identifiable because of its unique vocabulary: pointed arches, ribbed-cross vaults, flying buttresses, cluster piers and stained glass windows. Gothic architecture seems to have been born in France and invented by Abbot Suger, who was a friend and advisor to the French kings Louis VI and VII, when he rebuilt the facade, ambulatory and radiating chapel of the Royal Abbey Church of Saint Denis near Paris. Saint Denis is an abbey.
  • Gothic architecture seems to have been born in France and invented by Abbot Suger, who was a friend and advisor to the French kings Louis VI and VII, when he rebuilt the facade, ambulatory and radiating chapel of the Royal Abbey Church of Saint Denis near Paris. Saint Denis is an abbey. Its architecture was meant to help the worshiper rise from the physical and material world to an immaterial, spiritual realm. Light is the frequent metaphor for the divine in theological and mystical writings. Suger had the following inscription put over the west portal. He took credit for how his new architecture created a "crown of light" at Saint Denis. "For bright is that which is brightly coupled with the bright, and bright is the noble edifice which pervaded by the new light; which stands enlarged in our time, I, who was Suger, being the leader while it was being accomplished."
  • Transcript

    • 1. Christian Art : From Catacombs to Cathedrals 0
    • 2. Christian Artistic Periods <ul><li>Early Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine </li></ul><ul><li>Early Medieval </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic Art </li></ul>
    • 3. Early Christian Art <ul><li>Early Christian Art is divided into two periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Period of Persecution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Period of Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 4. Period of Persecution <ul><li>Christians had to worship in secret so they worshipped in private homes and catacombs. </li></ul><ul><li>Catacombs - underground burial place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had chambers called cubicula that served as chapels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ceiling of the subterranean chapel features a cross inscribed in a circle, symbols of Christian faith and eternity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunettes - half moon shapes at the end of the the cross. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orans - figures with outstretched arms in an attitude of prayer that stand in-between the lunettes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From the Latin word meaning “to pray”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The early Christian iconography was developed based on a mixture of former Pagan symbols, Jewish subjects, and events from the life of Jesus. </li></ul>
    • 5. Catacomb di Priscilla, Rome.
    • 6. The Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Rome ( E. Christian, early 4th century CE).
    • 7. Period of Recognition <ul><li>Constantine adopted Christianity as the faith of the Roman empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians started to building places of worship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were often on top of the old catacombs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were based on the design of Roman architecture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the first and most important churches of the Early Christian Period was Old St. Peter’s Cathedral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the design of a Roman basilica. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the blueprint for Christian Cathedrals to come. </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. Reconstruction drawing of OLD SAINT PETER’S BASILICA, Rome
    • 9. Church Plans
    • 10. St. Apollinaire in Classe, Ravenna
    • 11. Saint Apollinaire as the Good Shepherd , Early Christian, mosaic, St. Apollinaire in Classe, Ravenna, Italy.
    • 12. Parting of Lot and Abraham Early Christian mosaic
    • 13. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy
    • 14. Christ the Good Shepherd , mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna
    • 15. 5th century Mosaics Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna, Italy
    • 16. Termonology <ul><li>Catacomb </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Facade </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Narthex </li></ul><ul><li>Nave </li></ul><ul><li>Altar </li></ul><ul><li>Apse </li></ul><ul><li>Transept </li></ul><ul><li>Fresco </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal plan </li></ul><ul><li>Central plan </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Cross Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Mosiacs </li></ul>
    • 17. BYZANTINE ART <ul><li>Term comes from the city of Byzantium where Constantine made his capital, Constantinople (now Istanbul). </li></ul><ul><li>“The difference between Early Christian and Byzantine art is a transfer from an earthbound naturalism to a more spiritual, otherworldly style.” </li></ul>
    • 18. Byzantine Art <ul><li>Two centers for Byzantine Style: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Empire (Italy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Empire (Turkey) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mosaics are used to decorate interiors </li></ul><ul><li>Figure poses are frontal and symmetrical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear to be weightless; seem to hover in space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Flat and decorative in style </li></ul>
    • 19. San Vitale, Ravenna <ul><li>Located on the Adriatic coast of Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Built during Justinian’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most elaborate buildings decorated in the Byzantine style. </li></ul><ul><li>Has an organic quality </li></ul><ul><li>Ambulatory - the surrounding aisle around the semicircular niches of San Vitale. </li></ul>
    • 20. San Vitale, Ravenna (Byzantine, 526 – 547 CE)
    • 21. <ul><li>Plan, San Vitale, Ravenna (Byzantine, 526 – 547 CE) </li></ul>
    • 22. Justinian and Attendants (Byzantine, c. 547 CE). Mosaic. San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
    • 23. Justinian and Attendants (Byzantine, c. 547 CE). Mosaic.
    • 24. Hagia Sophia Constantinople (Istanbul) <ul><li>Hagia Sophia = Church of Holy Wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Built for Emperor Justinian </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. </li></ul><ul><li>When the empire split, the Hagia Sophia became an Eastern Orthodox church; a mosque; now a museum. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendentives - 4 triangular surfaces which support the dome on a square base. </li></ul>
    • 25. Anthemius and Isidorus. Hagia Sophia, (Byzantine, 532-537 CE) Istanbul, Turkey.
    • 26. Anthemius and Isidorus. Hagia Sophia, (Byzantine, 532-537 CE) Istanbul, Turkey.
    • 27.  
    • 28.  
    • 29. Pantocrator , Byzantine, mosaic, Hagia Sophia
    • 30. Pantocrator mosaic, Byzantine
    • 31. Gothic Art <ul><li>The Gothic period dates from the 12th and 13th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The term Gothic was a negative term first used by historians because it was believed that the barbaric Goths were responsible for the style of this period. </li></ul>
    • 32. Gothic Architecture <ul><li>The Gothic period began with the construction of the choir at St. Denis by the Abbot Suger. </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed arch allowed for added height. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbed vaulting added skeletal structure and allowed for the use of larger stained glass windows. </li></ul><ul><li>The exterior walls are no longer so thick and massive. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed Arches </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbed Vaulting </li></ul><ul><li>Flying Buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Rose Windows </li></ul>
    • 33. Laon Cathedral <ul><li>Early Gothic example with a plan that resembles Romanesque. </li></ul><ul><li>The interior goes from three to four levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The stone portals seem to jut forward from the façade. </li></ul><ul><li>Added stone pierced by arcades and arched and rose windows . </li></ul><ul><li>Filigree-like bell towers. </li></ul>
    • 34. Interior of Laon Cathedral, view facing east (begun c. 1190 CE).
    • 35. Exterior of Laon Cathedral, west facade (begun c. 1190 CE).
    • 36. Chartres Cathedral <ul><li>Generally considered to be the first High Gothic church. </li></ul><ul><li>The three-part wall structure allowed for large clerestory and stained-glass windows. </li></ul><ul><li>There were developments in the flying buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>In the High Gothic period there is a change from square schematic to the new rectangular bay system . </li></ul>
    • 37. West Facade of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).
    • 38. Royal Portals of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).
    • 39. Aerial view from the northwest of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).
    • 40. Flying Buttresess of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).
    • 41. Nave, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).
    • 42. Notre Dame <ul><li>One of the most famous buildings in the history of architecture is Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Was a mixture of old and new elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of old and late styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive modifications in 1225-1250 resembling High Gothic style. </li></ul><ul><li>Used an elimination of the triforum and the addition of lacy flying buttresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Fenestration gives it a light and airy look; note the rose window. </li></ul>
    • 43. Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris (Gothic, begun 1163 CE, completed 1250 CE).
    • 44. Notre Dame Cathedral, Gothic, Paris, France
    • 45. Windows of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).
    • 46. Florence Cathedral <ul><li>Italy did not adhere to the strict French Gothic style. </li></ul><ul><li>Florence’s cathedral has green and white marble geometric patterns on the exterior. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more horizontal than the vertical French Gothic style. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that this cathedral is also different in plan. </li></ul>
    • 47. Florence Cathedral (Gothic, begun 1368 CE).
    • 48. Gothic Sculpture <ul><li>There was a change in mood from Romanesque sculpture to Gothic. The theme is of redemption rather than damnation. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes were now of the life of Jesus or the apocalypse . </li></ul><ul><li>The Virgin Mary, also, started to become an important subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed Arch </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbed Vaulting </li></ul><ul><li>Flying Buttress </li></ul><ul><li>Rose Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Jamb Sculptures </li></ul>
    • 49. Compare Jamb Sculptures <ul><li>The differences in the jamb sculptures around portals at Chartres Cathedral and Reims Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>The figures, folds of drapery, and the facial features </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the more naturalistic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the Annunciation and the Visitation stories represented </li></ul>
    • 50. Jamb figures, west portals, Chartres Cathedral (Gothic, c. 1140–1150 CE).
    • 51. The Annunciation and Visitation Jamb figures, west portals, Reims Cathedral (Gothic, begun 1210 CE).
    • 52. Discussion Questions: <ul><li>How was Jesus depicted by the early church and in the Byzantine era? </li></ul><ul><li>The Medieval period is referred to as a “holding period.” Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between Romanesque and Gothic art forms? </li></ul>

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