Architecture

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What is architecture?

What is architecture?

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  • 1. 0
    Three-Dimensional Art
    Sculpture
    Architecture
    Craft & Design
  • 2. 0
    “The mother art is architecture. Without an architecture of our own, we have no soul of our own civilization.”
    –Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 3. 0
    Introduction
    What is architecture?
    Why is architecture important to us?
    Why does architecture, of all the arts, have the greatest impact on our lives?
  • 4. What is Architecture?
    Architecture is the art of building.
    It satisfies a basic, universal human need for shelter.
    An architect is an artist who designs structures to enclose residential, commercial, or public space.
    Architects work with construction technologies, building materials, topography, contractors, and governmental regulations within a project budget to satisfy their clients' wants and needs.
  • 5. Architecture
    Architecture - The art and science of designing buildings, and other structures to meet our personal and communal needs.
    It is also a vehicle for artistic expression in three-dimensions.
    The architect mediates between the client and the selected site.
  • 6. Architectural Materials
    Stone, Wood, Concrete, Iron, Steel
  • 7. Dolmen, Megalithic. Donegal, Ireland
  • 8. STONE CONSTRUCTION
    Massive and virtually indestructible.
    Symbol of strength and permanence.
    expresses warmth
    Terms:
    Kivas - Circular underground communities centers created by the native American Cliff dwellers.
    Adobe - dried mud used in architectural construction.
  • 9. Post and Lintel Construction
  • 10. Post and Lintel Construction
    Stonehenge, Megalithic, Wiltshire, England
  • 11. Cliff Dwellings, Mesa Verde, Colorado (Native American, Pre-Columbian).
  • 12. Dry Masonry
    Walls of Fortress of Machu Picchu, Urubamba Valley, Peru (Incan, 1490–1530).
  • 13. Stone as a favored material
    Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak (Egyptian, XVIII dynasty, 1570–1342 BCE).
  • 14. Stone as a favored material
    Ictinos and Callicrates. The Parthenon, The Acropolis, Athens, Greece
  • 15. The Arch
    Arches span distances without the use of interior supports.
    They provide support for other structures, such as roofs.
    They, also, serve as symbolic gateways, as in the Arch of Triumph in Paris, France.
  • 16. Rounded Arches
    Rounded arches enclosing square bay
  • 17. Pointed Arches
    Pointed arches enclosing rectangular bay.
  • 18. Tunnel or barrel vault
  • 19. Groin vaulting
  • 20. Ribbed vaulting: Groin vault showing ribs that carry greatest loads
  • 21. Flying buttress
  • 22. Notre Dame Cathedral, Gothic, Paris, France
  • 23. Notre Dame Cathedral, Gothic, Paris, France
  • 24. Stone is an elegant Gothic structural method for examples see:
    Cathedral of Notre Dame
    Pointed arches
    Groin vaulting
    Ribbed vaulting
    Flying buttresses
    Ample fenestration
    Stained glass windows
  • 25. Domes
    Domes are hemispherical forms
    They are rounded when viewed from underneath
    They are extensions of the principle of the arch
    They are capable of enclosing a vast amount of space
    Pendentives - triangular surfaces used to support the dome on a square base.
    Piers - structures under the pendentives that the load of the dome is transferred to
    Veneers - thin facades
  • 26. Dome
  • 27. The Pantheon, Rome
  • 28. HagiaSophia, Byzantine Church, Istanbul
  • 29. Other Uses of Stone in Construction
    Stone is rarely used today as a structural material
    Expensive to quarry and transport
    Mostly stone veneers are used
    Decorative stone used on façades
    Stone slabs are used for entry halls, patios, and gardens.
  • 30. Wood Construction
    Advantages:
    Attractive
    Versatile
    Abundant/Renewable
    Light
    Can be worked onsite with portable hand tools
    Variety of colors and grains
    Weathers well
    Can be painted
    Can be used on the façade or as a structural material
    Disadvantages:
    Warps
    Cracks
    Highly flammable
    Termites
    Rot
  • 31. Post and Beam Construction
    Similar to post-and-lintel construction
    Vertical and horizontal timbers are cut and pieced together with wooden pegs
    The beams allow for windows, doors, and interior supports
    Supports another story or roofs
  • 32. Postandbeam construction
  • 33. Post and Beam
  • 34. Trusses
    Trusses - Lengths of wood, iron, or steel pieced together in a triangular shape
    Trusses span larger distances
    Trusses are used as design and engineering elements
  • 35. Trusses
  • 36. Balloon Framing
    An American construction building technique.
    A product of the Industrial Revolution (early 20th century)
    Mass production and assembly of materials
    Originally “balloon framing” was an insulting term due to the fact that people were skeptical that it would work.
  • 37. Balloon framing.
  • 38. Cape Cod–style houses built by Levitt & Sons, Levittown, NY (c. 1947–1951).
  • 39. CAST IRON CONSTRUCTION
    Cast-Iron
    Was also a product of the 19th century’s Industrial Revolution
    It was a welcome alternative to stone and wood
    Allowed for the erection of taller buildings with thinner walls
    Has great strength but is heavy
    Prefabrication
    Steel-cage construction
  • 40. Engraving of Sir Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace, London (1851).
  • 41. GUSTAVE EIFFEL. Eiffel Tower, Paris (1889).
  • 42. Steel-Cage Architecture
    Very strong metal with some carbon and other metals
    Harder than cast iron and very expensive; however, less of the material needs to be used
    Skeletal forms of steel result in “steel cages”
    Façades and inner walls are hung from the skeleton
  • 43. Terms
    Steel - strong metal of iron alloyed with small amounts of carbon and a variety of other metals.
    Steel cages - skeletal forms onto which I-beams can be riveted or welded.
    Pilasters
  • 44. Steel-cage construction.
  • 45. Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building, St. Louis, MO (1890).
  • 46. “Less is more.”
    –Ludwig Miës van der Rohe
  • 47. REINFORCED CONCRETE
    Reinforced Concrete - (or ferroconcrete)
    Steel rods and/or steel mesh are inserted into wet concrete.
    Steel is inserted at points of greatest stress before hardening.
    Advantages:
    Less susceptible to pulling apart at stress points
    The concrete prevents the steel from rusting.
    Can span great distances then stone
    Supports more weight then steel
    Can take on more natural shapes.
  • 48. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT. Kaufmann House (“Fallingwater”), Bear Run, PA (1936).
  • 49. MOSHE SAFDIE. Habitat, Expo 67, Montreal (1967).
  • 50. STEEL-CABLE ARCHITECTURE
    Steel-cable bridges are not new. The Asian culture has made suspension bridges for thousands of years.
    Steel Cable - many parallel wires are intertwined so that they share the stress of the load.
    Advantages:
    Strong
    Flexible
    Can sway during weather and traffic conditions
  • 51. Figure 11.18, p.228: JOHN A. ROEBLING. Brooklyn Bridge, New York (1869–1883).
  • 52. SHELL ARCHITECTURE
    Modern materials and engineering methods now enclose spaces with inexpensive shell structures.
    Shells are capable of spanning greater spaces
    Constructed from reinforced concrete, wood, steel, etc.
    Concept as old as the tent or new as a geodesic dome
  • 53. BUCKMINSTER FULLER. United States Pavilion, Expo 67, Montreal (1967).
  • 54. NEW MATERIALS, NEW VISIONS
    New idea in architecture: “If you can think it, we can build it.”
    Global architects now adopt high-tech metals and methods.
    Different visions concerning assembling designs and buildings have created new and interesting buildings.
    Architects are also using unorthodox building materials.
  • 55. EERO SAARINEN. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, Gateway Arch, St. Louis, MO (1966).
  • 56. Discussion Questions:
    Why is architecture so important to us as humans?
    Why is architecture an artform and a science (engineering)?