Big data rmoug


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Big data rmoug

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  2. 2. We are a managed service AND a solution provider of elite database and System Administration skills in Oracle, MySQL and SQL Server 3
  3. 3. Big Data is a marketing term, like cloud. All kinds of databases get called “Big Data”. But in order for “Big Data” to define a set of solution architectures, we need to define the problem we are solving.The first requirement from Big Data data store is to be a good fit to store large volumes of data. Large volume can also mean different things to different people, but if you have less than 5T of data, you’ll need to work hard to convince me that you need a Big Data solution.Second requirement is variety – it refers to the need to store not just short strings and numbers, but also long texts from emails, web log files, XML, images and video. It also refers to requirements around frequent changes in the data types stored. Some databases deal with schema changes better than others.Velocity – Require storing or serving data very quickly even under highly concurrent load. The data store should minimize overhead and locking.Value – the data requires large amount of processing in order to extract business value, and the data store should support this.Visualization – when the amounts of data are huge, new techniques for extracting value are required, and data visualization is gaining prominence as a method of data exploration. Big Data solutions should be well integrated with visualization solutions. 4
  4. 4. One of the main reasons for the explosion of data stored in the last few years is that many problems are easier to solve if you apply more data to them.Take the Netflix Challenge for example. Netflix challenged the AI community to improve the movie recommendations made by Netflix to its customers based on a database of ratings and viewing history. Teams that used the available data more extensively did better than teams that used more advanced algorithms on a smaller data set.More data also allows businesses to make better, more informed decisions. Why have focus groups to decide on new store design, if you can re-design several stores and compare how customers proceeded through each store and how many left without buying? On- line stores make the process even easier.Modern businesses become more scientific and metrics driven, and rely less on “gut feeling” as the cost of making business experiments and measuring the results decrease. 6
  5. 5. Data also arrives in more forms and from more sources than ever. Some of these don’t fit into a relational database very well, and for some, the relational database does not have the right tools to process the data.One of Pythian’s customers analyses social media sources and allow companies to find comments of their performance and service and respond to complaints via non-traditional customer support routes.Storing facebook comments and blog posts in Oracle for later processing, results in most of the data getting stored in BLOBs, where it is relatively difficult to manage. Most of the processing is done outside of Oracle using Nature Language Processing tools. So, why use Oracle for storage at all? Why not store and process the documents elsewhere and only store the ready-to-display results in Oracle? 7
  6. 6. Companies like Infochimps sell organized public information that can be used the data collected by the business itself. This is mostly geographically based information such as houses for sale, local businesses, community surveys and even petroleum reports. Such information can be valuable for marketing departments and the information is not only for sale, it is accessible through programmable API so new data can arrive on-the-fly on regular basis to your data center.In general, the trend is that businesses use more and more data that did not originate within the company – whether tweets or purchased data. This means that the business has little control over the format of the data as it arrives, and the format can change overnight. 8
  7. 7. Data, especially from outside sources is not in a perfect condition to be useful to your business.Not only does it need to be processed into useful formats, it also needs:• Filtering for potentially useful information. 99% of everything is crap• Statistical analysis – is this data significant?• Integration with existing data• Entity resolution. Is “Oracle Corp” the same as “Oracle” and “Oracle Corporation”?• De-DuplicationGood processing and filtering of data can reduce the volume and varietyof data. It is important to distinguish between true and accidentalvariety.This requires massive use of processing power. In a way, there is a trade-off between storage space and CPU. If you don’t invest CPU in filtering,de-duping and entity resolution – you’ll need more storage. 9
  8. 8. • Bad schema design is not big data• Using 8 year old hardware is not big data• Not having purging policy is not big data• Not configuring your database and operating system correctly is not big data• Poor data filtering is not big data eitherKeep the data you need and use. In a way that you canactually use it.If doing this requires cutting edge technology, excellent! Butdon’t tell me you need NoSQL because you don’t purge dataand have un-optimized PL/SQL running on 10-yo hardware. 10
  9. 9. The new volume of data, and the need to transform it, filter it and clean it up require:1. Not only more storage, but also faster access rates2. Reliable storage. We want high availability and resilient systems3. You also need access to as many cores as you can get, to process all this data4. These cores should be as close to the data as possible to avoid moving large amounts of data on the net5. The architecture should allow to use many of the cores in parallel for data processing 11
  10. 10. Data warehouses require the data to be structured in a certain way, and it has to be structured that way before the data gets into the data warehouse. This means that we need to know all the questions we would like to answer with this data when designing the schema for the data warehouse.This works very well in many cases, but sometimes there are issues:• The raw data is not relational – images, video, text and we want to keep raw data for future use• The requirements from the business frequently changeIn these cases it is better to store the data and create patterns from it asit is parsed and processed. This allows the business to move from largeup-front design to just-in-time processing.For example: Astrometry project searches Flickr for photos of night sky,identifies the part of the sky its from and the prominent celestial bodiesand creates a standard database of the position of elements in the sky. 12
  11. 11. Hadoop is the most common solution for the new Big Data requirement. It’s a scalable distributed file system, and a distributed job processing system on top of the file system. This lets companies keep massive amounts of unstructured data and efficiently process it. The assumption behind Hadoop is that most jobs will want to scan entire data sets, not specific rows or columns. So efficient access to specific data is not a core capability.Hadoop is open source, and there is a large eco-system of tools, products and appliances built around it.Open source tools that make data processing on Hadoop easier and more accessible, BI and integration products, improved implementations of Hadoop that are faster or more reliable, Hadoop cloud services and hardware appliances. 13
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  13. 13. Divide the job into many small tasks, each operating on a separate set of data.Run the task on the machine with the data. If one machine is busy, we can find another with same data. Machines and tasks are constantly monitored.Move programs around, not data.If things are still too slow, more servers (with more disks, allow more data replication) and more cores are added. 15
  14. 14. Modern data centers generate huge amounts of logs from applications and web services.These logs contain very specific information about how users are using our application and how the application performs.Hadoop is often used to answer questions like:• How many users use each feature in my site?• Which page do users usually go to after visiting page X?• Do people return more often to my site after I made the new changes?• What use patterns correlate with people who eventually buy a product?• What is the correlation between slow performance and purchase rates?Note that the web logs can be processed, loaded into RDBMSand parsed there. However, we are talking about very largeamounts of data, and each piece of data needs to be read justonce to answer each question. There are very few relationsthere. Why bother loading all this to RDBMS? 16
  15. 15. Hadoop has large storage, high bandwidth, lots of cores and was build for data aggregation.Also, it is cheap.Data is dumped from the OLTP database (Oracle or MySQL) to Hadoop. Transformation code is written on Hadoop to aggregate the data (this is the tricky part) and the data is loaded to the data warehouse (usually Oracle).This is such a common use case that Oracle built an appliance especially for this. 17
  16. 16. A lot of the modern web experience revolves around websites beingabout to predict what you’ll do next or what you’d like to do but don’tknow about yet.• People you may know• Jobs you may be interested in• Other customers who looked at this product eventually bought…• These emails are more important than othersTo generate this information, usage patterns are extracted from OLTPdatabases and logs, the data is analyzed, and the results are loaded toan OLTP database again for use by the customer.The analysis task started out as daily batch job, but soon users expectedmore immediate feedback.More processing resources were brought in to speed up the process.Then the system started incorporating customer feedback into theanalysis when making new recommendations. This new informationneeded more storage and more processing power. 18
  17. 17. The best use cases for Hadoop is either storing large amountsof unprocessed data, or off-loading computationally intensivetasks away from expensive Oracle cores. 19
  18. 18. Businesses want to be able to respond to events automatically and immediately.This usually means comparing current information to historical data and responding to trends and outliers immediately.This means speeding up the rates at which data arrives, is stored and processed and at which the results are served. 21
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  23. 23. Recommendation system is an excellent example of how big data brings value to business.You get customers to buy more, by processing more data with smarter analysis.And they are iterative feedback systems.The same idea can work within the organization – the recommendations can be on business decisions to executives, not necessarily for external customers.Different tools can be used – analysis of relationship graphs, correlations between past purchases and clustering of products and customers to groups with similar attributes. 26
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  28. 28. Example stolen from Greg Rahn to show why a chart is a powerful data exploration tool for big data. 31
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  34. 34. Oracle’s Big Data machine was built to move data between Oracle RDBMS and Hadoop fast, and I doubt if anyone can beat Oracle at that.Both the tools that are bundled with the machine and the fast IB connection to Exadata make it very attractive for businesses wishing to use Hadoop as ETL solution. Note that the tools should also be avba 38
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