Chapter 6: Resistance Against the Spanish RuleReasons for the Revolts 1. Refusal of Spanish authorities to grant reforms 2. Policy of the Spanish government not allowing the natives to learn the Spanish language 3. Religious intolerance of the friars 4. Imposition of the Polo, tribute and taxes 5. Monopolies and the Galleon Trade 6. Agrarian injustices and cases of land grabbing 7. Greed, cruelty and abuses committed by Spanish authoritiesThe Filipino RevoltsA. Lakandula and Sulayman RevoltDate: 1574Setting: Tondo, ManilaLeaders: Lakandula and SulaymanCause(s): Gov. Guido de Lavezares refused to exempt Lakandula and his kin from payment of tributes and the confiscation of the natives’ patrimonialland awarded to them by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as a token offriendship.Result(s): The natives launched a revolt that coincided with Limahong’s attacks. Through the intervention of Legazpi’s grandson Juan de Salcedo,the natives and their leaders were pacified with the condition that theirlands would be retained and that they be exempted from payment oftributes. After the reconciliation, the natives helped the Spaniards incrushing the force of Limahong.B. Magat Salamat Conspiracy a.k.a. Tondo ConspiracyDate: 1587Setting: Tondo, ManilaLeaders: Magat Salamat, Agustin de Legazpi, Juan Banal (chieftain of Tondo) and Pedro Balingit (chieftain of Pandacan)Cause(s): The desire of the natives to regain the lost freedom of their forefathersResult(s): The conspiracy failed after one of the recruits squealed the information to Spanish authorities which resulted to the arrest of its leaders andtheir execution.
C. Magalat RevoltDate: 1596Setting: Cagayan ValleyLeaders: MagalatCause(s): Resentment of the natives in the payment of tribute and the implementation of the polo y servcioResult(s): The revolt for quite some time gave headaches to Spanish authorities; unfortunately, it was quelled after Magalat was assassinated. Thisis considered as the first authorized political assassination inPhilippine historyD. Sumoroy RevoltDate: 1649 to 1650Setting: Palapag, SamarLeaders: Francisco SumoroyCause(s): The governor general ordered the alcalde mayors of Visayas to send able- bodied men to Cavite shipyards to build and repair galleons. Thenatives resented this for it also meant separation from theirfamilies.Result(s): The uprising spread throughout Samar and nearby provinces of Cebu, Masbate and as far as Northern Mindanao. But in July 1650, therevolt was crushed after Sumoroy and his men were enrouted in their fort. Sumoroy and his followers were arrested and executed.E. Revolt of the IrrayasDate: Date not mentionedSetting: Northern IsabelaLeaders: Felix Cutabay and Gabriel DayagCause(s): Oppression committed by the Spanish authorities and the encomienderosResult(s): At first, the uprising was bloody and killed oppressive encomienderos and abusive officials. However, reconciliation took place through the intervention of Fray Pedro de Santo Tomas. As a result, twoadditional towns were founded—Maquila and Cabagan—two newsettlements of the Irrayas.F. Igorot RevoltDate: 1601Setting: Cordillera regionLeader(s): Igorot chieftainCause(s): Resistance to Christianity
Result(s): The natives executed Farther Esteban Marin, the curate of Batac Ilocos. Afterwards, Capitan Mateo Aranda sent a punitive expeditionaryforce to crush the revolt and punish the killer of his curate friend.The Igorot revolt was easily quelledG. Tamblot RevoltDate: 1621Setting: BoholLeader(s): A babaylan named TamblotCause(s): Religious intolerance of the Catholic authorities after the natives opted to return to their ancestral religion.Result(s): Tamblot revolt was crushed by he combined force of 1,000 Cebuano and 50 Spanish soldiers.H. Bankaw UprisingDate: 1621Setting: LeyteLeader(s): BankawCause(s): Religious intolerance of the Catholic authorities after the natives opted to return to their ancestral religion.Result(s): Bankaw uprising was crushed by he combined force of 1,000 Cebuano and 50 Spanish soldiers. Bankaw and his sons perished in the battleI. Tapar RevoltDate: 1663Setting: Oton, PanayLeader(s): Sorcerer named TaparCause(s): Establishment of a religious cult with fanatic peasants as members.Result(s): After Fray Francisco de Mesa rejected the cult, and was killed by Tapar’s men, the authorities sent punitive expeditions and launched bloody encounters. This uprising was quelled after Tapar and hisaides were killed. Their bodies were mutilated and publiclyhumiliated.J. Maniago RevoltDate: 1660Setting: PampangaLeader(s): Francisco ManiagoCause(s):
• Maniago and his followers resented the frequent recruitment of men to cut timbers in the mountains for the construction of galleons. • Opposition to the exaction of bandala that highly contributed to the miserable plight of the natives.Result(s): The revolt spread almost in the entire province and could have spread all over Central Luzon had Makapagal; a Macabebe leader cooperatedand fought with Maniago. Governor Manrique de Lara bribedMacapagal to remain loyal with the Spanish authorities. Through theintervention Fray Andres Salazar, Maniago vowed to surrender aftermaking known his demands such as the following: 1. General amnesty to rebels 2. Payment of 200,000 reales to the rebels as what the government owed them. 3. Cutting of timber could be continued provided that the natives be given time to attend to their other respective affairs. Reconciliation was achieved.K. Malong RevoltDate: 1660 to 1661Setting: Binalatongan or San Carlos PangasinanLeader(s): Andres MalongCause(s): Freedom from Spanish colonizer and the founding of a kingdom with himself as King.Result(s): The rebels killed several Spanish authorities and Malong proclaimed himself as King of Pangasinan. He appointed Pedro Gumapos ashis count and Melchor de Vera as the General of his army. Malong enticed thousands of followers whom he sent beyond the borders ofPangasinan. This was a blunder on the part of Malong, for what he didwas a tactical error, after a minimal force was left to the seat of hisgovernment in Pangasinan. When the Spaniards sent their troopsto Pangasinan, Malong’s men were defeated and heretreated to the mountains but was persistently pursued. He wascaptured and executed in 1661.L. Ilocos UprisingDate: 1661Setting: Ilocos provinceLeader(s): Pedro AlmazanCause(s): Freedom from Spanish colonizer and the founding of a kingdom with himself as KingResult(s): The uprising failed when its leaders were captured and execution.
M. Dagohoy RebellionDate: 1744 to 1829Setting: BoholLeader(s): Francisco DagohoyCause(s): Refusal of Fray Gaspar Morales to give a Christian and decent burial to Dagohoy’s brother who died in the line of duty.Result(s): This was successful among all the rebellions and lasted for about 85 yearsN. Silang RebellionDate: 1762 to 1763Setting: Ilocos ProvinceLeader(s): Diego and Gabriela SilangCause(s): People’s demand to the abolition of the hated bandala and the ousting of their abusive alcalde mayor, Antonio ZabalaResult(s): Silang and his followers were able to expel Spaniards out of Vigan and tried to negotiate with the British to seek their help in totally expelling the Spaniards out the county. Unfortunately, Silang was assassinated by his own men in exchange to a handsome price. His fight was continued by Gabriela with but Gabriela due to her limitations was also captured and executed by the SpaniardsO. Ibanag RevoltDate: 1763Setting: Isabela and CagayanLeader(s): Juan Marayag and DaboCause(s): Natives declared their independence and refused to pay tributesResult(s): It did not last long after Lt. Governor Manuel de Arza ordered is Filipino mercenaries to suppress it.P. Herman Pule RebellionDate: 1840 to 1841Setting: Lukban, QuezonLeader(s): Apolinario de la Cruz a.ka. Herman PuleCause(s): Religious intolerance of the Catholic authorities on the establishment of the Cofradia de San Jose, a religious brotherhood, fosteringChristianity open only to he natives.
Result(s): Spanish authorities ordered the persecution of Hermano Pule and his followers. Defenseless men, women and children were massacred.Pule was executed and his corpse was put into public display.Failure of the Revolts 1. Absence of national consciousness 2. Divide and conquer policy that was applied by he Spaniards 3. The archipelagic nature of the Philippines which hindered communications and simultaneous actions. 4. Absence of a national leader 5. Superiority of Spanish arms. 6. Betrayals and Assassination.Muslim Response to Spanish Rule • The Muslims challenged the power of Spain • They were not practically subdued by the Spaniards because they were unified under one religion and a systematic form of government. • Muslim Wars (1578-1898) were periodic expeditions to Mindanao and Sulu attempting to colonize the islands and the pole. • The Muslims launched counter raids against the Spaniards. Its initial raid was headed by Rajah Sirongan and Datu Sali of Maguinadanao consisting of about 50 war vessels and 3, 000 warriors targeting Luzon and Vises. • Due to the failure of the Spanish expeditions in Mindanao, Gov. Juan Crezo de Salamanca decided to establish a military bas in Zamboanga in 1636. A year after its construction, a brother of Sultan Kudarat named Tagal raided the Visayas for a year when he sailed home he was pursued and executed by Spanish soldiers. • Sultan Kudarat became the sultan of Maguindanao in 1620, at first, Kudarat established friendly relations with the Spaniards as how he treated the Dutch, but hostilities broke out after Spaniards took away the gold possession of the traders of Maguinadanao. • On 24 June 1645, a treaty was signed by Kudarat and Francisco Atienza, Commandant of Zamboanga, recognizing Kudarat’s lordship over Pulangi from the Sibuguey River to the Davao Gulf. The treaty also allowed the coming of the missionaries. • Kudarat was the first Filipino Muslim leader who called for “jihad” • Gov. Corcuera targeted Maranao and Jolo. Jolo was captured on April 1638 and while the Maranaos annihilated the expedition sent to their land. • Decline of the Moro Raids
Establishment of more Spanish forts and watchtowers along the coasts of Mindanao, Visayas and Western Luzon. Acquisition by the Spaniards of several steamships• Lease of Sabah The capture of Jolo forced Sultan Jamalul A’lam (Kiram) to sue for peace and relocate his capital to Maimbung. In need of funds, he leased on January 1878 his territory, known as North Borneo (now called Sabah) to Baron Gustav Von Overbeck and Alfred Dent of the British East India Company. North Borneo or Sabah was previously owned by the Sultan of Brunei who ceded it to the Sultan of Jolo as a sign of gratitude for the aid given b the Jolo warriors in quelling z rebellion in Brunei. The deed of lease provided that the Jolo sultan leased the territory permanently for annual rentals of 5,000 Malayan dollars.• Significance of the Moro Wars The wars proved that even Muslim were defeated in some occasion; they were still able to consolidate their forces and retaliated. It also proved that the Muslims in Mindanao preferred to die a free man in a battle than to live under subjugation