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POC_Ch07
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POC_Ch07

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  • 1. “Nothing you write, if you hope to7 be any good, will ever come out as you first hoped. ―Lillian Helman, 20th century American playwrightWriting as a Process
  • 2. • After completing the chapter, you will be able to:• Explain each step in the writing process, its proper sequence in the process, and how it is applied to develop written communication.• Describe the steps in the prewriting stage used to prepare to write a message.• Apply the steps in the writing stage as you create your message.• Use proofreading techniques to perfect the final draft and produce error-free business writing.• Publish the final messageusing appropriate formatting guidelines. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 3. Writing Process • The writing process is a set of sequential stages for each writing task. – prewriting – writing – post writing – publishing © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 4. Writing Process • Always use the four C’s of communication. – clear – concise – courteous – correct © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 5. Writing Process • Prewriting stage – Tasks should be done in the order that works best for the writing assignment. – Think about the topic and purpose. – Plan the content. – Read or research as needed to gather information. • Writing stage – Create the draft. – Revise the draft. – Edit as many times as necessary. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 6. Writing Process • Post-writing stage – Complete the final edit of the work. – Ask someone to review and give feedback. – Revise for a final pass. – Proofread it to make sure the work is free from errors. • Publishing stage – The message is ready to publish or send to the reader. – Print on good-quality paper. – Prepare the message for electronic submission. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 7. 1. What are the four stages of the writing process?2. List the three tasks in the prewriting stage. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 8. Prewriting Stage • Explore the topic to avoid writer’s block, which is a psychological condition that prevents a writer from proceeding with the writing process. • Complete the how of the prewriting stage – Gather information. – Research ideas. – Organize your thoughts. – Choose a medium (may be a note, chart, brochure, memo, letter, report, or other form). © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 9. Prewriting Stage • Use this checklist in the prewriting stage. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 10. Prewriting Stage • Example of information created from the checklist. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 11. Prewriting Stage • Why you are writing – pass on information – respond to questions and requests – make a request – direct others – persuade © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 12. Prewriting Stage • Who your audience is – Primary readers are those directly involved in the purpose for writing. – Secondary readers are those who need to know the communication took place. These readers receive copies of the document and, typically, do not have to do anything other than read the information. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 13. Prewriting Stage • What you want the reader to think and do – Make sure the reader knows what is expected. • To get a response from the reader, be specific. • Clearly state actions you are requesting. • Use a polite, firm tone. • Apply the four C’s of communication. • Your writing style reflects you and your company. • Avoid typographical errors and poor grammar. • Avoid abbreviations common to text messaging. • In the final stage of the writing process, make sure usage, grammar, and spelling are correct. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 14. Prewriting Stage • Where you can find the needed information – topic dictates where you must look for source material • Sources include colleagues, reports, databases, Internet searches, newspapers, trade journals. • Check the facts to be sure the data are accurate. • Properly credit sources. • As soon as information is in tangible form, it is protected by copyright laws. • Using someone else’s information and calling it your own is called plagiarism, which is illegal and unethical. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 15. Prewriting Stage • When you need the document finished – Deadlines are important. – A late proposal, no matter how brilliant, is essentially worthless. – Use deadlines to help determine what you can accomplish. – Plan the extra time that good writing requires. – If you are not given a specific deadline, set one for yourself. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 16. Prewriting Stage • How the information should be organized – direct approach—the topic is followed by descriptive details • desirable for most written communication • organize and present in clear and logical way • begin with main idea and move on to support it – indirect approach—details come before the main idea of the paragraph • begin with information to prepare the reader to respond in the way you want them to respond • best approach for bad or negative messages © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 17. Prewriting Stage • Developing an outline – An outline identifies the information you want to present and the proper sequence and to ensure related ideas are covered in the same section. • Select key points that will achieve the purpose. • Make a numbered list of the main points. • Under each key point, list supporting points. • Consider the approach and the order in which you want to present the information. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 18. Prewriting Stage • Example of a formal outline © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 19. 1. What are five categories of reasons for writing?2. List the two types of readers for a message.3. What is plagiarism? (continued) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 20. 4. List the two types of approaches that can be used for writing.5. Describe the purpose of an outline. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 21. Writing Stage • Creating the first draft – Resist the urge to revise as you write. – Plan to revise after the whole draft is completed. – Do not worry about organization. – Do not worry about format precision. – Maintain your train of thought and get all information down on “paper.” – Write without stopping so you can complete first draft. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 22. Writing Stage • The writing checklist © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 23. Writing Stage • Revising means rewriting paragraphs and sentences to improve organization and content – Consider aspects that affect the whole piece: content, organization, and formatting. – Ask questions about the first draft—whole document, paragraph, sentence, and word—to identify ways to improve the message. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 24. Writing Stage • Example of a document with track changes © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 25. How to Refine Your Writing • Once you have a first draft, ask these questions. – Did you use the correct approach? Direct for good news; indirect for bad news. – Is the message effective? Is the reader likely to respond in the desired manner? – Has all the necessary information been included? – Is the document oriented to the reader? – Does your document as a whole: • fully and clearly present the information and ideas; • address the specific audience being addressed; • use the style and tone most suitable for the situation; and • use the format most suitable for the situation? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 26. How to Refine Your Writing • Once you have considered the document as a whole, consider each of the paragraphs. – Do paragraphs flow logically? – Does each paragraph have a clearly identified topic sentence? – Does the first paragraph: • tell the reader what the main points are going to be; and • focus on the reader’s point of view? (continued) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 27. How to Refine Your Writing – Does the concluding paragraph: • briefly reinforce the main point; and • leave the reader with a clear view of how to react or respond? – Does each of the middle paragraphs: • have a clear organizational structure so the reader can easily follow the ideas; • include only information that supports the main points; • include only information that causes the reader to respond in the desired way; • consider and respond to possible objections the reader might make to the main points; and • clearly relate to the paragraphs before and after it? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 28. How to Refine Your Writing • Then, consider each sentence. – Do sentences flow logically? – Have you eliminated needless repetitions? – Does each sentence: • clearly and completely state its point; • support the main idea; • work with the sentence before and after it to form a smooth, easy-to-read paragraph; • contain strong nouns and verbs when possible instead of too many modifiers; • contain modifiers placed next to the words they modify; • express agreement between sentence parts, such as subjects and verbs; (continued) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 29. How to Refine Your Writing • express ideas in parallel construction; • avoid unnecessary words and phrases; and • have a style and tone consistent with the rest of the document? • Then, consider the words. – Is each word the best choice, considering the: • reader’s knowledge of the topic; • situation’s level of formality; • level of specificity you are trying to achieve; • tone you are trying to achieve; and • emotional impact you are trying to make or trying to avoid? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 30. Writing Stage • Editing is a more-refined form of revising – focuses on sentence construction, wording, and clarity of ideas – wording of each head must be checked – sentences must be checked for correct grammar, mechanics, spelling, word usage – for word usage, variety, and clarity, use a dictionary and thesaurus – take a break from writing so you can review with a more objectivity—free of personal feelings, prejudices, or interpretations © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 31. Writing Stage • Feedback – Have someone review the document. – Accept feedback as constructive; do not feel offended. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 32. 1. What is the first step in the writing stage?2. Describe the difference between revising and editing. (continued) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 33. 3. Why is it important to obtain feedback on what you have written? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 34. Post-Writing Stage • Proofreading is the process of checking the final copy for correct spelling, punctuation, and formatting and for typographical errors. – Proofread for content by slowly reading the copy. – Use the grammar/spelling checker, then proofread on the computer screen. – Print a copy and proofread it again; mark errors on the printout. – Read the copy aloud. – Enlist a coworker to be a proofreading partner. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 35. Post-Writing Stage • Be on the lookout for these types of mistakes: – incorrect word usage that changes the meaning of the sentence – errors in names, titles, addresses, dates, numbers, amounts of money, time – errors of transposition – errors in fact or logic – errors or problems in formatting • Standard proofreaders’ marks are universally used by writers and editors to note errors and changes. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 36. Post-Writing Stage • Standard proofreaders’ marks © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 37. 1. Describe proofreading.2. What are proofreaders’ marks? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 38. Publishing Stage • To publish means the message is sent or made available to the receiver. • Formatting is used for proper placement and style of the type on the page. – typeface (font) – font size – layout • Layout is the relationship of the text to white space. • Readability is a measure of whether or not the document is easy to read. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 39. 1. What is formatting?2. Define readability. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
  • 40. • Good writing is achieved by following the four stages of the writing process: prewriting, writing, post writing, and publishing.• The prewriting stage involves thinking about, planning, and researching your goals.• The initial task in the writing stage is to create a first draft.• The post-writing stage is where you proofread the document.• The publishing stage is where the completed document is made available to the reader. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

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