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POC_Ch06
 

POC_Ch06

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    POC_Ch06 POC_Ch06 Presentation Transcript

    • “You keep using that word. I do not6 think it means what you think it means.” ―Inigo Montoya, from The Princess Bride by William GoldmanImproving Grammar Mechanics
    • After completing the chapter, you will be able to:• Punctuate sentences correctly.• Use capitalization correctly.• Express numbers correctly in words or figures.• Use parallel structure in sentences.• Select the proper use of commonly misused words and terms. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Punctuation consists of marks used to show the structure of sentences. – Terminal punctuation (end-of-sentence) and internal marks indicate separations of words into sentences, clauses, and phrases. – Punctuation guides readers to understand the meaning of sentences and passages. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Terminal punctuation – period – question mark – exclamation point © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A period is a punctuation mark used at the end of a declarative sentence—a sentence that makes a statement. • Periods are used after numbers and letters in lists, such as outlines or numbered lists. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Periods divide parts of an abbreviation or signal the end of an abbreviation, which is a shortened form of a word or letters used to stand for a word or term. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Abbreviations © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A question mark is punctuation used at the end of an interrogative sentence—a sentence that asks a question. • The question mark signals the reader that the expressed thought is ending. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • An exclamation point is a punctuation mark used to express strong emotion. • An exclamation point can be used at the end of a question rather than a question mark, if the writer wishes to show strong emotion. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Internal punctuation – comma – dash and parentheses – semicolon – colon – apostrophe – hyphen – quotation marks © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A comma is a punctuation mark used to separate elements in a sentence. • A comma is used to separate items in a series. Apple, pears, or grapes will be on the menu. • A comma is used before a coordinating conjunction that joins two independent clauses. The sun rose, and the birds began to sing. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A comma is used to separate a dependent clause that comes at the beginning of a sentence. If you want to arrive on time, you must leave now. • A comma is used to separate some words or phrases from the rest of the sentence. Yes, I will attend the meeting. • A comma is used to separate a nonrestrictive (not necessary) explanatory word or phrase from the rest of the sentence. The game, which we lost, was exciting. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A comma is used to separate coordinate adjectives. The long, hot summer was finally over. • A comma is used to separate words used in direct address. Everyone, please sit down. • A comma is used to separate elements in dates and addresses. On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A comma is used after the street address and after the city when an address or location appears in general text. He arrived in Boise, Idaho, yesterday. • A comma is used to indicate missing words that can be understood without being repeated. In Oregon I have six relatives; in Kansas, eight; in Maine, two. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A dash separates elements in a sentence or signals an abrupt change in thought. The dash is more properly called an em dash. • A dash is used to provide a stronger break than a comma. My history teacher—an avid reader—visits the library every week. • A dash is used to signal an abrupt change in thought in a sentence. I thought you would—oh, never mind. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Parentheses are punctuation marks used to enclose words or phrases that clarify meaning or give added information. Please review the table. (The table is in Appendix A.) • Parentheses are used to enclose numbers or letters in a list. Revise the sentences to correct errors in (1) spelling, (2) punctuation, and (3) capitalization. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A nonrestrictive explanatory word or phrase can be separated from the rest of the sentence by parentheses. The contributions of three students (Mark, Elena, and Hoshi) made the event a success. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A semicolon in an internal punctuation mark used to separate clauses or some items in a series. • A semicolon is used to separate two independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction. The bike ran over a nail; the tire went flat. • A semicolon is used to separate items when at least one item in the series already contain commas. We visited Newark, New Jersey; Portland, Maine; Concord, New Hampshire; and New York, New York. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A colon is an internal punctuation mark that introduces an element in a sentence or paragraph. The bag contains three items: a book, a pencil, and an apple. • A colon is also used after a phrase, clause, or sentence that introduces a vertical list. Follow these steps: 1. Identify the problem. 2. Talk to the people involved. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Examples of colon use © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • An apostrophe is a punctuation mark used to form possessive words and Akeno’s dress was red. • An apostrophe is used to form the plural of single lowercase letters. The word Mississippi has four s’s and two p’s. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • An apostrophe is used to form a contraction. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A hyphen is used to separate parts of compound words, numbers, or ranges. • Compound words that always have a hyphen are called permanent compounds. – close-up – mother-in-law – voice-over • Temporary compounds are created as needed by the writer. The well-done pot roast was delicious. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • A hyphen is used in numbers that are expressed as words and number or letter ranges. – sixty-two dollars • When a word is divided at the end of a line of text, a hyphen is used between parts of the word. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Quotation marks are used to enclose short, direct quotes and titles of some artistic or written works. “Which color do you want,” he asked. • A quotation mark is used in a sentence with a direct quote that has an explanatory phrase, such as he said or she replied, that refers to the person speaking. “It’s time to go home, children,” said the teacher. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • When a quote contains another quote, the quote within a quote is enclosed in single quotation marks. He answered, “Niran said, ‘Order shirts for everyone on the team.’” • When writing a dialogue, the words of each speaker are enclosed in quotation marks. “Yes, I have some reports I need to finish this morning.” © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Titles of shorter works, which may also be part of a larger work, are shown in quotation marks. “When and Where” is a favorite episode of Warehouse 13 fans. • Quotation marks are used to enclose words that are meant to show irony. Connie was too “busy” to help me. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Punctuation • Use the grammar checker in your word processing software to help you locate possible errors in punctuation, capitalization, and word usage in your documents. • Grammar checkers are not perfect. Carefully proofread and evaluate suggestions given by the grammar checker before accepting the changes. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • 1. What is the difference between terminal punctuation and internal punctuation? (continued) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • 2. List three types of terminal punctuation.3. List seven types of internal punctuation. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • Capitalization means writing a letter in uppercase. • Capital letters signal the beginning of a new sentence. • Capital letters identify important words in titles and headings. • Capitalize: – the first word and last word in a heading or title – important words in a heading or title – both words of numbers with hyphens in a heading or title © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • Do not capitalize: – coordinating conjunctions (yet, and, but, for, or, and nor) in a heading or title – parts of names that normally appear in lowercase • Business documents, such as letters and memos, use capital letters to begin certain document parts. – Capitalize the first word in the salutation and the complimentary close. – Capitalize the heading words (To, From, Date, and Subject) in a memo or use all capital letters for each word. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • A proper noun is a word that identifies a specific person, place, or thing. • Capital letter are use for: – proper nouns Joe Wong is the principal of George Rogers Clark High School. – directional words (north, south, and east), when referring to a region The family drove west as they traveled through the South during their vacation. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • Some abbreviations use capital letters. • Titles that come before a name and some that come after a name use capital letters. • Capitalize initials used in place of names. E. J. Roberts is on the committee. • Capitalize abbreviations that are made up of the first letters of words. HTML stands for hypertext markup language. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • Capitalize the name of months and days and their abbreviations. Mon. is the abbreviation for Monday. • Capitalize abbreviations for names of states and countries. NY is a state in the United States. • Capitalize abbreviations for directional terms and location terms in street addresses. She lives at 123 NW Cedar Ave. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • Capitalize call letters of a broadcasting company. My favorite television show is on CBS. • Capitalize abbreviations that note an era in time. The article included a map of Europe for the year 1200 CE. • Capitalize titles that come before personal names. Sister Catherine sings in the choir. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Capitalization • Capitalize seniority titles (Jr., Sr.) after names. Mr. Thomas O’Malley, Jr., spoke at the ceremony. • Capitalize abbreviations for academic degrees and other professional designations that follow names. Carlos Herrera, MD, testified in the court case. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • 1. What does it mean to capitalize a letter?2. Which words should not be capitalized in a heading or title?3. What is a proper noun? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Number Expression • Numbers can be expressed as figures or as words. • In legal documents and on bank checks, numbers are written in both figures and words. • Number expression guidelines are not as widely agreed upon, so ask for accepted guidelines in your organization. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Number Expression • In general, use words for numbers one through nine. One dog and three cats sat on the porch. • Use words for numbers that are indefinite or approximate amounts. About fifty people signed the petition. • Use words for numbers one through nine followed by million, billion, and so forth. Two million people live in this region. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Number Expression • Use words for a number that begins a sentence. Twenty copies of the report were prepared. • When two numbers come together in a sentence, use words for one of the numbers. On the bus, there were 15 ten-year-olds. • Use words for fractions. Place one-half of the mixture in the pan. • Use words for numbers with o’clock to express time. Come to dinner at six o’clock. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Number Expression • Use figures for numbers 10 and greater. She placed an order for 125 blue ink pens. • When numbers are 9 or less and some are 10 or greater, write all the numbers as figures. The box contains 5 books, 10 folders, and 15 pads of paper. • Use figures with a dollar sign to express money, but do not use a decimal and two zeros when all dollar amounts are even amounts. The charges were $5, $312, and $89. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Number Expression • For a large, even dollar amount, use the dollar sign, a figure, and a word, such as million or billion. The profits for last year were $5 million. • Use figures for days and years in dates. On March 12, 20--, the court was not in session. • Use figures for mixed numbers and for decimals. I bought 3 1/2 yards of red fabric. The measurements are 1.358 and .878. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Number Expression • Use figures with a.m. and p.m. to express time. However, use noon and midnight to express these two times. The assembly will begin at 9:30 a.m. • Use figures to refer to pages, chapters, figures, or parts in a book. Open your book to chapter 3, page 125. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • 1. How should the numbers one through nine be written?2. Words are used for fractions. What else is needed?3. How should numbers 10 and greater be written? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Parallel Structure • Parallel structure is a method of writing in which similar elements are expressed in a consistent way or using the same pattern. – elements can be words, phrases, or clauses – makes messages easier for readers to understand © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Parallel Structure • To create parallel structure, use the same word or phrase form for all items in a series of words or phrases. – not parallel She likes swimming, to read, and painting. – parallel She likes to swim, to read, and to paint. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Parallel Structure • Verb forms and tenses should be constructed in a parallel pattern. – not parallel She waits until the last day to begin her work, caused problems in the lab, and her commitment to the project was lacking. – parallel She waits until the last day to begin her work, causes problems in the lab, and lacks commitment to the project. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Parallel Structure • In a series of prepositional phrases, it is acceptable to include the preposition only before the first object if all items in the series use the same preposition. If not, include the preposition before each object. – incorrect She placed air fresheners in the living room, the bedroom, the bathroom, and under the sink. – correct She placed air fresheners in the living room, in the bedroom, in the bathroom, and under the sink. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Parallel Structure • Clauses in a series should be written in a parallel pattern. – not parallel The teacher told the students that they should read the chapter, they should answer the review questions, and to do some practice drills. – parallel The teacher told the students that they should read the chapter, answer the review questions, and do some practice drills. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Parallel Structure • In a vertical list of numbered or bulleted items, use the same pattern for all items. – not parallel For the camping trip you will need several items: • towels • sunscreen spray is a must • a compass would be helpful – parallel For the camping trip you will need several items: • towels • sunscreen • compass © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • 1. What is parallel structure?2. How can you create a parallel structure of words or phrases?3. How can you create parallel structure clauses? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Misused Words and Terms • A homonym is a word that sounds the same as another word. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Misused Words and Terms • Homonyms © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Misused Words and Terms • Homonyms © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Misused Words and Terms • Many other words are misused. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • Misused Words and Terms • Misused Words © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • 1. What is a homonym?2. What should you do if you are uncertain of the meaning or correct usage of a word? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
    • • Punctuation consists of marks used to show the structure of sentences.• Sentences begin with a capital letter, even if a number begins the sentence.• Numbers one through nine are spelled out, for 10 and greater use figures.• To create parallel structure, express similar elements in similar ways.• Consult a dictionary if you are unsure of the meaning or correct usage for a word. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.