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BM 14 daft7e ppt_ch14 - revised
 

BM 14 daft7e ppt_ch14 - revised

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    BM 14 daft7e ppt_ch14 - revised BM 14 daft7e ppt_ch14 - revised Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 14Leading Teams
    • Learning Objectives • Identify the types of teams in organizations • Discuss some of the problems & challenges of teamwork • Identify roles within teams & the type of role you could play to help a team be effective • Explain the general stages of team development (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Learning Objectives • Identify ways in which team size & diversity of membership affect team performance • Explain the concepts of team cohesiveness & team norms & their relationship to team • Understand the causes of conflict within & among teams & how to reduce conflict • Define the outcomes of effective teams & how managers can enhance team effectiveness (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • New Manager’s Question 1• Team is just another word for group. 1 2 3 4 5Strongly agree Strongly disagree (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • New Manager’s Question 2• It’s better if team members are in the same location. 1 2 3 4 5Strongly agree Strongly disagree (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • New Manager’s Question 3• The best team members are those who encourage other members. 1 2 3 4 5Strongly agree Strongly disagree (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Introduction to Team • Teams have become the primary way in which many companies accomplish their work • Good teams can be highly productive • Teams aren’t always successful (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Why Teams at Work?• What is a team? – Two or more people who interact and coordinate their work toward a goal• 3 Components of “team” – 2 or more people are required – People in a team have regular interaction – Members of a team share a performance goal (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • “Team”• Group of people—2 terms are not interchangeable – Can put together a group, but never build team – “team” implies a sense of shared mission & collective responsibility (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Differences Between Groups and Teams (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • The Dilemma of Teams?• 3 Primary Reasons – We have to give up our independence – We have to put up with free riders • Free riders (social loafing) – team member who attains benefits from team membership but does not actively participate in & contribute to the team’s work – Teams are sometimes dysfunctional • See Exhibit 14.2 (next slide) (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Five Common Dysfunctions of Teams (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • How to Make Teams Effective• Successful teams don’t just happen• Team members should consider: – Defining roles – Establishing norms – Setting goals• Work-team effectiveness is based on: – Productive output – Personal satisfaction – Capacity to adapt and learn (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • How to Make Teams Effective• Work-team effectiveness is based on: – Productive output – quality & quantity of task outputs – Personal satisfaction – team’s ability to meet the personal needs of its members & hence maintain their membership & commitment – Capacity to adapt and learn – ability of teams to bring greater knowledge & skills to job tasks & enhance the potential of the organization to respond to new threats or opportunities in the environment (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Work-Team Effectiveness Model (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Model of Team Effectiveness Teams size and roles are important Team characteristics influence processes Good team leaders understand and manage stages of team development Team members and leaders must direct processes in a positive manner (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Effective Team Leadership • Rally people around a compelling purpose • Share power • Admit ignorance (fallibility model) (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Types of Teams• Formal Team – defined by formal organization structure – Vertical: functional or command team – Horizontal: cross-functional team, project team, committee • Committee: long-lived & may be a permanent part of the organization’s structure – Formed to deal with tasks that recur regularly • Special-purpose: (project teams) created outside the formal organization to undertake a project of special importance or creativity (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Horizontal and Vertical Teams in anOrganization (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Types of Teams• Self Directed Teams – supervised by elected employees – Problem-solving teams – consist of 5 to 12 hourly employees from the same department • Voluntarily meet • Discuss ways to improve quality, efficiency & work environment • Most widely knows is “quality circles” – First used by Japanese companies (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Types of Teams• Problem-solving evolve into self-directed teams – Self-directed teams – consist of 5-20 multi- skilled workers who rotate jobs to produce an entire product or service • Permanent & includes 3 elements – Combined skills are sufficient to perform a major organizational task – Resources to perform the complete task – Given decision-making authority to complete the task (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Innovative Use of Teams • Virtual Teams – made up of geographically or organizationally dispersed members linked through advanced information & telecommunications technologies (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Innovative Use of Teams • Virtual Teams (cont’d) – Include organizational members, contingent workers, members of partner organizations, customers, suppliers, etc. – Members use e-mail, voice mail, internet, blogs, etc. to communicate – Highly flexible & dynamic – Leadership is shared or altered – Membership can quickly change (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Innovative Use of Teams • Virtual Teams (cont’d) – 1 advantage: ability to assemble the best group to complete a complex project, solve a problem or exploit a strategic opportunity – 3 critical areas that should be addressed: • Using technology to build relationships • Shaping culture through technology • Monitoring progress & rewarding members (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • What Effective Virtual Team Leaders Do (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Innovative Use of Teams • Global Teams – Characteristics • Cross-border work teams • Members of different nationalities • Activities span multiple countries – Challenges • Bridge gaps of time, distance & culture • Speak different languages, use different technologies & have different beliefs (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Innovative Use of Teams • Global Teams (cont’d) – To be effective: • All teams members have to be willing to deviate from their own values & norms • Carefully select team members, build trust & share information (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Characteristics Design teams for effectiveness • Size – Team performance and productivity peaks at five members – Smaller teams perform better than larger – Large enough to take advantage of diverse skills – Small enough to make members feel like an intimate part of group – As team size increases, it’s harder to interact & influence others (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Characteristics • Diversity – Diverse skills, knowledge and experience produce innovative solutions – Diversity may contribute to a healthy level of conflict – Functional & gender diversity can lead to positive impact on performance – Racially & culturally diverse teams tend to have more difficulty learning to work well together (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Characteristics • Member Roles – Teams must focus on both task and social roles – 2 types of roles: – Task specialist – spend time & energy helping team reach goal – Socioemotional – support team members’ emotional needs & help strengthen the social entity (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Task Performance and Social Satisfaction Task Specialist Role – Initiate ideas – Giving opinions – Seeking information – Summarizing – Energizing Socioemotional Role – Encouraging – Harmonizing – Reducing Tension – Following – Compromising (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Stages of Team Development • Forming – orientation and acquaintance • Storming – personalities and roles emerge • Norming – conflict is resolved • Performing – focus on problem solving • Adjourning - disbandment (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Cohesiveness• Extent to which members are attracted to the team & motivated to remain in the team• Determinants of Team Cohesiveness – Team interaction – Shared goals – Personal attraction to the team – Presence of competition – Team success (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Cohesiveness (cont’d) • Consequences of Team Cohesiveness – Morale: higher in cohesive teams – Productivity: tends to be more uniform • Degree depends on relationship between management & team (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Norms Team norms – a standard of conduct that is shared by team members and guides their behavior (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Four Ways Team Norms Develop (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Managing Team Conflict• Conflict – antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to block the intentions or goals of another • Some is inevitable• Competition - rivalry among individuals or teams • Can have a healthy impact because it energizes people (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Managing Team Conflict• Balancing Conflict and Cooperation – Conflict can help eliminate groupthink – Groupthink: tendency for people to be so committed to a cohesive team that they are reluctant to express contrary opinions – Conflict can cause morale and productivity problems (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Conflict and Cooperation (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Managing Team Conflict• Causes of Conflict – Competition over scarce resources – Goal differences – Communication breakdowns (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Managing Team Conflict• Styles to Handle Conflict – Competing style – assertiveness to get one’s own way – Avoiding style – reflects neither assertiveness or cooperativeness – Compromising style – moderate amount of both – Accommodating style – high degree of cooperativeness – Collaborating style – high degree of both (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • A Model of Styles to Handle Conflict (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Conflict Tools • Superordinate goals – vision compels people to overcome conflict and cooperate • Mediation – allowing third-party to help with disputes • Negotiation – people engage in give-and- take discussions – Integrative or disruptive (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Team Conflict Tools • Negotiation (cont’d) – Integrative – based on a “win-win” assumption – Distributive– assumes the “size of the pie” is fixed & each party attempts to get as much of it as they can (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Reaching a Win-Win Solution  Separate the people from the problem  Focus on interests, not current demands  Generate many alternatives for mutual gain  Insist that results be based on objective standards (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
    • Work-Team Effectiveness  Productive Output  Social facilitation – tendency for the presence of others to energize one’s motivation/performance  Satisfaction of Members  Capacity to Adapt and Learn (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.