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BM 12 daft7e ppt_ch12 BM 12 daft7e ppt_ch12 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 12MotivatingEmployees
  • The Concept of Motivation• Motivation - the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior• Forces either intrinsic or extrinsic to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence• Employee motivation affects productivity• A manager’s job is to channel motivation toward the accomplishment of goals (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • A Simple Model of Motivation (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Content Perspectives on MotivationIf managers understand employees’ needs,they can design appropriate reward systems – Needs motivate people – Needs translate into an internal drive that motivates behavior – People have a variety of needs (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • The Hierarchy of Needs  Physiological Needs  Safety Needs  Belongingness Needs  Esteem Needs  Self-Actualization Needs (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Erg Theory  Existence needs - the needs for physical well-being  Relatedness needs - the needs for satisfactory relationships with others  Growth needs - the needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth frustration–regression principle: failure to meet a high-order need may cause a regression to an already satisfied lower-order need (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • The Motivation Benefits of JobFlexibility (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • A Two-Factor Approach to MotivationHygiene factors - presence or absence of job dissatisfiers:  Working conditions  Pay  Company policies  Interpersonal relationshipsMotivators - job satisfaction based on fulfillment ofhigh-level needs:  Achievement  Recognition  Responsibility  Opportunity for growth (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Acquired Needs  Need for achievement  Need for affiliation  Need for power (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Process Perspectives on Motivation How people select behavioral actions  Goal Setting Theory  Equity Theory  Expectancy Theory (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Goal Setting Theory• Increase motivation by setting goals• Key components of the theory: – Goal specificity – Goal difficulty – Goal acceptance – Feedback (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Equity Theory• Individual perceptions of fairness• Perceived inequity can be reduced by: – Change work effort – Change outcomes – Change perception – Leave the job• Inequity occurs when the input-to-outcome ratios are out of balance (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Expectancy Theory• Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards• E – P: putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance• P – O: successful performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome• Valence – the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Major Elements of Expectancy Theory (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Reinforcement Perspective onMotivation Behavior Modification Reinforcement Reinforcement theory An act that causes a techniques used to behavior to be modify behavior repeated or inhibited Law of Effect Positive Positively reinforced Reinforcement behavior tends to be Pleasant and rewarding repeated and consequences followed unreinforced behavior a desired behavior inhibited (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Changing Behavior w/ Reinforcement (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Job Design for Motivation  Job Simplification  Job Rotation  Job Enlargement  Job Enrichment (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Types of Job Design (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • The Job Characteristics Model (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Innovative Ideas for Motivating• Organizations are using various types of incentive compensation to motivate employees to higher levels of performance• The most effective motivational programs typically involve much more than money or other external rewards (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Empowering People to Meet HigherNeedsEmployees receive information about company performanceEmployees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goalsEmployees have the power to make substance decisionsEmployees are rewarded based on company performance (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • New Motivational CompensationPrograms (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • A Continuum of Empowerment (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  • Giving Meaning to Work ThroughEngagement • Instill a sense of support and meaning • Help employees obtain intrinsic reward • Focus on learning, contribution and growth (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.