Chapter 11Leadership
Objectives • Define leadership & explain its importance   for organizations • Describe how leadership is changing in   tod...
Objectives • Define task-oriented behavior & people-   oriented behavior & explain how these   categories are used to eval...
Objectives • Discuss how leadership fits the   organizational situation how organizational   characteristics can substitut...
Objectives • Identify sources of leader power & the   tactics leaders use to influence others • Explain servant leadership...
New Manager’s Questions• A strong, healthy ego helps a leader to be  more effective & to take charge.   1             2   ...
New Manager’s Questions• Good leaders are participative, engaged &  supportive.   1             2    3                    ...
New Manager’s Questions• Leaders should amass as much power as  they can; it helps them get things done.   1             2...
The Nature of Leadership • Leaders make a difference, they are key to   organizational success • People, influence, and go...
Contemporary Leadership• Leadership evolves as the needs of the organization  change• Leadership has evolved with technolo...
Level-Five LeadershipLevel-five leadership refers to the highest levelin a hierarchy of manager capabilities  – Lack of eg...
Level-Five Hierarchy                  (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplica...
Interactive Leadership Derived from studies of women leaders Minimizing personal ambition Developing others Consensual...
From Management to Leadership Good management is essential to organizations But, good managers must be leaders Manageme...
Leader and Manager Qualities                (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or d...
Leadership Traits • Early research on leadership focused on traits • Traits – distinguishing personal characteristics    –...
Personal Characteristics of Leaders                  (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, co...
Behavioral Approaches• Research beyond leadership traits• Defined two leadership behaviors:  – Task-oriented behavior  – P...
Ohio State Studies Identified two major behaviors:   – Consideration; people oriented      •   Mindful of subordinates    ...
Ohio State Studies • Consideration & initiating structure are   independent of each other   – Ex: high degree of considera...
Michigan Studies Compared the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors   – Employee-centered leaders (most effect...
The Leadership Grid                 (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicate...
Contingency Approaches• How do situations influence leader  effectiveness (styles)?  – Hersey and Blanchard  – Leadership ...
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Extension of behavioral theories • Focus on characteristics of followers • See...
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Leader can adopt 1 of 4 styles based on   relationship & task behavior:   – Te...
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Levels of readiness:   – Low – poor ability & skills, little experience; told ...
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory                   (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scan...
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • Leader’s style is task oriented or relationship   oriented    – Relatively fixed • Goal is ...
How Leader Style Fits the Situation                  (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, co...
Substitutes for Leadership      There are situations where leader style is       unimportant      There are situations a...
Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership                    (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be s...
Charismatic and Visionary Leadership • Charismatic leaders are skilled in the art of   visionary leadership    – Vision is...
Transformational versus TransactionalLeadership • Transformational   – Ability to lead changes in the mission, structure  ...
Transformational versus TransactionalLeadership • Transactional   – Excel at management functions   – Stress impersonal as...
Transformational versus TransactionalLeadershipTransactional                         Transformational  – Clarify tasks    ...
Followership   • The organization does not exist without     followers   • 1st dimension – independent critical thinking  ...
Followership   • 2nd dimension – active vs. passive behavior     • Active: participates fully in the organization,       d...
Followership• Leaders must understand their followers   – Alienated follower       – Passive—independent, critical thinker...
Styles of Followership                  (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or dupli...
Power & Influence • Power – the potential ability to influence the   behavior of others   – Capacity to cause a change in ...
Power and Influence • Position Power    – Legitimate Power    – Reward Power                                              ...
Power and Influence • Position Power   – Legitimate Power – comes from a formal     management position in an organization...
Power and Influence • Personal Power – comes from internal   sources; person’s special knowledge or   personality   – Expe...
Power and Influence • Other Sources of Power   – Personal Effort – people who show initiative,     work beyond what is exp...
Interpersonal Influence Tactics • Leaders often use a combination of   influence strategies • 7 principles for asserting i...
Interpersonal Influence Tactics • 7 principles for asserting influence:   – Rely on the rule of reciprocity – take advanta...
Interpersonal Influence Tactics • 7 principles for asserting influence:   – Make use of higher authority – gain the     su...
Leadership as Service • Servant leader – a leader who works to fulfill   subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to   ach...
Moral Leadership• Leadership can be used for good or bad.• Leaders have a responsibility to use their  power wisely and et...
Moral Leadership• Moral leaders remember that business is about values, no  just economic performance• Leaders are often f...
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11 daft7e ppt_ch11--revised

  1. 1. Chapter 11Leadership
  2. 2. Objectives • Define leadership & explain its importance for organizations • Describe how leadership is changing in today’s organizations • Identify personal characteristics associated with effective leaders (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  3. 3. Objectives • Define task-oriented behavior & people- oriented behavior & explain how these categories are used to evaluate & adapt leadership style • Describe Hersey & Blanchard’s situational theory & its application to subordinate participation (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  4. 4. Objectives • Discuss how leadership fits the organizational situation how organizational characteristics can substitute for leadership behavior • Describe transformational leadership & when it should be used • Explain how followership is related to effective leadership (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  5. 5. Objectives • Identify sources of leader power & the tactics leaders use to influence others • Explain servant leadership & moral leadership & their importance in contemporary organizations (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  6. 6. New Manager’s Questions• A strong, healthy ego helps a leader to be more effective & to take charge. 1 2 3 4 5Strongly agree Strongly disagree (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  7. 7. New Manager’s Questions• Good leaders are participative, engaged & supportive. 1 2 3 4 5Strongly agree Strongly disagree (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  8. 8. New Manager’s Questions• Leaders should amass as much power as they can; it helps them get things done. 1 2 3 4 5Strongly agree Strongly disagree (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  9. 9. The Nature of Leadership • Leaders make a difference, they are key to organizational success • People, influence, and goals – Relationship with people is not passive – Leadership is reciprocal among people – Leadership is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  10. 10. Contemporary Leadership• Leadership evolves as the needs of the organization change• Leadership has evolved with technology, economic, labor, social and cultural changes• Responding to the turbulence and uncertainty of the environment• Post-heroic approach – subtle, unseen and unrewarded acts rather than big heroic accomplishments• Humility – unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  11. 11. Level-Five LeadershipLevel-five leadership refers to the highest levelin a hierarchy of manager capabilities – Lack of ego – Fierce resolve to do what is best for organization – Seem shy & unpretentious – Credit other people – Ambitious for the company (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  12. 12. Level-Five Hierarchy (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  13. 13. Interactive Leadership Derived from studies of women leaders Minimizing personal ambition Developing others Consensual and collaborative Influence derived from relationships Values include humility, inclusion, relationship building & caring (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  14. 14. From Management to Leadership Good management is essential to organizations But, good managers must be leaders Management promotes stability, order, and problem solving Leadership promotes vision, creativity & change Leadership cannot replace management, there should be a balance of both (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  15. 15. Leader and Manager Qualities (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  16. 16. Leadership Traits • Early research on leadership focused on traits • Traits – distinguishing personal characteristics – intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, appearance • Physical, social & work-related characteristics of leadership also studied • The appropriateness of a set of traits depends on the leadership situation • Studies expanded to focus on relationship between leaders & followers (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  17. 17. Personal Characteristics of Leaders (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  18. 18. Behavioral Approaches• Research beyond leadership traits• Defined two leadership behaviors: – Task-oriented behavior – People-oriented behavior• Foundation of important leadership studies (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  19. 19. Ohio State Studies Identified two major behaviors: – Consideration; people oriented • Mindful of subordinates • Respects ideas and feelings • Establishes mutual trust • Friendly, open communication, teamwork – Initiating structure; task behavior • Task oriented • Directs work activities toward goals • Give instructions, planning, emphasize deadlines (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  20. 20. Ohio State Studies • Consideration & initiating structure are independent of each other – Ex: high degree of consideration may be either high or low on initiating • A leader may have 4 styles: – High initiating-low consideration – High initiating-high consideration – Low initiating-low consideration – Low initiating-high consideration (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  21. 21. Michigan Studies Compared the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors – Employee-centered leaders (most effective) • Establish high performance goals • Display supportive behavior toward subordinates – Job-centered leaders (not effective) • Less concerned with goal achievement/human needs • Focus on meeting schedules, cost-management and efficiency (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  22. 22. The Leadership Grid (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  23. 23. Contingency Approaches• How do situations influence leader effectiveness (styles)? – Hersey and Blanchard – Leadership Model (Fiedler) – Substitutes for leadership concept (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  24. 24. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Extension of behavioral theories • Focus on characteristics of followers • Seek appropriate leadership behavior • Leadership is based on relationship with followers and readiness level of followers – Low in task readiness – High in task readiness (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  25. 25. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Leader can adopt 1 of 4 styles based on relationship & task behavior: – Telling style – high concern for tasks & low concern for people – Selling style – high concern for both people & tasks – Participating style – high concern for people & low concern for tasks – Delegating style – low concern for both relationships & tasks (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  26. 26. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Levels of readiness: – Low – poor ability & skills, little experience; told what to do & how & when to do it – Moderate – lack some education & experience; gives directions, but seeks input & clarity – High – have necessary education, experience & skills; participating – Very High – high levels of all; accept responsibility for own task behavior; provides general goal (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  27. 27. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  28. 28. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • Leader’s style is task oriented or relationship oriented – Relatively fixed • Goal is to match the leader’s style with organizational situation • Analyze the leaders’ style to the favorability of the situation – Highly favorable – leader-member relationships are positive, tasks are highly structured & leader has formal authority over followers – Highly unfavorable – leader-member relationships are poor, tasks are highly unstructured & leader has little formal authority (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  29. 29. How Leader Style Fits the Situation (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  30. 30. Substitutes for Leadership  There are situations where leader style is unimportant  There are situations and variables that can substitute or neutralize leadership characteristics  Substitute – leadership style unnecessary  Neutralizer – counteracts the leadership style & prevents leader from displaying certain behaviors (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  31. 31. Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  32. 32. Charismatic and Visionary Leadership • Charismatic leaders are skilled in the art of visionary leadership – Vision is an attractive ideal future • Inspire and motivate people to do more – A lofty vision – Ability to understand and empathize – Empowering and trusting subordinates • Visionary leaders speak to the hearts of employees to be a part of something big • Can also be used for self-serving purposes (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  33. 33. Transformational versus TransactionalLeadership • Transformational – Ability to lead changes in the mission, structure & HR management – Focus on intangibles; give larger meaning to activities – Has positive impact on follower development & performance – Skills can be learned; not ingrained personality characteristics (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  34. 34. Transformational versus TransactionalLeadership • Transactional – Excel at management functions – Stress impersonal aspects of performance • Plans, schedules & budges – Have a sense of commitment to the organization – Conform to organizational norms (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  35. 35. Transformational versus TransactionalLeadershipTransactional Transformational – Clarify tasks – Innovative – Initiate structure – Recognize follower – Provide awards needs – Improve productivity – Inspire followers – Hard working – Create a better future – Tolerant & fair-minded – Promote significant – Focus on management change (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  36. 36. Followership • The organization does not exist without followers • 1st dimension – independent critical thinking vs. dependent uncritical thinking • Independent critical thinkers: mindful of effects of their own/others’ behavior on achieving goals • Dependent uncritical thinkers: does not consider possibilities beyond what he/she is told (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  37. 37. Followership • 2nd dimension – active vs. passive behavior • Active: participates fully in the organization, demonstrates a sense of ownership, initiates problem solving • Passive: need for constant supervision & prodding by supervisors • Combinations of each dimension result in 5 types of followers (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  38. 38. Followership• Leaders must understand their followers – Alienated follower – Passive—independent, critical thinker (effective follower) – Experience setbacks & obstacles – Conformist – Active—dependent, uncritical thinker – Carries out any & all orders regardless of nature – Pragmatic survivor – Qualities of all 4 extremes – Best benefits own position & minimizes risk – Passive follower – Passive—uncritical thinker – Show neither initiative or sense of responsibility – Effective follower – Active—critical independent thinker – Behave same towards everyone (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  39. 39. Styles of Followership (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  40. 40. Power & Influence • Power – the potential ability to influence the behavior of others – Capacity to cause a change in a person • Influence – effects of a person’s actions on the attitudes, values, beliefs & behavior of others – Degree of actual change (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  41. 41. Power and Influence • Position Power – Legitimate Power – Reward Power Both leaders – Coercive Power and followers • Personal Power use power to – Expert Power get things – Referent Power • Other Sources of Power done – Personal Effort – Network of Relationships – Information (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  42. 42. Power and Influence • Position Power – Legitimate Power – comes from a formal management position in an organization & the authority granted to it – Reward Power – stems from the manager’s authority to bestow awards on other people – Coercive Power – the authority to punish or recommend punishment, which often generates resistance (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  43. 43. Power and Influence • Personal Power – comes from internal sources; person’s special knowledge or personality – Expert Power – leader’s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers – Referent Power – leader personality characteristics that command subordinates’ identification, respect & admiration so they wish to emulate the leader (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  44. 44. Power and Influence • Other Sources of Power – Personal Effort – people who show initiative, work beyond what is expected of them, take on undesirable but important projects, show interest in learning about the organization – Network of Relationships – people who are enmeshed in a network of relationships – Information – primary business source; people who have access to information & control over how & to whom it is distributed (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  45. 45. Interpersonal Influence Tactics • Leaders often use a combination of influence strategies • 7 principles for asserting influence: – Use rational persuasion – use facts, data & logical argument to persuade others – Make people like you – people would rather say yes to someone they like than to someone they don’t like (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  46. 46. Interpersonal Influence Tactics • 7 principles for asserting influence: – Rely on the rule of reciprocity – take advantage of the exchange of benefits & favors – Develop allies – develop network of allies— people who can help you accomplish your goals – Be assertive-ask for what you want – make a direct & personal request (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  47. 47. Interpersonal Influence Tactics • 7 principles for asserting influence: – Make use of higher authority – gain the support of people at higher levels to back you up – Reward the behaviors you want – use organizational rewards & punishments to influence others’ behavior • Leaders are more effective when use a variety of tactics (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  48. 48. Leadership as Service • Servant leader – a leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission. – Give things away—power, ideas, information, recognition & credit for accomplishment – Bring the follower’s higher motives to the work – Often work in the nonprofit world (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  49. 49. Moral Leadership• Leadership can be used for good or bad.• Leaders have a responsibility to use their power wisely and ethically.• There has been an unethical climate in the U.S.• Moral leadership is about distinguishing from right and wrong and choosing to do right. – Seeking just, honest, good, decent behavior as leaders (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  50. 50. Moral Leadership• Moral leaders remember that business is about values, no just economic performance• Leaders are often faced with right-versus-right decisions; several responsibilities conflict with one another• Moral leadership requires courage (the ability to step forward through fear & act on one’s values & conscience • Leaders often act unethically because they lack courage • Moral leaders summon fortitude to do the right thing, even if unpopular • How leaders create honesty, trust & integrity in the organization (c)2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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